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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32195695

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC) frequently associated comorbidities and concomitant medication. Sustained virological response (SVR12) has been related to an increase in cholesterol serum levels and in peripheral vascular resistance. Our aim was to evaluate the impact of SVR12 on the use of concomitant medication and serum lipid profile. METHODS: Prospective study including patients treated with direct-acting antivirals who had achieved the SVR12. Clinical data and concomitant drugs were analysed at baseline and at least 1 year after SVR12. Differences from baseline to follow-up in the concomitant medication were evaluated by Stuart-Maxwell test and lipid profile by Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Patients were categorized according to the increase/decrease in the number of drugs included in each class (Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical classification system). RESULTS: Two hundred twenty-six patients with SVR12 were included, 73.5% were receiving concomitant drugs (49.6% with antihypertensive effect, 30.5% antacids, 16.4% anti-diabetic drugs, and 7.1% lipid-lowering agents). One year after SVR12, total cholesterol serum levels increased from 161 to 179 mg/dl (P < 0.001) and, after a median time of 25.7 months, the use of lipid-lowering drugs increased from 7.8 to 11.5% (P = 0.009). In addition, we observed a trend to use more antihypertensive drugs in older patients (P = 0.06), especially in those with cirrhosis. Anxiolytics decreased after SVR12 from 13.7 to 10.6% (P = 0.035). CONCLUSION: CHC cure is associated with a significant increase in cholesterol serum levels and the use of lipid-lowering agents, as well as the use of drugs with antihypertensive effect in older patients.

2.
Nephrol Dial Transplant ; 35(1): 130-138, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30102333

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A disintegrin and metalloproteinase (ADAM) 17, also known as tumour necrosis factor α-converting enzyme (TACE), is a metalloproteinase that releases the ectodomains of most growth factors, cytokines, receptors and enzymes and has been associated with the presence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and cardiovascular (CV) disease. The role of circulating ADAMs in the progression of renal function and CV events in CKD patients is unknown. METHODS: A total of 2570 subjects from an observational and multicentre study with CKD Stages 3-5, CKD Stage 5D and controls without any history of CV disease were studied. Circulating ADAM activity was assessed using a fluorometric technique. Progression of renal disease was defined as a 30% increase in serum creatinine or dialysis requirement after 24 months of follow-up. CV outcomes were assessed after 48 months of follow-up. RESULTS: Patients with advanced CKD had higher ADAM activity as compared with patients with moderate CKD or controls. Male patients with progression of CKD had higher ADAM levels at baseline compared with patients with stable renal function {22.19 relative fluorescence units/µL/h [95% confidence interval (CI) 11.22-37.32] versus 12.15 (7.02-21.50)}. After multivariate adjustment, higher ADAM activity was identified as a risk factor for progression of CKD in male patients [30% increase in the creatinine odds ratio (OR) 2.72 (95% CI 1.58-4.68), P < 0.001; dialysis requirement OR 3.00 (95% CI 1.65-5.46), P < 0.001; dialysis requirement or 30% increase in the creatinine OR 3.15 (95% CI 2.06-4.81), P < 0.001]. ADAM activity was also identified as an independent risk factor for CV events [hazard ratio (HR) 1.68 (95% CI 1.20-2.36), P = 0.003]. CONCLUSIONS: High ADAMs activity levels are independently associated with CKD progression in males and with CV events in CKD patients.

