Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 29
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Tipo de estudo
Intervalo de ano de publicação
2.
PLoS One ; 14(10): e0223713, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31600323

RESUMO

Serine proteases and its inhibitors are involved in physiological process and its deregulation lead to various diseases like Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD), pulmonary emphysema, skin diseases, atherosclerosis, coagulation diseases, cancer, inflammatory diseases, neuronal disorders and other diseases. Serine protease inhibitors have been described in many species, as well as in plants, including cowpea beans (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp). Here, we purified and characterized a protease inhibitor, named VuEI (Vigna unguiculata elastase inhibitor), from Vigna unguiculata, with inhibitory activity against HNE (human neutrophil elastase) and chymotrypsin but has no inhibitory activity against trypsin and thrombin. VuEI was obtained by alkaline protein extraction followed by three different chromatographic steps in sequence. First, an ion exchange chromatography using Hitrap Q column was employed, followed by two reversed-phase chromatography using Source15RPC and ACE18 columns. The molecular mass of VuEI was estimated in 10.99 kDa by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. The dissociation constant (Ki) to HNE was 9 pM. These data indicate that VuEI is a potent inhibitor of human neutrophil elastase, besides to inhibit chymotrypsin.

3.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 12624, 2019 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31477763

RESUMO

To evaluate whether a recombinant serine protease inhibitor (rBmTI-A) modulates inflammation in an experimental model of chronic allergic lung inflammation. Balb/c mice were divided into four groups: SAL (saline), OVA (sensitized with ovalbumin), SAL + rBmTI-A (control treated with rBmTI-A) and OVA + rBmTI-A (sensitized with ovalbumin and treated with rBmTI-A). The animals received an intraperitoneal injection of saline or ovalbumin, according to the group. The groups received inhalation with saline or ovalbumin and were treated with rBmTI-A or saline by nasal instillation. After 29 days, we evaluated the respiratory mechanics; bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF); cytokines; MMP-9, TIMP-1; eosinophils; collagen and elastic fibre expression in the airways; and the trypsin-like, MMP-1, and MMP-9 lung tissue proteolytic activity. Treatment with rBmTI-A reduced the trypsin-like proteolytic activity, the elastance and resistance maximum response, the polymorphonuclear cells, IL-5, IL-10, IL-13 and IL-17A in the BALF, the expression of IL-5, IL-13, IL-17, CD4+, MMP-9, TIMP-1, eosinophils, collagen and elastic fibres in the airways of the OVA + rBmTI-A group compared to the OVA group (p < 0.05). rBmTI-A attenuated bronchial hyperresponsiveness, inflammation and remodelling in this experimental model of chronic allergic pulmonary inflammation. This inhibitor may serve as a potential therapeutic tool for asthma treatment.

4.
Rev. argent. salud publica ; 10(40): 44-47, 30 de septiembre 2019.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, BINACIS, ARGMSAL | ID: biblio-1024943

RESUMO

El monitoreo de indicadores epidemiológicos es un elemento clave en el fortalecimiento de la respuesta al VIH. OBJETIVO: Se presenta un análisis epidemiológico de las tendencias en indicadores seleccionados en base a las notificaciones de infección reportadas a la Coordinación Salud Sexual, Sida e Infecciones de Transmisión Sexual, dependiente del Ministerio de Salud de la Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires entre 2003 y 2017. MÉTODOS: En dicho análisis se incluyen datos sobre la distribución por sexo e índice de masculinidad, el acceso al diagnóstico de VIH, la distribución por edad al momento del diagnóstico, la cobertura de salud, las vías de transmisión, la tasa de mortalidad por sida, la vigilancia de la transmisión perinatal del VIH y la situación de niños, niñas y adolescentes con VIH. RESULTADOS: Los datos presentados reflejan un perfil metropolitano en el que predomina la transmisión sexual tanto en mujeres como en varones y ponen en evidencia algunas situaciones que precisan un abordaje específico y avalan la importancia de implementar estrategias de prevención diferenciadas de acuerdo a las necesidades de cada grupo poblacional. DISCUSIÓN: La forma en la que se presenta la información muestra una clara intencionalidad de fomentar la interacción entre la epidemiología y la toma de decisiones en salud, a sabiendas de que esa información constituye una herramienta fundamental para la definición y puesta en práctica de políticas públicas. Palabras clave: Epidemiología; VIH; Ciudad de Buenos Aires


