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1.
Anticancer Res ; 40(1): 27-34, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31892550

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Even though prostate cancer (PCa) has good prognosis, there is a discrepancy in the risk among ethnic groups, with high morbidity in African American men. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in interleukin 10 (IL-10) have been associated with inflammation and cancer risk. We investigated the association of five SNPs in the IL-10 promoter with clinical features such as Gleason score and smoking. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 413 DNA samples were obtained from a nested case-control study of African American males who were genotyped for 5 SNPs utilizing pyrosequencing. Multiple and binary logistic regression models were applied to analyze the clinical and genotypic data. RESULTS: rs12122923 and rs1800871 were associated with PCa risk. Smoking was also found to increase the risk of PCa by 1.6-fold. rs1800893 was found to be associated with lower grades for prostate cancer. CONCLUSION: IL-10 promoter polymorphisms might be a risk factor for PCa development in smoking subjects and PCa progression.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos/genética , Interleucina-10/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Neoplasias da Próstata/etiologia , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Alelos , Biomarcadores , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Genótipo , Haplótipos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gradação de Tumores , Neoplasias da Próstata/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco
2.
EClinicalMedicine ; 16: 30-41, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31832618

RESUMO

Background: Context-specific evidence of the spectrum of type 2 diabetes (T2D) burden is essential for setting priorities and designing interventions to reduce associated morbidity and mortality. However, there are currently limited data on the burden of T2D complications and comorbidity in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Methods: T2D complications and comorbidities were assessed in 2,784 participants with diabetes enrolled from tertiary health centres and contextualised in 3,209 individuals without diabetes in Nigeria, Ghana and Kenya. T2D complications and comorbidities evaluated included cardiometabolic, ocular, neurological and renal characteristics. Findings: The most common complications/comorbidities among the T2D participants were hypertension (71%; 95% CI 69-73), hyperlipidaemia (34%; 95% CI 32-36), and obesity (27%; 95% CI 25-29). Additionally, the prevalence of cataracts was 32% (95% CI 30-35), diabetic retinopathy 15% (95% CI 13-17), impaired renal function 13% (95% CI 12-15), and erectile dysfunction (in men) 35% (95% CI 32-38). T2D population-attributable fraction for these comorbidities ranged between 6 and 64%. Interpretation: The burden of diabetes complications and comorbidity is substantial in SSA highlighting the urgent need for innovative public health strategies that prioritise promotion of healthy lifestyles for prevention and early detection of T2D. Also needed are strategies to strengthen health care system capacities to provide treatment and care for diabetes complications.

4.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 3195, 2019 07 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31324766

RESUMO

Genome analysis of diverse human populations has contributed to the identification of novel genomic loci for diseases of major clinical and public health impact. Here, we report a genome-wide analysis of type 2 diabetes (T2D) in sub-Saharan Africans, an understudied ancestral group. We analyze ~18 million autosomal SNPs in 5,231 individuals from Nigeria, Ghana and Kenya. We identify a previously-unreported genome-wide significant locus: ZRANB3 (Zinc Finger RANBP2-Type Containing 3, lead SNP p = 2.831 × 10-9). Knockdown or genomic knockout of the zebrafish ortholog results in reduction in pancreatic ß-cell number which we demonstrate to be due to increased apoptosis in islets. siRNA transfection of murine Zranb3 in MIN6 ß-cells results in impaired insulin secretion in response to high glucose, implicating Zranb3 in ß-cell functional response to high glucose conditions. We also show transferability in our study of 32 established T2D loci. Our findings advance understanding of the genetics of T2D in non-European ancestry populations.


Assuntos
DNA Helicases/genética , DNA Helicases/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Estudos de Associação Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Células Secretoras de Insulina/metabolismo , Insulina/metabolismo , África do Norte , Animais , Apoptose , Sequência de Bases , Glicemia , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Edição de Genes , Técnicas de Inativação de Genes , Genótipo , Gana , Glucose/metabolismo , Homozigoto , Humanos , Quênia , Masculino , Camundongos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Nigéria , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , RNA Interferente Pequeno , Proteína 2 Semelhante ao Fator 7 de Transcrição/genética , Transcriptoma , Peixe-Zebra
5.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 880, 2019 02 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30787307