3.
Scand J Caring Sci ; 2019 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31657064

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Nurses play an important part in the education of patients with HF. To prepare patients with HF for self-care maintenance behaviours, nurses must have knowledge of basic self-care maintenance principles. AIM STUDY: The aim of this study was to determine the degree of knowledge of primary care (PC) nurses on the principles of self-management of HF and variables associated with this. METHODOLOGY: This is an observational, cross-sectional descriptive study, carried out in 2014, in the city of Barcelona (Catalonia). Nurses' Knowledge of Heart Failure Education Principles questionnaire (NKHFEP) was used to assess the principles of HF self-care education. Instrument items assess knowledge of nurses on 5 themes: diet, liquids/weight, worsening signs or symptoms, medication and exercise. Factors related to adequate knowledge were evaluated. RESULTS: Of 216 PC nurses, who completed the questionnaire, the average score was 15.6 (SD: 2.2). Only 36 (16.7%) obtained an adequate level of knowledge and defined as a score ≥ 18 points. In multivariate logistic regression, nurse factors associated with an adequate knowledge of principles of self-care of HF were having achieved a PhD degree (OR: 36.4, 95% CI: 2.8-468.2, p = 0.006) and previous specific training in HF (OR: 19.8, 95% CI: 1.4-279.3, p = 0.026). CONCLUSIONS: The degree of knowledge of PC nurses in the principles of self-care in HF was higher among nurses who had completed the doctorate and in nurses who had received specific training in HF.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31443209

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To appraise the relationship between the length of exposure to epidural analgesia and the risk of non-spontaneous birth, and to identify additional risk factors. This study is framed within the MidconBirth project. STUDY DESIGN: A multicentre prospective study was conducted between July 2016 and November 2017 in three maternity hospitals in different Spanish regions. The independent variable of the study was the length of exposure to epidural analgesia, and the dependent variable was the type of birth in women with uncomplicated pregnancies. The data was analyzed separately by parity. A multivariate logistic regression was performed. The odds ratios (OR), using 95% confidence intervals (CI) were constructed. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: During the study period, 807 eligible women gave birth. Non-spontaneous births occurred in 29.37% of the sample, and 75.59% received oxytocin for augmentation of labour. The mean exposure length to epidural analgesia when non-spontaneous birth happened was 8.05 for primiparous and 6.32 for multiparous women (5.98 and 3.37 in spontaneous birth, respectively). A logistic regression showed the length of exposure to epidural during labour was the major predictor for non-spontaneous births in primiparous and multiparous women followed by use of oxytocin (multiparous group). CONCLUSIONS: The length of exposure to epidural analgesia during labour is associated with non-spontaneous births in our study. It highlights the need for practice change through the development of clinical guidelines, training programs for professionals and the continuity of midwifery care in order to support women to cope with labour pain using less invasive forms of analgesia. Women also need to be provided with evidence-based information.


Assuntos
Analgesia Epidural/efeitos adversos , Analgesia Obstétrica/efeitos adversos , Cesárea/métodos , Dor do Parto/tratamento farmacológico , Trabalho de Parto/efeitos dos fármacos , Tocologia/métodos , Parto/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Razão de Chances , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco , Espanha , Fatores de Tempo
5.
Virchows Arch ; 475(2): 223-231, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31209634

RESUMO

The role of DNA MMR genes in prostate cancer (PrCa) is controversial, as genetic alterations leading to microsatellite instability are incompletely defined in these tumors. ERG rearrangements and PTEN loss are concomitant events in PrCa. The aim of this study has been to analyze the immunohistochemical (IHC) expression of MSH2, MSH6, MLH1, PMS2, ERG, and PTEN and their potential association with the grade group (GG) grading system (WHO 2016) and PSA recurrence in a series of 200 PrCa (PSMAR-Biobank, Barcelona, Spain). MSH2, MLH1, PMS2, and PTEN losses were documented in 8%, 5%, 2%, and 36.5%, respectively. ERG expression was found in 48%. MSH6 showed an increase of expression with respect to basal levels in 42.1% of the cases. A statistical association between MSH6 overexpression and GG5 was found (p = 0.0281). ERG-wild-type cases were associated with single MSH2 loss (p = 0.024), and MSH2 and/or MLH1 loss (p = 0.019). The percentage of cases with PTEN loss was 20.5% (8/39) in GG1, 37.6% (53/141) of clustered GG2 to 4, and 60% (12/20) of GG5 (chi-square test, p = 0.01). Thus, PTEN expression loss was statistically more frequent in the upper-grade tumors. PMS2 loss was an infrequent event, but it was statistically associated with shorter time to PSA recurrence (p = 0.011). These results suggest the existence of an alternative non-ERG pathway associated with MSH2 or MLH1 expression loss. MSH6 overexpression could be a marker of aggressiveness in PrCa. The IHC assessment of DNA MMR proteins, ERG and PTEN, could identify different altered PrCa pathways, which could aid patient stratification.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/análise , Reparo de Erro de Pareamento de DNA/fisiologia , PTEN Fosfo-Hidrolase/biossíntese , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gradação de Tumores , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/patologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/metabolismo , Regulador Transcricional ERG/biossíntese
6.
Rev. esp. geriatr. gerontol. (Ed. impr.) ; 54(3): 136-142, mayo-jun. 2019. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS-Express | ID: ibc-FGT-2913