Assuntos
Epidemiologia , HIV
5.
Rev. argent. salud publica ; 10(38): 38-42, Abril 2019.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, BINACIS, ARGMSAL | ID: biblio-996494

RESUMO

INTRODUCCIÓN: El diagnóstico oportuno de la infección por VIH es una estrategia clave en el control de la epidemia. El uso de las pruebas rápidas facilita el acceso al diagnóstico en el primer nivel de atención y en espacios por fuera del sistema de salud. MÉTODOS: Se describió el proceso de implementación del test rápido para VIH en la Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires (CABA), analizando indicadores epidemiológicos para evaluar el impacto sanitario. RESULTADOS: Desde el inicio de esta estrategia en 2012 y hasta 2018, el test rápido se implementó en 36 centros de la ciudad, tanto en el sistema de salud como en organizaciones de la sociedad civil. En 2014 se inició una campaña de promoción con testeos mensuales en el espacio público de distintos barrios. El número de personas sometidas a la prueba se duplicó en los centros de testeo y aumentó progresivamente en los laboratorios de los hospitales públicos, con un descenso en la proporción de diagnósticos en estadios sintomáticos. CONCLUSIONES: La implementación de la prueba rápida para el diagnóstico de VIH en CABA muestra un modelo exitoso de oferta de prestación en los puntos de atención, que facilita el acceso al tamizaje y que puede extenderse para el diagnóstico y tratamiento de otras infecciones de transmisión sexual.


Assuntos
Humanos , Saúde Pública , HIV , Diagnóstico , Implementação de Plano de Saúde
6.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 111: 1214-1221, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29339284

RESUMO

Protease/anti-protease imbalance is the main pathogenic mechanism of emphysema and protease inhibitors have been recognized as potential molecules to treat the disease conditions. In this work the rBmTI-6 first domain (rBmTI-6-D1), a recombinant Kunitz-type serine proteinase inhibitor, was used to verify its effect in prevention or minimization of PPE-induced emphysema in mice. C57BL/6 mice were submitted to a PPE-induced emphysema model and treated with rBmTI-6-D1 before the emphysema development. We showed that the rBmTI-6-D1 treatment was sufficient to avoid the loss of elastic recoil, an effective decrease in alveolar enlargement and in the number of macrophages and lymphocytes in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Proteolytic analysis showed a significant increase in elastase activity in PPE-VE (induced emphysema) group that is controlled by rBmTI-6-D1. Kallikrein activity was decreased in the PPE-rBmTI6 (induced emphysema and inhibitor treated) group when compared to PPE-VE group. Although rBmTI-6-D1, did not present a neutrophil elastase (NE) inhibitory activity, the results show that the inhibitor interfered in the pathway of NE secretion in PPE-emphysema mice model. The role of rBmTI-6-D1 in the prevention of emphysema development in the mice model, apparently, is related with a control of inflammatory response due the trypsin/kallikrein inhibitory activity of rBmTI-6-D1.