RESUMO

Asthma is a complex disease with striking disparities across racial and ethnic groups. Despite its relatively high burden, representation of individuals of African ancestry in asthma genome-wide association studies (GWAS) has been inadequate, and true associations in these underrepresented minority groups have been inconclusive. We report the results of a genome-wide meta-analysis from the Consortium on Asthma among African Ancestry Populations (CAAPA; 7009 asthma cases, 7645 controls). We find strong evidence for association at four previously reported asthma loci whose discovery was driven largely by non-African populations, including the chromosome 17q12-q21 locus and the chr12q13 region, a novel (and not previously replicated) asthma locus recently identified by the Trans-National Asthma Genetic Consortium (TAGC). An additional seven loci reported by TAGC show marginal evidence for association in CAAPA. We also identify two novel loci (8p23 and 8q24) that may be specific to asthma risk in African ancestry populations.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos/genética , Asma/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Asma/epidemiologia , Cromossomos Humanos Par 12/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 17/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 8/genética , Loci Gênicos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Hispano-Americanos/genética , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
7.
Nat Genet ; 51(1): 30-35, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30455414

RESUMO

We used a deeply sequenced dataset of 910 individuals, all of African descent, to construct a set of DNA sequences that is present in these individuals but missing from the reference human genome. We aligned 1.19 trillion reads from the 910 individuals to the reference genome (GRCh38), collected all reads that failed to align, and assembled these reads into contiguous sequences (contigs). We then compared all contigs to one another to identify a set of unique sequences representing regions of the African pan-genome missing from the reference genome. Our analysis revealed 296,485,284 bp in 125,715 distinct contigs present in the populations of African descent, demonstrating that the African pan-genome contains ~10% more DNA than the current human reference genome. Although the functional significance of nearly all of this sequence is unknown, 387 of the novel contigs fall within 315 distinct protein-coding genes, and the rest appear to be intergenic.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/genética , Genoma Humano/genética , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Humanos , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos
8.
Int J Genom Data Min ; 2018(1)2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30198022

RESUMO

Following 25 years of extensive research by many scientists worldwide, a panel of ten reward gene risk variants, called the Genetic Addiction Risk Score (GARS), has been developed. In unpublished work, when GARS was compared to the Addiction Severity Index (ASI), which has been used in many clinical settings, GARS significantly predicted the severity of both alcohol and drug dependency. In support of early testing for addiction and other RDS subtypes, parents caught up in the current demographic of 127 people, both young and old, dying daily from opiate/opioid overdose, need help. In the past, families would have never guessed that their loved ones would die or could be in real danger due to opiate addiction. Author, Bill Moyers, in Parade Magazine, reported that as he traveled around the United States, he found many children with ADHD and other spectrum disorders like Autism, and noted that many of these children had related conditions like substance abuse. He called for better ways to identify these children and treat them with approaches other than addictive pharmaceuticals. To our knowledge, GARS is the only panel of genes with established polymorphisms reflecting the Brain Reward Cascade (BRC), which has been correlated with the ASI-MV alcohol and drug risk severity score. While other studies are required to confirm and extend the GARS test to include other genes and polymorphisms that associate with an hypodopaminergic trait, these results provide clinicians with a non-invasive genetic test. Genomic testing, such as GARS, can improve clinical interactions and decision-making. Knowledge of precise polymorphic associations can help in the attenuation of guilt and denial, corroboration of family gene-o-grams; assistance in risk-severity-based decisions about appropriate therapies, including pain medications and risk for addiction; choice of the appropriate level of care placement (i.e., inpatient, outpatient, intensive outpatient, residential); determination of the length of stay in treatment; determination of genetic severity-based relapse and recovery liability and vulnerability; determination of pharmacogenetic medical monitoring for better clinical outcomes (e.g., the A1 allele of the DRD2 gene reduces the binding to opioid delta receptors in the brain, thus, reducing Naltrexone's clinical effectiveness); and supporting medical necessity for insurance scrutiny.