RESUMO

Introducción: Diversos autores han demostrado la eficacia de diferentes estrategias de hospitalización a domicilio en pacientes mayores. En estos procesos la identificación de factores pronósticos es imprescindible para una adecuada selección de candidatos. Material y métodos: Se analizó una cohorte de pacientes mayores atendidos en régimen de Hospitalización Domiciliaria Integral por descompensaciones de procesos médicos, ortopédicos o cerebrovasculares con deterioro funcional asociado durante 5años en una organización sanitaria integral. Se analizaron resultados al alta: resolución sanitaria (alta a atención primaria), recuperación favorable (ganancia funcional relativa ≥35%) y la combinación de estas dos variables. Por modelo multivariable de regresión logística se analizó la asociación entre las variables clínicas obtenidas de la valoración geriátrica integral efectuada al ingreso con resultados al alta favorables. Resultados: Se incluyeron 484 pacientes, con edad 84,4 (6,7), género femenino 69%, Barthel basal 74,2 (22,6), cuidador principal familiar-privado/residencia 82/18% y procedencia unidades de hospitalización/urgencias-comunidad 55/45%. Los resultados por procesos (médico/ortopédico/ictus) fueron: resolución sanitaria 71,7/87,5/77,6%; recuperación favorable 72,1/84,9/73,5%; resolución sanitaria con recuperación favorable 67,1/81,6/67,3%. Se asociaron con resolución sanitaria y recuperación funcional favorable (OR [IC95%])-: el ingreso por proceso ortopédico (2,00 [1,22-3,29]), presentar una puntuación en índice de Barthel al ingreso >40 puntos (2,00 [1,18-3,38]) y la ausencia de úlceras por presión al ingreso (2,80 [1,68-4,65]). Conclusiones: Los pacientes con diagnóstico ortopédico, los que tienen una discapacidad no grave al ingreso y los que no presentan úlceras por presión al ingreso pudieron presentar mejores resultados de resolución sanitaria con recuperación favorable. Sufrir deterioro cognitivo o delirium, o estar institucionalizado, no se relacionaron con resultados menos favorables


Introduction: Several authors have demonstrated the efficacy of different hospital-at-home strategies in older patients. The identification of prognostic factors is key for improving the targeting process of candidates. Methods: We performed an analysis of a cohort of older patients attended due to disabling health crises (medical, orthopaedics, or stroke) by a hospital-at-home scheme developed in an integrated care institution over a 5-year period. Main outcomes were: health crisis resolution (discharge to Primary Care); functional resolution (relative functional gain ≥35%), and their combined variable. A logistic regression analysis was performed, including clinical variables from Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment at admission to detect factors related to favourable outcomes. Results: A total of 484 patients were included. The main characteristics were: age 84.4 (6.7), female gender 69%, baseline Barthel score 74.2 (22.6), family-private caregiver/nursing home 82%/18%, referral from hospital wards/emergency department-community in 55%/45%. The main results (for selected processes medical/orthopaedics/stroke) were: health crisis resolution 71.7/87.5/77.6%; functional resolution 72.1/84.9/73.5%; favourable crisis resolution (health crisis resolution with functional resolution) 67.1/81.6/67.3%. Favourable crisis resolution was associated with [OR (95%CI)]: orthopaedic as main diagnosis [2.00 (1.22-3.29)], Barthel score at admission higher than 40 points [2.00 (1.18-3.38)], and the absence of pressure ulcers at admission [2.80 (1.68-4.65)]. Conclusions: Patients presenting with an orthopaedic diagnosis, not having severe disability at admission, and not having pressure ulcers at admission could obtain better results on favourable crisis resolution. Suffering cognitive impairment or delirium, or being institutionalised, was not found related with less favourable results