Assuntos
Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Enfisema Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores de Serino Proteinase/química , Animais , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar/química , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Humanos , Inflamação/induzido quimicamente , Inflamação/fisiopatologia , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Camundongos , Neutrófilos/efeitos dos fármacos , Neutrófilos/metabolismo , Polímeros/toxicidade , Enfisema Pulmonar/induzido quimicamente , Enfisema Pulmonar/fisiopatologia , Rhipicephalus/química , Inibidores de Serino Proteinase/administração & dosagem , Inibidores de Serino Proteinase/genética
7.
Histol Histopathol ; 33(3): 289-298, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28868604

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Smoking is the main risk factor for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease development and cigarette smoke (CS) exposure is considered an important approach to reproduce in rodents this human disease. We have previously shown that in an elastase-induced model of emphysema, the administration of a protease inhibitor (rBmTI-A) prevented and attenuated tissue destruction in mice. Thus, in this study we aimed to verify the effects of rBmTI-A administration on the physiopathological mechanisms of CS-induced emphysema. METHODS: Mice (C57BL/6) were exposed to CS or room air for 12 weeks. In this period, 3 nasal instillations of rBmTI-A inhibitor or its vehicle were performed. After euthanasia, respiratory mechanics were evaluated and lungs removed for analysis of mean linear intercept, volume proportion of collagen and elastic fibers, density of polymorphonuclear cells, macrophages, and density of positive cells for MMP-12, MMP-9, TIMP-1 and gp91phox. RESULTS: The rBmTI-A administration improved tissue elastance, decreased alveolar enlargement and collagen fibers accumulation to control levels and attenuated elastic fibers accumulation in animals exposed to CS. There was an increase of MMP-12, MMP-9 and macrophages in CS groups and the rBmTIA only decreased the number of MMP-12 positive cells. Also, we demonstrated an increase in gp91phox in CS treated group and in TIMP-1 levels in both rBmTI-A treated groups. CONCLUSION: In summary, the rBmTI-A administration attenuated emphysema development by an increase of gp91phox and TIMP-1, accompanied by a decrease in MMP-12 levels.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Artrópodes/farmacologia , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Enfisema Pulmonar/etiologia , Inibidores de Serino Proteinase/farmacologia , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Animais , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Enfisema Pulmonar/fisiopatologia , Rhipicephalus
8.
PLoS One ; 9(9): e106887, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25221931

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Access to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) is expanding in Latin America. Many patients require second and third line therapy due to toxicity, tolerability, failure, or a combination of factors. The need for third line HAART, essential for program planning, is not known. METHODS: Antiretroviral-naïve patients ≥18 years who started first HAART after January 1, 2000 in Caribbean, Central and South America Network (CCASAnet) sites in Argentina, Brazil, Honduras, Mexico, and Peru were included. Clinical trials participants were excluded. Third line HAART was defined as use of darunavir, tipranavir, etravirine, enfuvirtide, maraviroc or raltegravir. Need for third line HAART was defined as virologic failure while on second line HAART. RESULTS: Of 5853 HAART initiators followed for a median of 3.5 years, 310 (5.3%) failed a second line regimen and 44 (0.8%) received a third line regimen. Cumulative incidence of failing a 2nd or starting a 3rd line regimen was 2.7% and 6.0% three and five years after HAART initiation, respectively. Predictors at HAART initiation for failing a second or starting a third line included female sex (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.54, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.18-2.00, p = 0.001), younger age (HR = 2.76 for 20 vs. 40 years, 95% CI 1.86-4.10, p<0.001), and prior AIDS (HR = 2.17, 95% CI 1.62-2.90, p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Third line regimens may be needed for at least 6% of patients in Latin America within 5 years of starting HAART, a substantial proportion given the large numbers of patients on HAART in the region. Improved accessibility to third line regimens is warranted.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde , Adulto , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Humanos , América Latina , Masculino
9.
CABA; Argentina. Ministerio de Salud de la Nación. Dirección de Sida y ETS; 2014 Julio. 36 p.
Monografia em Espanhol | ARGMSAL | ID: biblio-994350