9.
Cancer Genomics Proteomics ; 15(3): 185-191, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29695400

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Prostate cancer is the most common malignancy in US males. African American men have higher incidence and mortality rates than European Americans. Five single nucleotide polymorphisms are associated with PCa. We hypothesized haplotypes inferred from these SNPs are also associated with PCa. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We genotyped SNPs in a case-control admixture mapping study. SNP haplotypes inferred for 157 PCa cases and 150 controls were used in the regression analysis. RESULTS: We found an association between "GTCCC", "ATTCT", and "ACCCC" haplotypes and PCa after ancestry adjustment (OR=3.62, 95%CI=1.42-9.21, p=0.0070; OR=7.89, 95%CI=2.36-26.31, p=0.0008; OR=4.34, 95%CI=1.75-10.78, p=0.0016). The rs615382 variant disrupts the recombination signal binding protein with immunoglobulin kappa J binding site in Rac GTPase activating protein 1 (RACGAP1). CONCLUSION: Disruption of notch 1 mediated-repression of RACGAP1 may contribute to PCa in African Americans.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos/genética , Mapeamento Cromossômico/métodos , Proteínas Ativadoras de GTPase/genética , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Receptor Notch1/genética , Adenocarcinoma/genética , Adenocarcinoma/patologia , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia
10.
Mol Neurobiol ; 55(7): 5526-5536, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28965318

RESUMO

Alzheimer's disease is an irreversible, progressive brain disorder that slowly destroys cognitive skills and the ability to perform the simplest tasks. More than 5 million Americans are afflicted with Alzheimer's; a disorder which ranks third, just behind heart disease and cancer, as a cause of death for older people. With no real cure and in spite of enormous efforts worldwide, the disease remains a mystery in terms of treatment. Importantly, African-Americans are two times as likely as Whites to develop late-onset Alzheimer's disease and less likely to receive timely diagnosis and treatment. Dopamine function is linked to normal cognition and memory and carriers of the DRD2 Taq1A A1 allele have significant loss of D2 receptor density in the brain. Recent research has shown that A1 carriers have worse memory performance during long-term memory (LTM) updating, compared to non-carriers or A2-carriers. A1carriers also show less blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) activation in the left caudate nucleus which is important for LTM updating. This latter effect was only seen in older adults, suggesting magnification of genetic effects on brain functioning in the elderly. Moreover, the frequency of the A1 allele is 0.40 in African-Americans, with an approximate prevalence of the DRD2 A1 allele in 50% of an African-American subset of individuals. This is higher than what is found in a non-screened American population (≤ 28%) for reward deficiency syndrome (RDS) behaviors. Based on DRD2 known genetic polymorphisms, we hypothesize that the DRD2 Taq1A A1 allele magnifies the risk of Alzheimer's in aging African-Americans. Research linking this high risk for Alzheimer's in the African-American population, with DRD2/ANKK1-TaqIA polymorphism and neurocognitive deficits related to LTM, could pave the way for novel, targeted pro-dopamine homeostatic treatment.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos/genética , Envelhecimento/genética , Alelos , Doença de Alzheimer/genética , Polimorfismo Genético , Receptores de Dopamina D2/genética , Doença de Alzheimer/diagnóstico , Dopamina/metabolismo , Estudos de Associação Genética , Humanos , Fatores de Risco
11.
Ethn Dis ; 27(2): 169-178, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28439188

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Variants of unknown significance (VUSs) have been identified in BRCA1 and BRCA2 and account for the majority of all identified sequence alterations. Notably, VUSs occur disproportionately in people of African descent hampering breast cancer (BCa) management and prevention efforts in the population. Our study sought to identify and characterize mutations associated with increased risk of BCa at young age. METHODS: In our study, the spectrum of mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 was enumerated in a cohort of 31 African American women of early age at onset breast cancer, with a family history of breast or cancer in general and/or with triple negative breast cancer. To improve the characterization of the BRCA1 and BRCA2 variants, bioinformatics tools were utilized to predict the potential function of each of the variants. RESULTS: Using next generation sequencing methods and in silico analysis of variants, a total of 197 BRCA1 and 266 BRCA2 variants comprising 77 unique variants were identified in 31 patients. Of the 77 unique variants, one (1.3%) was a pathogenic frameshift mutation (rs80359304; BRCA2 Met591Ile), 13 (16.9%) were possibly pathogenic, 34 (44.2%) were benign, and 29 (37.7%) were VUSs. Genetic epidemiological approaches were used to determine the association with variant, haplotype, and phenotypes, such as age at diagnosis, family history of cancer and family history of breast cancer. There were 5 BRCA1 SNPs associated with age at diagnosis; rs1799966 (P=.045; Log Additive model), rs16942 (P=.033; Log Additive model), rs1799949 (P=.058; Log Additive model), rs373413425 (P=.040 and .023; Dominant and Log Additive models, respectively) and rs3765640 (P=.033 Log Additive model). Additionally, a haplotype composed of all 5 SNPs was found to be significantly associated with younger age at diagnosis using linear regression modeling (P=.023). Specifically, the haplotype containing all the variant alleles was associated with older age at diagnosis (OR= 5.03 95% CI=.91-9.14). CONCLUSIONS: Knowing a patient's BRCA mutation status is important for prevention and treatment decision-making. Improving the characterization of mutations will lead to better management, treatment, and BCa prevention efforts in African Americans who are disproportionately affected with aggressive BCa and may inform future precision medicine genomic-based clinical studies.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos , Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , DNA de Neoplasias/genética , Mutação , Adulto , Idade de Início , Alelos , Proteína BRCA1/metabolismo , Proteína BRCA2/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/etnologia , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
12.
Addict Behav Rep ; 6: 8-14, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29450233