7.
Oncoimmunology ; 8(6): e1593810, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31069160

RESUMO

Background. Immunotherapy has shown efficacy in small cell lung cancer (SCLC), but only a subset of patients benefits. Surrogate biomarkers are urgently needed. Our aim was to evaluate serum Th1, Th2, and proinflammatory cytokines in two cohorts of SCLC patients before and during treatment with chemotherapy with or without ipilimumab and to correlate them with survival. Patients and methods. Two cohorts of SCLC patients were studied: patients treated with chemotherapy (n = 47), and patients treated with chemotherapy plus ipilimumab (n = 37). Baseline, on-treatment and after-treatment serum samples were evaluated for the presence of IL-1beta, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha, GM-CSF, and Mip-1alpha using a Luminex assay. Differential changes in cytokines between cohorts were analyzed. Associations between cytokine levels and their changes with overall survival were evaluated. Results. Patients treated with ipilimumab showed a global increase of all cytokines after treatment initiation. A high level of IL-8 at baseline was associated with worse prognosis regardless of treatment. Baseline increased IL-2 levels predicted sensitivity to ipilimumab, while high IL-6 and TNF-alpha predicted resistance. An on-treatment increase in IL-4 levels in patients treated with immune-chemotherapy was associated with a better overall survival. Conclusions. The addition of ipilimumab to standard chemotherapy in SCLC modulates the serum levels of cytokines. Baseline levels and their change over time relate to overall survival. Blood-based biomarkers are convenient for patients, and our results support prospective validation of cytokines as predictive biomarkers for ipilimumab in SCLC.

8.
Oncotarget ; 10(33): 3114-3128, 2019 May 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31139324

RESUMO

Kidney transplant (KT) recipients are at greater risk of developing some cancers than the general population. Moreover, cancer is the only cause of death that is currently increasing after kidney transplantation. We analyzed incidence, risk factors and characteristics of post-transplant malignancies (solid organ tumors and lymphoproliferative disorders) at our center in 925 KT recipients (1979-2014). Sex differences were particularly assessed. One hundred and eight patients (11.7%) developed solid organ tumors (76.9%) or lymphoma (23.1%). Twenty-one percent of patients who reached 20 years after KT developed cancer, with a median post-KT time to diagnosis of 7.4 years. Most common solid organs affected were lung (30.1%), prostate (10.8%), bladder (9.6%), and native kidney (7.2%). When analyzing standardized incidence ratios (SIR) by gender compared to the general population, relative risk was increased in women (SIR = 1.81; 95%CI, 1.28-2.45) but not significantly increased in men (SIR = 1.22; 0.95-2.52). Regarding specific types, gynecological (SIR = 11.6; 4.2-22.7) and lung (SIR = 10.0; 4.3-18.2) in women, and bladder (SIR = 16.3; 5.9-32.1) in men were the most affected locations. Thymoglobulin, a polyclonal antibody that has been used as an immunosuppressive agent in kidney transplantation over the last decades, was a significant risk factor for developing cancer in adjusted regression analysis [IRR = 1.62, 1.02-2.57; p = 0.041], and was associated with lower patient survival. Compared with the general population, the incidence of post-KT non-skin cancer is almost two-fold higher in women but not significantly higher in men. Lung is the most common solid organ affected. Thymoglobulin induction therapy is associated with a greater risk.