RESUMO

El espíritu de esta publicación es dar a conocer la nueva información de que disponemos y revalidar aquella que continua vigente en función de la actualidad de la epidemia y del conocimiento que tenemos sobre ella, para poder utilizarla en el aula. Sabemos largamente que con la información sola no alcanza, De nuevo el desafío es seguir pensando como lograr un encuentro significativo entre los datos científicos y la vida cotidiana. Aquí el aporte de los educadores fue y sigue siendo indispensable. Por esto mismo, se quiso incluir una serie de reflexiones sobre la práctica que mediatiza la llegada de la llegada de la información cuando se abordan temas de prevención y promoción de la salud, ya que continúan vigentes en el imaginario social ideas y prejuicios que se cree necesario y posible revertir. Así se incluyeron los datos epidemiológicos actuales del VIH Sida, de modo de acercar información que normalmente se considera dura y de ardua interpretación, pero que indispensable como base desde donde partir para hablar con fundamento de lo que efectivamente esta pasando


Assuntos
HIV , Epidemias , Saúde Sexual
10.
PLoS One ; 9(6): e98216, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24886716

RESUMO

AIMS: To determine whether a serine protease inhibitor treatment can prevent or minimize emphysema in mice. METHODS: C57BL/6 mice were subjected to porcine pancreatic elastase (PPE) nasal instillation to induce emphysema and were treated with a serine protease inhibitor (rBmTI-A) before (Protocol 1) and after (Protocol 2) emphysema development. In both protocols, we evaluated lung function to evaluate the airway resistance (Raw), tissue damping (Gtis) and tissue elastance (Htis). The inflammatory profile was analyzed in the bronchoalveolar lavage (BALF) and through the use of morphometry; we measured the mean linear intercept (Lm) (to verify alveolar enlargement), the volume proportion of collagen and elastic fibers, and the numbers of macrophages and metalloprotease 12 (MMP-12) positive cells in the parenchyma. We showed that at both time points, even after the emphysema was established, the rBmTI-A treatment was sufficient to reverse the loss of elastic recoil measured by Htis, the alveolar enlargement and the increase in the total number of cells in the BALF, with a primary decrease in the number of macrophages. Although, the treatment did not control the increase in macrophages in the lung parenchyma, it was sufficient to decrease the number of positive cells for MMP-12 and reduce the volume of collagen fibers, which was increased in PPE groups. These findings attest to the importance of MMP-12 in PPE-induced emphysema and suggest that this metalloprotease could be an effective therapeutic target.


Assuntos
Inibidores de Proteases/uso terapêutico , Enfisema Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , Proteínas Recombinantes/uso terapêutico , Rhipicephalus/metabolismo , Animais , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar , Bovinos , Colágeno/metabolismo , Elasticidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Galectina 3/metabolismo , Imuno-Histoquímica , Masculino , Metaloproteinase 12 da Matriz/metabolismo , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Inibidores de Proteases/farmacologia , Enfisema Pulmonar/enzimologia , Enfisema Pulmonar/fisiopatologia , Mecânica Respiratória/efeitos dos fármacos
11.
J Int AIDS Soc ; 16: 18519, 2013 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24093951