RESUMO

Introduction: Opioid use disorder (OUD) is characterized by a problematic pattern of opioid use leading to clinically-significant impairment or distress. Opioid agonist treatment is an integral component of OUD management, and buprenorphine is often utilized in OUD management due to strong clinical evidence for efficacy. However, interindividual genetic differences in buprenorphine metabolism may result in variable treatment response, leaving some patients undertreated and at increased risk for relapse. Clinical pharmacogenomics studies the effect that inherited genetic variations have on drug response. Our objective is to demonstrate the impact of pharmacogenetic testing on OUD management outcomes. Methods: We analyzed a patient who reported discomfort at daily buprenorphine dose of 24 mg, which was a mandated daily maximum by the pharmacy benefits manager. Regular urine screenings were conducted to detect the presence of unauthorized substances, and pharmacogenetic testing was used to determine the appropriate dose of buprenorphine for OUD management. Results: At the 24 mg buprenorphine daily dose, the patient had multiple relapses with unauthorized substances. Pharmacogenetic testing revealed that the patient exhibited a cytochrome P450 3A4 ultrarapid metabolizer phenotype, which necessitated a higher than recommended daily dose of buprenorphine (32 mg) for adequate OUD management. The patient exhibited a reduction in the number of relapses on the pharmacogenetic-based dose recommendation compared to standard dosing. Conclusion: Pharmacogenomic testing as clinical decision support helped to individualize OUD management. Collaboration by key stakeholders is essential to establishing pharmacogenetic testing as standard of care in OUD management.

13.
J Asthma ; 54(1): 1-8, 2017 01 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27177148

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Transferability of significantly associated loci or GWAS "hits" adds credibility to genotype-disease associations and provides evidence for generalizability across different ancestral populations. We sought evidence of association of known asthma-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in an African American population. METHODS: Subjects comprised 661 participants (261 asthma cases and 400 controls) from the Howard University Family Study. Forty-eight SNPs previously reported to be associated with asthma by GWAS were selected for testing. We adopted a combined strategy by first adopting an "exact" approach where we looked-up only the reported index SNP. For those index SNPs missing form our dataset, we used a "local" approach that examined all the regional SNPs in LD with the index SNP. RESULTS: Out of the 48 SNPs, our cohort had genotype data available for 27, which were examined for exact replication. Of these, two SNPs were found positively associated with asthma. These included: rs10508372 (OR = 1.567 [95%CI, 1.133-2.167], P = 0.0066) and rs2378383 (OR = 2.147 [95%CI, 1.149-4.013], P = 0.0166), located on chromosomal bands 10p14 and 9q21.31, respectively. Local replication of the remaining 21 loci showed association at two chromosomal loci (9p24.1-rs2381413 and 6p21.32-rs3132947; Bonferroni-corrected P values: 0.0033 and 0.0197, respectively). Of note, multiple SNPs in LD with rs2381413 located upstream of IL33 were significantly associated with asthma. CONCLUSIONS: This study has successfully transferred four reported asthma-associated loci in an independent African American population. Identification of several asthma-associated SNPs in the upstream of the IL33, a gene previously implicated in allergic inflammation of asthmatic airway, supports the generalizability of this finding.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos/genética , Asma/genética , Adulto , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Humanos , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
14.
Nat Commun ; 7: 12522, 2016 10 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27725671