11.
Rev Esp Geriatr Gerontol ; 54(3): 136-142, 2019.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30792139

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Several authors have demonstrated the efficacy of different hospital-at-home strategies in older patients. The identification of prognostic factors is key for improving the targeting process of candidates. METHODS: We performed an analysis of a cohort of older patients attended due to disabling health crises (medical, orthopaedics, or stroke) by a hospital-at-home scheme developed in an integrated care institution over a 5-year period. Main outcomes were: health crisis resolution (discharge to Primary Care); functional resolution (relative functional gain ≥35%), and their combined variable. A logistic regression analysis was performed, including clinical variables from Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment at admission to detect factors related to favourable outcomes. RESULTS: A total of 484 patients were included. The main characteristics were: age 84.4 (6.7), female gender 69%, baseline Barthel score 74.2 (22.6), family-private caregiver/nursing home 82%/18%, referral from hospital wards/emergency department-community in 55%/45%. The main results (for selected processes medical/orthopaedics/stroke) were: health crisis resolution 71.7/87.5/77.6%; functional resolution 72.1/84.9/73.5%; favourable crisis resolution (health crisis resolution with functional resolution) 67.1/81.6/67.3%. Favourable crisis resolution was associated with [OR (95%CI)]: orthopaedic as main diagnosis [2.00 (1.22-3.29)], Barthel score at admission higher than 40 points [2.00 (1.18-3.38)], and the absence of pressure ulcers at admission [2.80 (1.68-4.65)]. CONCLUSIONS: Patients presenting with an orthopaedic diagnosis, not having severe disability at admission, and not having pressure ulcers at admission could obtain better results on favourable crisis resolution. Suffering cognitive impairment or delirium, or being institutionalised, was not found related with less favourable results.

12.
Clin Nutr ; 38(1): 297-302, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29395371

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of malnutrition by applying the ASPEN/AND definition and the ESPEN consensus definition in a postacute-care population, and secondly, to determine the metrological properties of the set of six clinical characteristics that constitute the ASPEN/AND basic diagnosis, compared to the ESPEN consensus, based mostly on objective anthropometric measurements. METHODS: Prospective study of 84 consecutive deconditioned older inpatients (85.4 ± 6.2; 59.5% women) admitted for rehabilitation in postacute care. ASPEN/AND diagnosis of malnutrition was considered in presence of at least two of the following: low energy intake, fluid accumulation, diminished handgrip strength, and loss of weight, muscle mass, or subcutaneous fat. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, accuracy, likelihood ratios, and kappa statistics were calculated for ASPEN/AND criteria and compared with ESPEN consensus. RESULTS: The prevalence of malnutrition by ASPEN/AND criteria was 63.1% and by ESPEN consensus, 20.2%; both diagnoses were associated with significantly longer length of stay, but the ESPEN definition was significantly associated with poorer functional outcomes after the rehabilitation program. Compared to ESPEN consensus, ASPEN/AND diagnosis showed fair validity (sensitivity = 94.1%; specificity = 44.8%); kappa statistic was 2.217. CONCLUSIONS: Applying the ASPEN/AND definition obtained a higher prevalence of malnutrition in a postacute-care population than was identified by the ESPEN definition. ASPEN/AND criteria had fair validity and agreement compared with the ESPEN definition. A simple, evidence-based, unified malnutrition definition might improve geriatric care.

13.
Acta Derm Venereol ; 99(1): 33-40, 2019 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30176037

RESUMO

Pink flat skin lesions on the legs in elderly people represent a diagnostic challenge due to the paucity of clinical and dermoscopic evidence. A prospective study of 114 pink flat lesions on the legs of 85 elderly patients was performed to describe the utility of reflectance confocal microscopy in this clinical context. Evaluation of clinical, dermoscopic and confocal parameters and calculation of diagnostic accuracy/sensitivity/specificity for non-melanoma skin cancer diagnosis of each technique were carried out. Thirty-four benign and 80 malignant neoplasms were analysed. A correct clinical diagnosis was established in 49.1% of cases (sensitivity 68.7%, specificity 73.5%). Dermoscopy achieved 59.6% correct diagnosis (sensitivity 85%, specificity 67.6%) and confocal microscopy evaluation after clinical and dermoscopic evaluation rendered a correct diagnosis in 85.1% of cases (sensitivity 97.5%, specificity 88.2%). Confocal microscopy may improve diagnostic accuracy, sensitivity and specificity as a secondary evaluation after dermoscopy. A diagnostic confocal algorithm for pink flat lesions on the legs is proposed.