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to estimate primary resistance in an urban setting in a developing country characterized by high antiretroviral (ARV) coverage over the diagnosed population and also by an important proportion of undiagnosed individuals, in order to determine whether any change in primary resistance occurred in the past five years. DESIGN: We carried out a multi-site resistance surveillance study according to WHO HIV resistance guidelines, using a weighted sampling technique based on annual HIV case reports per site. METHODS: Blood samples were collected from 197 drug-naive HIV-1-infected individuals diagnosed between March 2010 and August 2011 at 20 HIV voluntary counselling and testing centres in Buenos Aires. Clinical records of enrolled patients at the time of diagnosis were compiled. Viral load and CD4 counts were performed on all samples. The pol gene was sequenced and the resistance profile determined. Phylogenetic analysis was performed by neighbour-joining (NJ) trees and bootscanning analysis. RESULTS: We found that 12 (7.9%) of the 152 successfully sequenced samples harboured primary resistance mutations, of which K103N and G190A were the most prevalent. Non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTI) resistance mutations were largely the most prevalent (5.9%), accounting for 75% of all primary resistance and exhibiting a significant increase (p=0.0072) in prevalence during the past 10 years as compared to our previous study performed in 1997-2000 and in 2003-2005. Nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) and protease inhibitor primary resistance were low and similar to the one previously reported. CONCLUSIONS: Levels of primary NNRTI resistance in Buenos Aires appear to be increasing in the context of a sustained ARV coverage and a high proportion of undiagnosed HIV-positive individuals.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Farmacorresistência Viral , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/virologia , HIV-1/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto , Fármacos Anti-HIV/farmacologia , Argentina/epidemiologia , Feminino , Genótipo , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , HIV-1/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise de Sequência de DNA , População Urbana , Adulto Jovem , Produtos do Gene pol do Vírus da Imunodeficiência Humana/genética
12.
Univ. med ; 51(1): 16-28, ene.-mar. 2010. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: lil-601536

RESUMO

Objetivo. Describir la frecuencia de la enfermedad crónica en adultos mayores de la ciudad de Cali, Colombia. Metodología. Se seleccionó una muestra de 500 adultos mayores, entre los 60 y 96 años de edad. Se utilizó un cuestionario de factores psicosociales para el adulto mayor diseñado por Baca, González y Uribe. Resultados. Se observó que la hipertensión, la diabetes y la osteoporosis son las enfermedades más comunes en los adultos mayores, aunque el mayor porcentaje de esta población se encuentra sin ningún tipo de enfermedad. Asimismo, se observó que los adultos mayores casados y viudos presentaban más enfermedades en comparación con los que se encontraban solteros, separados o en unión libre. Conclusiones. La enfermedad crónica continúa siendo un problema en los adultos mayores y su presencia está relacionada, no sólo con la disminución de la funcionalidad del ser humano, sino también, con el control y la prevención de las enfermedades y la dificultad para acceder a los sistemas de salud...


Objective: To describe the frequency of the chronic disease in older adults in the city of Cali (Colombia).Methodology: A sample of 500 older adults was selected, between 60 and 96 years of age. A questionnaire of psychosocial factors in older adults designed by Baca, Gonzalez, and Uribe was used. Results: Hypertension, diabetes and osteoporosis were the most frequent diseases in older adults, although the greater percentage of this population did not refer any pathology. Married and widowers individuals presented more diseases as compared to unmarried, separated and people who live together. Conclusions: Chronic diseases are still a problem in older adults, their presence is related not only with the decrease of functionality of the human being, but also with the control and prevention of pathologies and the difficulty for accessing to health systems...


Assuntos
Doença Crônica , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso
14.
Actual. SIDA ; 17(66): 136-142, nov. 2009. graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: lil-560956

RESUMO

La Coordinación Sida, desde su creación ha basado su gestión en la construcción de un modelo participativo con un horizonte estratégico político en todas sus acciones. El fortalecimiento de las capacidades autónomas del equipo así como la de los efectores, ha sido la estrategia principal en la prevención de la transmisión vertical del VIH (TV) dentro del sistema público de salud en la CABA. El propósito del presente artículo es describir esta trayectoria, tomando tres ejes principales: un modelo de gestión basado en el acompañamiento de los equipos, los aportes de la vigilancia epidemiológica y la investigación aplicada. El análisis de estas líneas de trabajo permitió identificar aciertos y obstáculos que permiten fortalecer las estrategias implementadas para reducir la tasa de TV.


Since its creation, Coordinación Sida has based its management on the creation of a participative model with a political strategic horizon in all of its actions. Strengthening the has been the main strategy aimed at preventing HIV vertical transmission within the public healthcare system in the City of Buenos Aires. The objective of this article is describing Coordinación Sida's background with special emphasis on three axes: a management model based on team follow-up, its contribution to epidemiological surveillance and applied research. The analysis of these work lines allowed to identify both success and obstacles, both of them allow to strengthen the strategies applied for reducing the vertical transmission rate.