RESUMO

The African Diaspora in the Western Hemisphere represents one of the largest forced migrations in history and had a profound impact on genetic diversity in modern populations. To date, the fine-scale population structure of descendants of the African Diaspora remains largely uncharacterized. Here we present genetic variation from deeply sequenced genomes of 642 individuals from North and South American, Caribbean and West African populations, substantially increasing the lexicon of human genomic variation and suggesting much variation remains to be discovered in African-admixed populations in the Americas. We summarize genetic variation in these populations, quantifying the postcolonial sex-biased European gene flow across multiple regions. Moreover, we refine estimates on the burden of deleterious variants carried across populations and how this varies with African ancestry. Our data are an important resource for empowering disease mapping studies in African-admixed individuals and will facilitate gene discovery for diseases disproportionately affecting individuals of African ancestry.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/genética , Fluxo Gênico , Genoma Humano , Migração Humana , Sequência de Bases , DNA Intergênico/genética , Feminino , Heterogeneidade Genética , Geografia , Humanos , Masculino , Filogenia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Sexismo
15.
Autoimmune Infect Dis ; 2(3)2016 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27559544

RESUMO

AIM: To examine the association of TLR4 Asp299Gly and MICA exon 5 microsatellites polymorphisms with severity of trachoma in a sub-Saharan East Africa population of Tanzanian villagers. METHODS: The samples were genotyped for MICA exon 5 microsatellites and the TLR4 299 A/G polymorphism by Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP), and GeneScan®, respectively. The association of TLR4 Asp299Gly and MICA exon 5 microsatellites with inflammatory trachoma (TI) and trichiasis (TI) were examined. RESULTS: The results showed an association between TLR4 and MICA polymorphisms and trachoma disease severity, as well as with protection. TLR4 an allele was significantly associated with inflammatory trachoma (p=0.0410), while the G allele (p=0.0410) was associated with protection. CONCLUSION: TLR4 and MICA may modulate the risk of severity to trachoma disease by modulating the immune response to Ct. In addition; the increased frequency of MICA-A9 heterozygote in controls may suggest a positive selection of these alleles in adaptation to environments where Ct is endemic.

16.
Front Genet ; 6: 335, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26635871

RESUMO

Genome wide association studies (GWAS) for type 2 diabetes (T2D) undertaken in European and Asian ancestry populations have yielded dozens of robustly associated loci. However, the genomics of T2D remains largely understudied in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), where rates of T2D are increasing dramatically and where the environmental background is quite different than in these previous studies. Here, we evaluate 106 reported T2D GWAS loci in continental Africans. We tested each of these SNPs, and SNPs in linkage disequilibrium (LD) with these index SNPs, for an association with T2D in order to assess transferability and to fine map the loci leveraging the generally reduced LD of African genomes. The study included 1775 unrelated Africans (1035 T2D cases, 740 controls; mean age 54 years; 59% female) enrolled in Nigeria, Ghana, and Kenya as part of the Africa America Diabetes Mellitus (AADM) study. All samples were genotyped on the Affymetrix Axiom PanAFR SNP array. Forty-one of the tested loci showed transferability to this African sample (p < 0.05, same direction of effect), 11 at the exact reported SNP and 30 others at SNPs in LD with the reported SNP (after adjustment for the number of tested SNPs). TCF7L2 SNP rs7903146 was the most significant locus in this study (p = 1.61 × 10(-8)). Most of the loci that showed transferability were successfully fine-mapped, i.e., localized to smaller haplotypes than in the original reports. The findings indicate that the genetic architecture of T2D in SSA is characterized by several risk loci shared with non-African ancestral populations and that data from African populations may facilitate fine mapping of risk loci. The study provides an important resource for meta-analysis of African ancestry populations and transferability of novel loci.

17.
Anticancer Res ; 35(7): 3811-9, 2015 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26124326

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Several studies reported that patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) experienced a 10% increased incidence of prostate cancer (PCa) after the first 5 years of diagnosis. We investigated the association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the promoter of Serine Protease Inhibitor Kazal Type 1 (SPINK1) and the increased risk of BPH and PCa. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We genotyped three SNPs in a cases-control study, including BPH and PCa cases. Multiple logistic regression models were applied to analyze clinical and genotypic data. RESULTS: We found an inverse association between SNP rs10035432 and BPH under the log-additive (p=0.007) model. No association was found between these SNPs and PCa risk. However, we observed a possible association between rs1432982 and lower-grade PCa (p=0.05) under the recessive model. CONCLUSION: SPINK1 promoter variants are likely to be associated with the risk of BPH.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética , Hiperplasia Prostática/genética , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Antígeno Prostático Específico/genética , Risco , Inibidor da Tripsina Pancreática de Kazal
18.
Anticancer Res ; 35(5): 2565-70, 2015 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25964531

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Prostate cancer (PCa) shows disproportionately higher incidence and disease-associated mortality in African Americans. The human crystallin beta B2 (CRYBB2) gene has been reported as one tumor signature gene differentially expressed between African American and European American cancer patients. We investigated the role of CRYBB2 genetic variants in PCa in African Americans. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Subjects comprised of 233 PCa cases and 294 controls. Nine haplotype-tagged single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in and around the CRYBB2 gene were genotyped by pyrosequencing. Association analyses were performed for PCa with adjustment for age and prostate-specific antigen (PSA), under an additive genetic model. RESULTS: Out of the nine SNPs examined, rs9608380 was found to be nominally associated with PCa (odds ratio (OR)=2.619 (95% confidence interval (CI)=1.156-5.935), p=0.021). rs9306412 was in strong linkage disequilibrium with rs9608380 that showed an association p-value of 0.077. Using ENCODE data, we found rs9608380 mapped to a region annotated with regulatory motifs, such as DNase hypersensitive sites and histone modifications. CONCLUSION: This is the first study to analyze the association between genetic variations in the CRYBB2 gene with PCa. rs9608380, associated with PCa, is a potentially functional variant.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Cadeia B de beta-Cristalina/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Associação Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Haplótipos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Antígeno Prostático Específico/genética , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Fatores de Risco
19.
Anticancer Res ; 35(3): 1549-58, 2015 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25750310

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Several studies have revealed an association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the VDR gene and prostate cancer (PCa) risk in European and Asian populations. To investigate whether VDR SNPs are associated with PCa risk in African-American (AA) men, nine VDR SNPs were analyzed in a case-control study. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Multiple and binary logistic regression models were applied to analyze the clinical and genotypic data. RESULTS: rs731236 and rs7975232 were significantly associated with PCa risk (p<0.05). In the analysis of clinical phenotypes, rs731236, rs1544410 and rs3782905 were strongly associated with high PSA level (p<0.05), whereas rs1544410 and rs2239185 showed a statistically significant association with high Gleason score (p<0.05). Haplotype analysis revealed several VDR haplotypes associated with PCa risk. Additionally, a trend existed, where as the number of risk alleles increased in the haplotype, the greater was the association with risk (p-trend=0.01). CONCLUSION: These results suggest that the VDR SNPs may be associated with PCa risk and other clinical phenotypes of PCa in AA men.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Antígeno Prostático Específico/sangue , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Receptores de Calcitriol/genética , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Haplótipos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gradação de Tumores , Neoplasias da Próstata/sangue , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Risco
20.
Nat Sci (Irvine) ; 6(15): 1228-1231, 2014 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25705560

RESUMO

The human genome is a complex, dynamic information system that encodes principles of life and living systems. These principles are incorporated in the structure of human genome sequence variation and are foundational for the continuity of life and human survival. Using first principles of thermodynamics and statistical physics, we have developed analogous "genodynamic tools" for population genomic studies. Characterizing genomic information through the lens of physics has allowed us to develop energy measures for modeling genome-environment interactions. In developing biophysical parameters for genome-environment homeostasis, we found that stable genomic free energy trades off low genomic energy (genomic conservation and increased order) and high genomic entropy (genomic variation) with an environmental potential that drives the variation. In our approach, we assert that common variants are dynamic sites in the genome of a population and that the stability of whole genome adaptation is reflected in the frequencies of maintained diversity in common variants for the population in its environment. In this paper, we address the relativity of whole genome adaptation towards homeostasis. By this we mean that adaptive forces are directly reflected in the frequency distribution of alleles and/or haplotypes of the population relative to its environment, with adaptive forces driving the genome towards homeostasis. The use of genomic energy units as a biophysical metric in DNA sequence variation analyses provides new insights into the foundations of population biology and diversity. Using our biophysical tools, population differences directly reflect the adaptive influences of the environment on populations.

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