Assuntos
Dermoscopia , Microscopia Confocal/métodos , Dermatopatias/patologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia , Pele/patologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biópsia , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Prospectivos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Envelhecimento da Pele , Dermatopatias/etiologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/etiologia , Pigmentação da Pele , Luz Solar/efeitos adversos
14.
Acta Derm Venereol ; 99(1): 89-94, 2019 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30176040

RESUMO

Although desmoplasia has been associated with poor prognoses in cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma, little attention has been paid to the patterns of fibrosis. This study aimed to examine the different stromal fibrotic patterns as markers of metastatic risk. We performed a multicenter retrospective study that included 102 cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas (52 non-metastatic and 50 metastatic carcinomas). Clinical and histopathological data were registered. The fibrotic reaction pattern was classified as mature, intermediate or immature depending on the presence of keloid-like collagen and myxoid stroma. The immature pattern (areas characterized by myxoid changes with no inflammation) was observed in 18 samples and its presence was significantly associated with immunosuppression, budding, desmoplasia, perineural invasion, anatomic level, tumoural depth and metastatic risk in the multivariate analysis. Our findings suggest that the presence of an immature myxoid fibrotic pattern, which can be easily identified by routine hematoxylin-eosin staining, is strongly associated with metastatic risk.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/secundário , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia , Células Estromais/patologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biópsia , Corantes , Amarelo de Eosina-(YS) , Feminino , Fibrose , Hematoxilina , Humanos , Masculino , Fenótipo , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Espanha , Coloração e Rotulagem/métodos , Microambiente Tumoral
15.
Clin Nutr ; 38(6): 2652-2658, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30551898

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The European Society of Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism (ESPEN) has developed a consensus definition of malnutrition. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of malnutrition according to the ESPEN definition in otherwise healthy community-dwelling older women and to explore its value for predicting long-term mortality in this population. METHODS: This prospective population-based cohort study included 181 women (age ≥75 years) from a subsample of the EPIDémiologie de l'OStéoporose (EPIDOS) study participants from Toulouse. Inclusion criteria were the availability of the data on variables required to apply the ESPEN definition and survival after 7 years of follow-up. Primary outcome was mortality at 12-year follow-up; main covariates were malnutrition assessment according to the ESPEN consensus and its components (unintentional weight loss, BMI, and FFMI). Body composition was assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at baseline and at 7-year follow-up. Kaplan-Meier survival curves and adjusted Cox regressions were performed. Analysis was adjusted for age, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and coronary heart disease as potential confounders. RESULTS: Complete data were available for 179 of the 181 women in the EPIDOS-Toulouse cohort (83.1 ± 2.2 years) and 13 (7.3%) fulfilled the ESPEN definition for malnutrition at 7-year follow-up. Malnutrition was associated with increased risk of mortality (adjusted HR = 4.4 [95%CI: 1.7-11.3]). Among the ESPEN components, only BMI was associated with increased mortality (adjusted HR=0.6 [95%CI: 0.4-0.9]). CONCLUSIONS: Although malnutrition prevalence according to the ESPEN definition was relatively low (7.3%) in this sample of otherwise healthy community-dwelling older French women, malnutrition was associated with 4.4-fold higher mortality risk at 12-year follow-up.

16.
Int J Cardiol ; 276: 171-176, 2019 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30409739

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: An "obesity paradox" has been described in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF), obese patients having a better survival. Vasopressin is elevated in patients with CHF, and higher levels are associated with worsening severity of the disease. We aimed at evaluating the relationship between body mass index (BMI), obesity (BMI ≥30 kg/m2), and vasopressin in patients with CHF, as well as the prognostic implications of vasopressin across the full spectrum of BMI values. METHODS: We included 1132 consecutive CHF patients referred to a multidisciplinary CHF unit. BMI and vasopressin levels were measured at baseline, and their association was evaluated using multivariable linear and logistic regression models. Death was evaluated after a median follow-up of 2.93 years and using Cox regression analyses. RESULTS: Mean age was 73 years, 43% women, mean BMI 28 kg/m2. Vasopressin levels were independently associated with all-cause death across the whole spectrum of BMI values, and were significantly lower in obese as compared to non-obese patients (median adjusted estimated levels of log-vasopressin in obese patients 2.57 [95% CI 1.5-3.67], in non-obese patients 3.16 [95% CI 2.11-4.23]; p < 0.001). Also, the higher the BMI, the lower the vasopressin levels, at least for patients with BMI <35 kg/m2. Subgroup analyses stratifying by left ventricle ejection fraction and sensitivity analyses further adjusting for norepinephrin levels yielded similar findings. CONCLUSIONS: Reduced levels of vasopressin may represent an independent mechanism in the survival paradox in obese patients with CHF. Studies including larger samples of patients BMI ≥35 kg/m2 are needed.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca/sangue , Insuficiência Cardíaca/diagnóstico , Neurofisinas/sangue , Obesidade/sangue , Obesidade/diagnóstico , Precursores de Proteínas/sangue , Vasopressinas/sangue , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Doença Crônica , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Estudos Prospectivos
17.
Nutr Clin Pract ; 34(2): 304-312, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30070732

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Our study aimed to determine whether malnutrition and nutrition-related conditions using the European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism (ESPEN) consensus were associated with functional status, institutionalization, readmissions, and mortality in older patients at 3-month follow-up. METHODS: A cohort of 102 consecutive deconditioned patients was assessed at 3 months postdischarge from postacute geriatric care. Inclusion criteria were age ≥70 years, scores of Mini-Mental Status Examination ≥21/30, and being admitted for rehabilitation after an acute non-disabling disease. Malnutrition as defined by ESPEN consensus and nutrition-related conditions (such as frailty, sarcopenia, overweight/obesity, nutrient deficiency, and cachexia) was assessed, and related to postdischarge clinical outcomes at 3-month follow-up. RESULTS: Of 95 included patients (84.5 ± 6.5 years; 63.2% women), 31 had unintentional weight loss and 19 fulfilled malnutrition criteria defined by the ESPEN consensus. Nutrition-related conditions were frequent: 94 patients had frailty, 44 sarcopenia, 58 overweight/obesity, and 59 nutrient deficiency. Sarcopenia reduced functional status at 3-month follow-up (median difference: -25.5; 95% confidence interval (CI) -46.4 - -4.3, P = 0.008). Institutionalization was related to unintentional weight loss in univariate analysis (odds ratio (OR) = 3.9; 95%CI 1.3 - 12.4, P = 0.018). Meeting the basic ESPEN definition of malnutrition was related to institutionalization in univariate (OR = 3.4; 95%CI 1.0 to 11.3, P = 0.042) but not multivariate analysis, and was not significantly associated with readmissions or mortality at 3-month follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: Further research is needed on the potential value of the ESPEN consensus and guidelines for malnutrition to identify older patients at risk of worse functional status, institutionalization, readmissions, and mortality at 3-month follow-up postdischarge.


Assuntos
Desnutrição/mortalidade , Desnutrição/terapia , Avaliação de Resultados da Assistência ao Paciente , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Consenso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Readmissão do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Prognóstico
18.
Clin Nutr ; 38(5): 2180-2186, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30342931

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nutritional disorders are frequent in patients with chronic pulmonary obstructive disease (COPD) and have negative health impacts. This study aimed to explore the value of the European Society of Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism (ESPEN) definition of malnutrition (and/or its individual components) to predict hospitalizations and mortality at 2 years, and to determine the prevalence of malnutrition in COPD patients referred to pulmonary rehabilitation. METHODS: The study was a prospective analysis of 118 patients with COPD free of exacerbations and/or hospital admissions in the previous two months. Main outcome variables were mortality, hospital admissions, and length of stay at 2-year follow-up; main covariates were malnutrition assessment according to the ESPEN definition and its components: unintentional weight loss, body mass index, and fat-free mass index (FFMI). Body composition was assessed by bioimpedance analysis. Kaplan-Meier survival curves and linear regression analyses were performed, adjusting for age and airflow obstruction as potential confounders. RESULTS: The observed prevalence of malnutrition was 24.6%. Malnutrition was associated with increased mortality risk (HR = 3.9 [95% CI: 1.4-10.62]). FFMI was independently associated with increased mortality (HR = 17.0 [95% CI: 2.24-129.8]), which persisted after adjustment for age and lung function (adjusted HR = 13.0 [95% CI: 1.67-101.7]). Low age-related body mass index was associated with increased risk of hospital admissions. CONCLUSIONS: Malnutrition according to ESPEN criteria, highly prevalent in patients with stable COPD referred to pulmonary rehabilitation, was associated with 4 times greater mortality risk after 2 years. Low FFMI was associated with a 17-fold increase in mortality risk, suggesting independent predictive value.