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Gravidez , Recém-Nascido , Sorodiagnóstico da AIDS , HIV , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Notificação de Doenças/legislação & jurisprudência , Cuidado Pré-Natal , Planejamento em Saúde Comunitária/organização & administração , Serviços de Saúde , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle
15.
Actual. SIDA ; 17(66): 136-142, nov. 2009. graf
Artigo em Espanhol | BINACIS | ID: bin-124372

RESUMO

La Coordinación Sida, desde su creación ha basado su gestión en la construcción de un modelo participativo con un horizonte estratégico político en todas sus acciones. El fortalecimiento de las capacidades autónomas del equipo así como la de los efectores, ha sido la estrategia principal en la prevención de la transmisión vertical del VIH (TV) dentro del sistema público de salud en la CABA. El propósito del presente artículo es describir esta trayectoria, tomando tres ejes principales: un modelo de gestión basado en el acompañamiento de los equipos, los aportes de la vigilancia epidemiológica y la investigación aplicada. El análisis de estas líneas de trabajo permitió identificar aciertos y obstáculos que permiten fortalecer las estrategias implementadas para reducir la tasa de TV.(AU)


Since its creation, Coordinación Sida has based its management on the creation of a participative model with a political strategic horizon in all of its actions. Strengthening the has been the main strategy aimed at preventing HIV vertical transmission within the public healthcare system in the City of Buenos Aires. The objective of this article is describing Coordinación Sidas background with special emphasis on three axes: a management model based on team follow-up, its contribution to epidemiological surveillance and applied research. The analysis of these work lines allowed to identify both success and obstacles, both of them allow to strengthen the strategies applied for reducing the vertical transmission rate.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Gravidez , Recém-Nascido , HIV/imunologia , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Planejamento em Saúde Comunitária/organização & administração , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Sorodiagnóstico da AIDS , Notificação de Doenças/legislação & jurisprudência , Cuidado Pré-Natal , Serviços de Saúde/22060 , Monitoramento Epidemiológico
16.
Actual. SIDA ; 17(65): 106-111, sept. 2009. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | BINACIS | ID: bin-124917

RESUMO

La epidemia de VIH en Argentina sigue siendo concentrada - es decir, con una prevalencia en la población general menor al 1% y superior al 5% en alguna población específica - y predominantemente urbana. En este artículo presentamos un análisis de los datos epidemiológicos de la población de residentes de la Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires (CABA), diagnosticados durante el período 2003-2008 y notificados a la Coordinación Sida del Ministerio de Salud de la Ciudad. Los resultados muestran que la vía sexual sigue siendo la forma principal de transmisión, con predominio del grupo de hombres que tienen sexo con hombres (HSH) en la población masculina. La universalización del testeo en embarazadas y una mayor accesibilidad de las mujeres a los servicios de salud podrían haber impactado en el llamado proceso de feminización de la epidemia. El mayor porcentaje de diagnósticos tardíos en la población masculina se observa particularmente en mayores de 50 años y con menor nivel de instrucción, lo que plantea la necesidad de fortalecer las estrategias preventivas y de accesibilidad al testeo en esta población.(AU)


Argentina HIV epidemic is a contained and urban epidemic, with a relative slow and stable prevalence. In this paper we analyzed the epidemic profile about Buenos Aires residents for which diagnosis of HIV infection was made between 2003 an 2008 and were notified to the AIDS Programme of the Ministry of Health. Most infections were adquired by sexual transmissions with predominance of men who have sex eith men in the masculine popultaion. Universal HIV testing in pregnancy and facilitate access of women to health services could explain the process of feminization of the epidemy. Predominance of delayed diagnosis in the male population, elder than fifty and with lowest instruction level, suggests the need of enhacing preventive strategies and access to testing in this setting.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Doenças Virais Sexualmente Transmissíveis/etiologia , Testes de Gravidez , Homossexualidade Masculina , Monitoramento Epidemiológico/estatística & dados numéricos , Diagnóstico da Situação de Saúde em Grupos Específicos
17.
Actual. SIDA ; 17(65): 106-111, sept. 2009. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: lil-534098