19.
Nefrologia ; 2019 Dec 30.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31898989

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Resistant hypertension (RH) is a significant health problem with complex management. The aim of this study was to evaluate the risks and benefits of adding spironolactone to treat RH. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In total, 216 patients with RH in whom spironolactone (12.5-25mg daily) was added as an antihypertensive were evaluated. One-hundred and twenty-five (125) were analysed retrospectively and 91 prospectively. Blood pressure (BP) and laboratory parameters (serum creatinine [sCrea], estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR] and serum potassium [sK]) were analysed at baseline and at 3-6-12 months after introducing spironolactone. RESULTS: A change of systolic/diastolic BP (mean±standard deviation) of -10.9±2.7/-4.3±1.6mmHg at 3 months and -13.6±2.8/-6.0±1.6mmHg at 12 months; p<0.001 was observed. These values were confirmed with ambulatory-BP monitoring at 12 months. At 3 months, an increase in sCrea of 0.10±0.04mg/dl, a decrease in eGFR of -5.4±1.9ml/min/1.73m2 and an increase in sK of 0.3±0.1mmol/l; p<0.001 was observed for all cases. These changes were maintained after 12 months. There were no significant differences in changes of BP, sCrea, eGFR and sK between 3 and 12 months. Results of the retrospective and prospective cohorts separately were superimposable. In the prospective cohort, spironolactone was withdrawn in 9 patients (9.9%) because of adverse effects. CONCLUSIONS: After 3 months with spironolactone, a decrease in BP associated with a decrease in the eGFR and an increase in sCrea and sK was observed. These changes were maintained at 12 months. Spironolactone is an effective and safe treatment for RH in patients with baseline eGFR ≥30ml/min/1.73m2.

20.
BMC Syst Biol ; 12(Suppl 5): 97, 2018 11 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30458782

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: During the last decade, the interest to apply machine learning algorithms to genomic data has increased in many bioinformatics applications. Analyzing this type of data entails difficulties for managing high-dimensional data, class imbalance for knowledge extraction, identifying important features and classifying individuals. In this study, we propose a general framework to tackle these challenges with different machine learning algorithms and techniques. We apply the configuration of this framework on lung cancer patients, identifying genetic signatures for classifying response to drug treatment response. We intersect these relevant SNPs with the GWAS Catalog of the National Human Genome Research Institute and explore the Regulomedb, GTEx databases for functional analysis purposes. RESULTS: The machine learning based solution proposed in this study is a scalable and flexible alternative to the classical uni-variate regression approach to analyze large-scale data. From 36 experiments executed using the machine learning framework design, we obtain good classification performance from the top 5 models with the highest cross-validation score and the smallest standard deviation. One thousand two hundred twenty four SNPs corresponding to the key features from the top 20 models (cross validation F1 mean >= 0.65) were compared with the GWAS Catalog finding no intersection with genome-wide significant reported hits. From these, new genetic signatures in MAE, CEP104, PRKCZ and ADRB2 show relevant biological regulatory functionality related to lung physiology. CONCLUSIONS: We have defined a machine learning framework using data with an unbalanced large data-set of SNP-arrays and imputed genotyping data from a pharmacogenomics study in lung cancer patients subjected to first-line platinum-based treatment. This approach found genome signals with no genome-wide significance in the uni-variate regression approach (GWAS Catalog) that are valuable for classifying patients, only few of them with related biological function. The effect results of these variants can be explained by the recently proposed omnigenic model hypothesis, which states that complex traits can be influenced mostly by genes outside not only by the "core genes", mainly found by the genome-wide significant SNPs, but also by the rest of genes outside of the "core pathways" with apparent unrelated biological functionality.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Algoritmos , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genômica , Genótipo , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Aprendizado de Máquina , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
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