RESUMO

La epidemia de VIH en Argentina sigue siendo concentrada - es decir, con una prevalencia en la población general menor al 1% y superior al 5% en alguna población específica - y predominantemente urbana. En este artículo presentamos un análisis de los datos epidemiológicos de la población de residentes de la Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires (CABA), diagnosticados durante el período 2003-2008 y notificados a la Coordinación Sida del Ministerio de Salud de la Ciudad. Los resultados muestran que la vía sexual sigue siendo la forma principal de transmisión, con predominio del grupo de hombres que tienen sexo con hombres (HSH) en la población masculina. La universalización del testeo en embarazadas y una mayor accesibilidad de las mujeres a los servicios de salud podrían haber impactado en el llamado proceso de feminización de la epidemia. El mayor porcentaje de diagnósticos tardíos en la población masculina se observa particularmente en mayores de 50 años y con menor nivel de instrucción, lo que plantea la necesidad de fortalecer las estrategias preventivas y de accesibilidad al testeo en esta población.


Argentina HIV epidemic is a contained and urban epidemic, with a relative slow and stable prevalence. In this paper we analyzed the epidemic profile about Buenos Aires residents for which diagnosis of HIV infection was made between 2003 an 2008 and were notified to the AIDS Programme of the Ministry of Health. Most infections were adquired by sexual transmissions with predominance of men who have sex eith men in the masculine popultaion. Universal HIV testing in pregnancy and facilitate access of women to health services could explain the process of feminization of the epidemy. Predominance of delayed diagnosis in the male population, elder than fifty and with lowest instruction level, suggests the need of enhacing preventive strategies and access to testing in this setting.


Assuntos
Humanos , Diagnóstico da Situação de Saúde em Grupos Específicos , Doenças Virais Sexualmente Transmissíveis/etiologia , Homossexualidade Masculina , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Testes de Gravidez , Monitoramento Epidemiológico/estatística & dados numéricos
18.
AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses ; 24(6): 797-804, 2008 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18507526

RESUMO

Resistance-associated mutations (RAMs) in plasma samples from HIV-1-infected women who received antiretroviral (ARV) prophylaxis during pregnancy was assessed and correlated with the detection of RAMs in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PMBCs). The study population was composed of HIV-1-infected women enrolled in a prospective cohort study in Latin America and the Caribbean (NISDI Perinatal Study) as of March 1, 2005, who were diagnosed with HIV-1 infection during the current pregnancy, who received ARVs during pregnancy for prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1, and who were followed through at least the 6-12 week postpartum visit. Plasma samples collected at enrollment during pregnancy and at 6-12 weeks postpartum were assayed for RAMs. Plasma results were compared to previously described PBMC results from the same study population. Of 819 enrolled subjects, 197 met the eligibility criteria. Nucleic acid amplification was accomplished in 123 plasma samples at enrollment or 6-12 weeks postpartum, and RAMs were detected in 22 (17.9%; 95%CI: 11.7-25.9%). Previous analyses had demonstrated detection of RAMs in PBMCs in 19 (16.1%). There was high concordance between RAMs detected in plasma and PBMC samples, with only eight discordant pairs. The prevalence of RAMs among these pregnant, HIV-1-infected women is high (15%). Rates of detection of RAMs in plasma and PBMC samples were similar.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Farmacorresistência Viral Múltipla/genética , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , HIV-1/genética , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/tratamento farmacológico , Região do Caribe/epidemiologia , Feminino , Genótipo , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/transmissão , HIV-1/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , América Latina/epidemiologia , Leucócitos Mononucleares/virologia , Mutação , Seleção de Pacientes , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/virologia , Estudos Prospectivos , RNA Viral/sangue , Carga Viral
19.
AIDS ; 21(2): 199-205, 2007 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17197811

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To quantify primary resistance mutations (PRMs) among HIV-1-infected women receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) for prevention of mother-to-child transmission (MTCT). METHODS: Peripheral blood mononuclear cell samples from HIV-1-infected women enrolled in a prospective cohort study in Argentina, the Bahamas, Brazil, and Mexico (NISDI Perinatal Study) were assayed for PRMs. Eligible women were those enrolled by March 2005 and diagnosed with HIV-1 infection during the current pregnancy, and who received ART for MTCT prophylaxis and were followed for 6-12 weeks postpartum. RESULTS: Of 819 women, 198 met the eligibility criteria. At enrollment, 98% were asymptomatic, 62% had plasma viral load < 1000 copies/ml, 53% had CD4+ cell count > or = 500 cells/microl, and 78% were ART-exposed (mean duration, 8.0 weeks; 95% confidence interval, 7.1-8.9). The most complex ART regimen during pregnancy was usually (81%) a three-drug regimen [two nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) + one protease inhibitor or two NRTIs + one non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor). PRMs were observed in samples from 19 (16%) of 118 women that were amplifiable at one or both time points [11/76 (14%) at enrollment; 14/97 (14%) at 6-12 weeks]. The occurrence of PRMs was not associated with clinical, immunological, or virological disease stage at either time point, whether ART-naive versus exposed at enrollment, or the most complex or number of antiretroviral drug regimens received during pregnancy (P > 0.1). Of 55 women with amplifiable samples at both time points, PRMs were detected in 11 samples (20%). CONCLUSIONS: PRMs occurred among 16.1% of relatively healthy HIV-1-infected mothers from Latin American and Caribbean countries receiving MTCT prophylaxis.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Farmacorresistência Viral/genética , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , HIV-1/efeitos dos fármacos , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade , Contagem de Linfócito CD4 , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/transmissão , Infecções por HIV/virologia , HIV-1/genética , Humanos , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Mutação , Gravidez , Carga Viral
20.
AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses ; 22(11): 1186-91, 2006 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17147509

RESUMO

Worldwide, the distribution of HIV-1 subtypes and intersubtype recombinants is not homogeneous. In Latin America and the Caribbean, HIV-1 subtype B predominates. However, in the south of Brazil and in countries of the Southern cone (Argentina, Chile, Paraguay, and Uruguay) there is a different distribution of viral subtypes and intersubtype recombinants. The aim of this work was to analyze HIV-1 diversity in a cohort of pregnant women (with primarily heterosexual acquisition of the infection) who were diagnosed with HIV-1 infection during their current pregnancy and who received ARVs during pregnancy for perinatal transmission prophylaxis. Analysis of 121 partial pol sequences from subjects enrolled in Argentina, Brazil, the Bahamas, and Mexico was performed by phylogenetic and recombinant characterization. Different prevalences of subtype B were observed (100% for specimens from Mexico and the Bahamas, 61% for Brazil, and 30% for Argentina). Subtypes C and F were found, along with BC, BF, FC, and CBF recombinants in specimens from Brazilians. A high prevalence of BF recombinants was found (70%) in specimens from Argentina. The different patterns of HIV- 1 subtypes and intersubtype recombinants in South America (Argentina and Brazil) compared to those in Central and North America should be considered in the design of future HIV-1 vaccine trials.


Assuntos
Variação Genética , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/virologia , HIV-1/genética , HIV-1/isolamento & purificação , Argentina/epidemiologia , Bahamas/epidemiologia , Brasil/epidemiologia , Feminino , Produtos do Gene pol/genética , Humanos , México/epidemiologia , Filogenia , Gravidez
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA