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1.
Hum Mol Genet ; 2021 Feb 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33527138

RESUMO

Sexual dimorphism in cancer incidence and outcome is widespread. Understanding the underlying mechanisms is fundamental to improve cancer prevention and clinical management. Sex disparities are particularly striking in kidney cancer: across diverse populations, men consistently show unexplained two-fold increased incidence and worse prognosis. We have characterized genome-wide expression and regulatory networks of 609 renal tumors and 256 non-tumor renal tissues. Normal kidney displayed sex-specific transcriptional signatures, including higher expression of X-linked tumor suppressor genes in women. Sex-dependent genotype-phenotype associations unraveled women-specific immune regulation. Sex differences were markedly expanded in tumors, with male-biased expression of key genes implicated in metabolism, non-malignant diseases with male predominance, and carcinogenesis, including markers of tumor infiltrating leukocytes. Analysis of sex-dependent RCC progression and survival uncovered prognostic markers involved in immune response and oxygen homeostasis. In summary, human kidney tissues display remarkable sexual dimorphism at the molecular level. Sex-specific transcriptional signatures further shape renal cancer, with relevance for clinical management.

2.
Cancers (Basel) ; 12(12)2020 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33260905

RESUMO

Somatic mutations in the telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) promoter regions are frequent events in urothelial cancer (UC) and their detection in urine (supernatant cell-free DNA or DNA from exfoliated cells) could serve as putative non-invasive biomarkers for UC detection and monitoring. However, detecting these tumor-borne mutations in urine requires highly sensitive methods, capable of measuring low-level mutations. In this study, we developed sensitive droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) assays for detecting TERT promoter mutations (C228T, C228A, CC242-243TT, and C250T). We tested the C228T and C250T ddPCR assays on all samples with sufficient quantity of urinary DNA (urine supernatant cell-free DNA (US cfDNA) or urine pellet cellular DNA (UP cellDNA)) from the DIAGURO (n = 89/93 cases and n = 92/94 controls) and from the IPO-PORTO (n = 49/50 cases and n = 50/50 controls) series that were previously screened with the UroMuTERT assay and compared the performance of the two approaches. In the DIAGURO series, the sensitivity and specificity of the ddPCR assays for detecting UC using either US cfDNA or UP cellDNA were 86.8% and 92.4%. The sensitivity was slightly higher than that of the UroMuTERT assay in the IPO-PORTO series (67.4% vs. 65.3%, respectively), but not in the DIAGURO series (86.8% vs. 90.7%). The specificity was 100% in the IPO-PORTO controls for both the UroMuTERT and ddPCR assays, whereas in the DIAGURO series, the specificity dropped for ddPCR (92.4% versus 95.6%). Overall, an almost perfect agreement between the two methods was observed for both US cfDNA (n = 164; kappa coefficient of 0.91) and UP cellDNA (n = 280; kappa coefficient of 0.94). In a large independent series of serial urine samples from DIAGURO follow-up BC cases (n = 394), the agreement between ddPCR and UroMuTERT was (i) strong (kappa coefficient of 0.87), regardless of urine DNA types (kappa coefficient 0.89 for US cfDNA and 0.85 for UP cellDNA), (ii) the highest for samples with mutant allelic fractions (MAFs) > 2% (kappa coefficient of 0.99) and (iii) only minimal for the samples with the lowest MAFs (< 0.5%; kappa coefficient 0.32). Altogether, our results indicate that the two methods (ddPCR and UroMuTERT) for detecting urinary TERT promoter mutations are comparable and that the discrepancies relate to the detection of low-allelic fraction mutations. The simplicity of the ddPCR assays makes them suitable for implementation in clinical settings.

3.
JHEP Rep ; 2(5): 100144, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32904132

RESUMO

Background & Aims: Although HBV is a major cause of death in Africa, its genetic variability has been poorly documented. This study aimed to address whether HBV genotype and surface gene variants are associated with HBV-related liver disease in The Gambia. Methods: We conducted a case-control study nested in the Prevention of Liver Fibrosis and Cancer in Africa programme. Consecutive treatment-naive patients with chronic HBV infection and detectable viral load were recruited: 211 controls with no significant liver disease and 91 cases (56 cirrhosis and 35 HCC cases). HBV genotypes and surface gene variants were determined by Sanger sequencing or next-generation sequencing (NGS) in serum DNA. Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1)-specific codon 249 TP53 mutation was determined by NGS in circulating cell-free plasma DNA. Results: In phylogenetic analysis, 85% of individuals carried HBV genotype E, 14% genotype A, and 1% A/E recombinant viruses. Surface gene variants were more frequently observed in cases (43% and 57% in cirrhosis and HCC cases, respectively) than controls (25%; p <0.001), with preS2 deletions between nucleotides 38-55 (preS2Δ38-55) being the main genetic variant detected. In multivariable analysis, HBeAg seropositivity, low HBsAg levels, and HDV seropositivity were significantly associated with cirrhosis and HCC, whilst older age, higher viral load, genotype A, preS2Δ38-55, and AFB1 exposure were only associated with HCC. There was a multiplicative joint effect of preS2Δ38-55 variants with HBeAg seropositivity (odds ratio [OR] 43.1 [10.4-177.7]), high viral load >2,000 IU/ml (OR 22.7 [8.0-64.9]), HBsAg levels <10,000 IU/ml (OR 19.0 [5.5-65.3]), and AFB1 exposure (OR 29.3 [3.7-230.4]) on HCC risk. Conclusions: This study identified a hotspot for HBV preS2 deletions as a strong independent factor for HCC in The Gambia, with HBV genotypes and AFB1 exposure contributing to the high liver cancer risk. Lay summary: Although HBV-related liver disease is highly prevalent in sub-Saharan Africa, the associated virological characteristics are poorly studied. Using clinical data from African patients chronically infected with HBV, an assessment of the virological variability (genotypes and mutations) and exposure to AFB1, a toxin often contaminating food, was carried out. Our results show that HBV genotypes, the presence of a highly prevalent mutant form of HBV, and AFB1 exposure contribute to the high liver cancer risk in this population.

4.
EBioMedicine ; 55: 102462, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32249202

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The DNA released into the bloodstream by malignant tumours· called circulating tumour DNA (ctDNA), is often a small fraction of total cell-free DNA shed predominantly by hematopoietic cells and is therefore challenging to detect. Understanding the biological properties of ctDNA is key to the investigation of its clinical relevance as a non-invasive marker for cancer detection and monitoring. METHODS: We selected 40 plasma DNA samples of pancreatic cancer cases previously reported to carry a KRAS mutation at the 'hotspot' codon 12 and re-screened the cell-free DNA using a 4-size amplicons strategy (57 bp, 79 bp, 167 bp and 218 bp) combined with ultra-deep sequencing in order to investigate whether amplicon lengths could impact on the capacity of detection of ctDNA, which in turn could provide inference of ctDNA and non-malignant cell-free DNA size distribution. FINDINGS: Higher KRAS amplicon size (167 bp and 218 bp) was associated with lower detectable cell-free DNA mutant allelic fractions (p < 0·0001), with up to 4·6-fold (95% CI: 2·6-8·1) difference on average when comparing the 218bp- and the 57bp-amplicons. The proportion of cases with detectable KRAS mutations was also hampered with increased amplicon lengths, with only half of the cases having detectable ctDNA using the 218 bp assay relative to those detected with amplicons less than 80 bp. INTERPRETATION: Tumour-derived mutations are carried by shorter cell-free DNA fragments than fragments of wild-type allele. Targeting short amplicons increases the sensitivity of cell-free DNA assays for pancreatic cancer and should be taken into account for optimized assay design and for evaluating their clinical performance. FUNDING: IARC; MH CZ - DRO; MH SK; exchange program between IARC and Sao Paulo medical Sciences; French Cancer League.

5.
EBioMedicine ; 53: 102643, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32081602

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Detecting pre-clinical bladder cancer (BC) using urinary biomarkers may provide a valuable opportunity for screening and management. Telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) promoter mutations detectable in urine have emerged as promising BC biomarkers. METHODS: We performed a nested case-control study within the population-based prospective Golestan Cohort Study (50,045 participants, followed up to 14 years) and assessed TERT promoter mutations in baseline urine samples from 38 asymptomatic individuals who subsequently developed primary BC and 152 matched controls using a Next-Generation Sequencing-based single-plex assay (UroMuTERT) and droplet digital PCR assays. FINDINGS: Results were obtained for 30 cases and 101 controls. TERT promoter mutations were detected in 14 pre-clinical cases (sensitivity 46·67%) and none of the controls (specificity 100·00%). At an estimated BC cumulative incidence of 0·09% in the cohort, the positive and negative predictive values were 100·00% and 99·95% respectively. The mutant allelic fractions decreased with the time interval from urine collection until BC diagnosis (p = 0·033) but the mutations were detectable up to 10 years prior to clinical diagnosis. INTERPRETATION: Our results provide the first evidence from a population-based prospective cohort study of the potential of urinary TERT promoter mutations as promising non-invasive biomarkers for early detection of BC. Further studies should validate this finding and assess their clinical utility in other longitudinal cohorts. FUNDING: French Cancer League, World Cancer Research Fund International, Cancer Research UK, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, the International Agency for Research on Cancer, and the U.S. National Cancer Institute.

6.
J Virol ; 94(3)2020 01 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31694959

RESUMO

Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV) is the first human polyomavirus etiologically associated with Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC), a rare and aggressive form of skin cancer. Similar to other polyomaviruses, MCPyV encodes early T antigen genes, viral oncogenes required for MCC tumor growth. To identify the unique oncogenic properties of MCPyV, we analyzed the gene expression profiles in human spontaneously immortalized keratinocytes (NIKs) expressing the early genes from six distinct human polyomaviruses (PyVs), including MCPyV. A comparison of the gene expression profiles revealed 28 genes specifically deregulated by MCPyV. In particular, the MCPyV early gene downregulated the expression of the tumor suppressor gene N-myc downstream-regulated gene 1 (NDRG1) in MCPyV gene-expressing NIKs and hTERT-MCPyV gene-expressing human keratinocytes (HK) compared to their expression in the controls. In MCPyV-positive MCC cells, the expression of NDRG1 was downregulated by the MCPyV early gene, as T antigen knockdown rescued the level of NDRG1. In addition, NDRG1 overexpression in hTERT-MCPyV gene-expressing HK or MCC cells resulted in a decrease in the number of cells in S phase and cell proliferation inhibition. Moreover, a decrease in wound healing capacity in hTERT-MCPyV gene-expressing HK was observed. Further analysis revealed that NDRG1 exerts its biological effect in Merkel cell lines by regulating the expression of the cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2) and cyclin D1 proteins. Overall, NDRG1 plays an important role in MCPyV-induced cellular proliferation.IMPORTANCE Merkel cell carcinoma was first described in 1972 as a neuroendocrine tumor of skin, most cases of which were reported in 2008 to be caused by a PyV named Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV), the first PyV linked to human cancer. Thereafter, numerous studies have been conducted to understand the etiology of this virus-induced carcinogenesis. However, it is still a new field, and much work is needed to understand the molecular pathogenesis of MCC. In the current work, we sought to identify the host genes specifically deregulated by MCPyV, as opposed to other PyVs, in order to better understand the relevance of the genes analyzed on the biological impact and progression of the disease. These findings open newer avenues for targeted drug therapies, thereby providing hope for the management of patients suffering from this highly aggressive cancer.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/genética , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/metabolismo , Movimento Celular/genética , Proliferação de Células/genética , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/genética , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/metabolismo , Poliomavírus das Células de Merkel/genética , Poliomavírus das Células de Merkel/fisiologia , Antígenos Virais de Tumores/genética , Antígenos Virais de Tumores/metabolismo , Carcinogênese/genética , Carcinoma de Célula de Merkel/virologia , Linhagem Celular , Regulação para Baixo , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Regulação Viral da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Queratinócitos/virologia , Infecções por Polyomavirus/virologia , Pele/patologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/genética , Transcriptoma , Infecções Tumorais por Vírus/virologia
7.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 27(10): 1589-1598, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31231134

RESUMO

Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) has an undisputed genetic component and a stable 2:1 male to female sex ratio in its incidence across populations, suggesting possible sexual dimorphism in its genetic susceptibility. We conducted the first sex-specific genome-wide association analysis of RCC for men (3227 cases, 4916 controls) and women (1992 cases, 3095 controls) of European ancestry from two RCC genome-wide scans and replicated the top findings using an additional series of men (2261 cases, 5852 controls) and women (1399 cases, 1575 controls) from two independent cohorts of European origin. Our study confirmed sex-specific associations for two known RCC risk loci at 14q24.2 (DPF3) and 2p21(EPAS1). We also identified two additional suggestive male-specific loci at 6q24.3 (SAMD5, male odds ratio (ORmale) = 0.83 [95% CI = 0.78-0.89], Pmale = 1.71 × 10-8 compared with female odds ratio (ORfemale) = 0.98 [95% CI = 0.90-1.07], Pfemale = 0.68) and 12q23.3 (intergenic, ORmale = 0.75 [95% CI = 0.68-0.83], Pmale = 1.59 × 10-8 compared with ORfemale = 0.93 [95% CI = 0.82-1.06], Pfemale = 0.21) that attained genome-wide significance in the joint meta-analysis. Herein, we provide evidence of sex-specific associations in RCC genetic susceptibility and advocate the necessity of larger genetic and genomic studies to unravel the endogenous causes of sex bias in sexually dimorphic traits and diseases like RCC.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Renais/epidemiologia , Carcinoma de Células Renais/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Neoplasias Renais/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Renais/genética , Biologia Computacional , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Razão de Chances , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Fatores Sexuais
8.
EBioMedicine ; 44: 431-438, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31122840

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recurrent mutations in the promoter of the telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) gene (C228T and C250T) detected in tumours and cells shed into urine of urothelial cancer (UC) patients are putative biomarkers for UC detection and monitoring. However, the possibility of detecting these mutations in cell-free circulating DNA (cfDNA) in blood and urine, or DNA from urinary exfoliated cells (cellDNA) with a single-gene sensitive assay has never been tested in a case-control setting. METHODS: We developed a single-plex assay (UroMuTERT) for the detection of low-abundance TERT promoter mutations. We tested 93 primary and recurrent UC cases and 94 controls recruited in France (blood, urine samples and tumours for the cases), and 50 primary UC cases and 50 controls recruited in Portugal (urinary exfoliated cell samples). We compared our assay with urine cytology. FINDINGS: In the French series, C228T or C250T were detected in urinary cfDNA or cellDNA in 81 cases (87·1%; 95% CI 78·6-93·2), and five controls (Specificity 94·7%; 95%CI 88·0-98·3), with 98·6% (95% CI 92·5-99·96) concordance in matched tumours. Detection rate in plasma cfDNA among cases was 7·1%. The UroMuTERT sensitivity was (i) highest for urinary cfDNA and cellDNA combined, (ii) consistent across primary and recurrent cases, tumour stages and grades, (iii) higher for low-risk non-muscle invasive UC (86·1%) than urine cytology (23·0%) (P < 0·0001) and (iv) 93·9% when combined with cytology. In the Portuguese series - the sensitivity and specificity for detection of UC with urinary cellDNA was 68·0% (95% CI 53·3-80·5) and 98·0% (95% CI 89·3-100·0). INTERPRETATION: TERT promoter mutations detected by the UroMuTERT assay in urinary DNA (cfDNA or cellDNA) show excellent sensitivity and specificity for the detection of UC, significantly outperforming that of urine cytology notably for detection of low-grade early stages UC. FUND: French Cancer League; French Foster Research in Molecular Biology and European Commission FP7 Marie Curie COFUND.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais , Mutação , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Telomerase/genética , Neoplasias Urológicas/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Algoritmos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , DNA Tumoral Circulante , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Gerenciamento Clínico , Feminino , Humanos , Biópsia Líquida , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Neoplasias Urológicas/diagnóstico
9.
J Virol ; 93(13)2019 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30996097

RESUMO

The histone modifier lysine (K)-specific demethylase 2B (KDM2B) plays a role in the differentiation of hematopoietic cells, and its expression appears to be deregulated in certain cancers of hematological and lymphoid origins. We have previously found that the KDM2B gene is differentially methylated in cell lines derived from Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated endemic Burkitt lymphoma (eBL) compared with that in EBV-negative sporadic Burkitt lymphoma-derived cells. However, whether KDM2B plays a role in eBL development has not been previously investigated. Oncogenic viruses have been shown to hijack the host cell epigenome to complete their life cycle and to promote the transformation process by perturbing cell chromatin organization. Here, we investigated whether EBV alters KDM2B levels to enable its life cycle and promote B-cell transformation. We show that infection of B cells with EBV leads to downregulation of KDM2B levels. We also show that LMP1, one of the main EBV transforming proteins, induces increased DNMT1 recruitment to the KDM2B gene and augments its methylation. By altering KDM2B levels and performing chromatin immunoprecipitation in EBV-infected B cells, we show that KDM2B is recruited to the EBV gene promoters and inhibits their expression. Furthermore, forced KDM2B expression in immortalized B cells led to altered mRNA levels of some differentiation-related genes. Our data show that EBV deregulates KDM2B levels through an epigenetic mechanism and provide evidence for a role of KDM2B in regulating virus and host cell gene expression, warranting further investigations to assess the role of KDM2B in the process of EBV-mediated lymphomagenesis.IMPORTANCE In Africa, Epstein-Barr virus infection is associated with endemic Burkitt lymphoma, a pediatric cancer. The molecular events leading to its development are poorly understood compared with those leading to sporadic Burkitt lymphoma. In a previous study, by analyzing the DNA methylation changes in endemic compared with sporadic Burkitt lymphoma cell lines, we identified several differential methylated genomic positions in the proximity of genes with a potential role in cancer, and among them was the KDM2B gene. KDM2B encodes a histone H3 demethylase already shown to be involved in some hematological disorders. However, whether KDM2B plays a role in the development of Epstein-Barr virus-mediated lymphoma has not been investigated before. In this study, we show that Epstein-Barr virus deregulates KDM2B expression and describe the underlying mechanisms. We also reveal a role of the demethylase in controlling viral and B-cell gene expression, thus highlighting a novel interaction between the virus and the cellular epigenome.


Assuntos
Epigênese Genética , Infecções por Vírus Epstein-Barr/metabolismo , Proteínas F-Box/genética , Proteínas F-Box/metabolismo , Herpesvirus Humano 4/fisiologia , Histona Desmetilases com o Domínio Jumonji/genética , Histona Desmetilases com o Domínio Jumonji/metabolismo , Adolescente , Adulto , Linfócitos B/virologia , Linfoma de Burkitt/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Cromatina/metabolismo , Imunoprecipitação da Cromatina , Metilação de DNA , Regulação para Baixo , Infecções por Vírus Epstein-Barr/genética , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
10.
PLoS One ; 13(1): e0191701, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29377909

RESUMO

We investigated how somatic changes in HNSCC interact with environmental and host risk factors and whether they influence the risk of HNSCC occurrence and outcome. 180-paired samples diagnosed as HNSCC in two high incidence regions of Europe and South America underwent targeted sequencing (14 genes) and evaluation of copy number alterations (SCNAs). TP53, PIK3CA, NOTCH1, TP63 and CDKN2A were the most frequently mutated genes. Cases were characterized by a low copy number burden with recurrent focal amplification in 11q13.3 and deletion in 15q22. Cases with low SCNAs showed an improved overall survival. We found significant correlations with decreased overall survival between focal amplified regions 4p16, 10q22 and 22q11, and losses in 12p12, 15q14 and 15q22. The mutational landscape in our cases showed an association to both environmental exposures and clinical characteristics. We confirmed that somatic copy number alterations are an important predictor of HNSCC overall survival.


Assuntos
Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Cromossomos Humanos , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Feminino , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/genética , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise de Sobrevida , Adulto Jovem
11.
Brain Pathol ; 28(1): 94-102, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27935156

RESUMO

We report a novel CASP9 germline mutation that may increase susceptibility to the development of brain tumors. We identified this mutation in a family in which three brain tumors had developed within three generations, including two anaplastic astrocytomas occurring in cousins. The cousins were diagnosed at similar ages (29 and 31 years), and their tumors showed similar histological features. Genetic analysis revealed somatic IDH1 and TP53 mutations in both tumors. However, no germline TP53 mutations were detected, despite the fact that this family fulfills the criteria of Li-Fraumeni-like syndrome. Whole exome sequencing revealed a germline stop-gain mutation (R65X) in the CASP9 gene, which encodes caspase-9, a key molecule for the p53-dependent mitochondrial death pathway. This mutation was also detected in DNA extracted from blood samples from the two siblings who were each a parent of one of the affected cousins. Caspase-9 immunohistochemistry showed the absence of caspase-9 immunoreactivity in the anaplastic astrocytomas and normal brain tissues of the cousins. These observations suggest that CASP9 germline mutations may have played a role at least in part to the susceptibility of development of gliomas in this Li-Fraumeni-like family lacking a TP53 germline mutation.


Assuntos
Astrocitoma/genética , Neoplasias Encefálicas/genética , Caspase 9/genética , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Adulto , Astrocitoma/patologia , Astrocitoma/terapia , Encéfalo/patologia , Neoplasias Encefálicas/patologia , Neoplasias Encefálicas/terapia , Família , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos
12.
Int J Cancer ; 141(10): 2014-2029, 2017 11 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28722770

RESUMO

Previous studies have revealed a robust association between exposure to asbestos and human lung cancer. Accumulating evidence has highlighted the role of epigenome deregulation in the mechanism of carcinogen-induced malignancies. We examined the impact of asbestos on DNA methylation. Our genome-wide studies (using Illumina HumanMethylation450K BeadChip) of lung cancer tissue and paired normal lung from 28 asbestos-exposed or non-exposed patients, mostly smokers, revealed distinctive DNA methylation changes. We identified a number of differentially methylated regions (DMR) and differentially variable, differentially methylated CpGs (DVMC), with individual CpGs further validated by pyrosequencing in an independent series of 91 non-small cell lung cancer and paired normal lung. We discovered and validated BEND4, ZSCAN31 and GPR135 as significantly hypermethylated in lung cancer. DMRs in genes such as RARB (FDR 1.1 × 10-19 , mean change in beta [Δ] -0.09), GPR135 (FDR 1.87 × 10-8 , mean Δ -0.09) and TPO (FDR 8.58 × 10-5 , mean Δ -0.11), and DVMCs in NPTN, NRG2, GLT25D2 and TRPC3 (all with p <0.05, t-test) were significantly associated with asbestos exposure status in exposed versus non-exposed lung tumors. Hypomethylation was characteristic to DVMCs in lung cancer tissue from asbestos-exposed subjects. When DVMCs related to asbestos or smoking were analyzed, 96% of the elements were unique to either of the exposures, consistent with the concept that the methylation changes in tumors may be specific for risk factors. In conclusion, we identified novel DNA methylation changes associated with lung tumors and asbestos exposure, suggesting that changes may be present in causal pathway from asbestos exposure to lung cancer.


Assuntos
Asbestos/efeitos adversos , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Metilação de DNA , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Neoplasias Pulmonares/etiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Ilhas de CpG , Epigênese Genética , Seguimentos , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Masculino , Prognóstico
13.
Sci Rep ; 7(1): 5852, 2017 07 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28724958

RESUMO

Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) was identified as the first human virus to be associated with a human malignancy, Burkitt's lymphoma (BL), a pediatric cancer endemic in sub-Saharan Africa. The exact mechanism of how EBV contributes to the process of lymphomagenesis is not fully understood. Recent studies have highlighted a genetic difference between endemic (EBV+) and sporadic (EBV-) BL, with the endemic variant showing a lower somatic mutation load, which suggests the involvement of an alternative virally-driven process of transformation in the pathogenesis of endemic BL. We tested the hypothesis that a global change in DNA methylation may be induced by infection with EBV, possibly thereby accounting for the lower mutation load observed in endemic BL. Our comparative analysis of the methylation profiles of a panel of BL derived cell lines, naturally infected or not with EBV, revealed that the presence of the virus is associated with a specific pattern of DNA methylation resulting in altered expression of cellular genes with a known or potential role in lymphomagenesis. These included ID3, a gene often found to be mutated in sporadic BL. In summary this study provides evidence that EBV may contribute to the pathogenesis of BL through an epigenetic mechanism.


Assuntos
Linfoma de Burkitt/genética , Linfoma de Burkitt/virologia , Epigênese Genética , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Herpesvirus Humano 4/fisiologia , Linfoma de Burkitt/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Ilhas de CpG/genética , Metilação de DNA/genética , Regulação para Baixo/genética , Inativação Gênica , Humanos , Proteínas Inibidoras de Diferenciação/metabolismo , Mutação/genética , Proteínas de Neoplasias/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Proteínas da Matriz Viral/metabolismo
14.
Nat Commun ; 8: 15724, 2017 06 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28598434

RESUMO

Previous genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified six risk loci for renal cell carcinoma (RCC). We conducted a meta-analysis of two new scans of 5,198 cases and 7,331 controls together with four existing scans, totalling 10,784 cases and 20,406 controls of European ancestry. Twenty-four loci were tested in an additional 3,182 cases and 6,301 controls. We confirm the six known RCC risk loci and identify seven new loci at 1p32.3 (rs4381241, P=3.1 × 10-10), 3p22.1 (rs67311347, P=2.5 × 10-8), 3q26.2 (rs10936602, P=8.8 × 10-9), 8p21.3 (rs2241261, P=5.8 × 10-9), 10q24.33-q25.1 (rs11813268, P=3.9 × 10-8), 11q22.3 (rs74911261, P=2.1 × 10-10) and 14q24.2 (rs4903064, P=2.2 × 10-24). Expression quantitative trait analyses suggest plausible candidate genes at these regions that may contribute to RCC susceptibility.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Renais/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Neoplasias Renais/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Feminino , Loci Gênicos , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Adulto Jovem
15.
BMC Cancer ; 17(1): 328, 2017 05 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28499365

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Genetic factors may influence an individual's sensitivity to ionising radiation and therefore modify his/her risk of developing papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). Previously, we reported that common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the DNA damage recognition gene ATM contribute to PTC risk in Belarusian children exposed to fallout from the Chernobyl power plant accident. Here we explored in the same population the contribution of a panel of DNA repair-related SNPs in genes acting downstream of ATM. METHODS: The association of 141 SNPs located in 43 DNA repair genes was examined in 75 PTC cases and 254 controls from the Gomel region in Belarus. All subjects were younger than 15 years at the time of the Chernobyl accident. Conditional logistic regressions accounting for radiation dose were performed with PLINK using the additive allelic inheritance model, and a linkage disequilibrium (LD)-based Bonferroni correction was used for correction for multiple testing. RESULTS: The intronic SNP rs2296675 in MGMT was associated with an increased PTC risk [per minor allele odds ratio (OR) 2.54 95% CI 1.50, 4.30, P per allele = 0.0006, P corr.= 0.05], and gene-wide association testing highlighted a possible role for ERCC5 (P Gene = 0.01) and PCNA (P Gene = 0.05) in addition to MGMT (P Gene = 0.008). CONCLUSIONS: These findings indicate that several genes acting in distinct DNA repair mechanisms contribute to PTC risk. Further investigation is needed to decipher the functional properties of the methyltransferase encoded by MGMT and to understand how alteration of such functions may lead to the development of the most common type of thyroid cancer.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Papilar/genética , Acidente Nuclear de Chernobyl , Metilases de Modificação do DNA/genética , Enzimas Reparadoras do DNA/genética , Reparo do DNA/genética , Neoplasias Induzidas por Radiação/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/genética , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/genética , Proteínas Mutadas de Ataxia Telangiectasia/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Desequilíbrio de Ligação/genética , Masculino , Radiação Ionizante , República de Belarus , Câncer Papilífero da Tireoide
16.
Eur J Cancer ; 75: 299-307, 2017 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28259012

RESUMO

AIM OF THE STUDY: A vast majority of human malignancies are associated with ageing, and age is a strong predictor of cancer risk. Recently, DNA methylation-based marker of ageing, known as 'epigenetic clock', has been linked with cancer risk factors. This study aimed to evaluate whether the epigenetic clock is associated with breast cancer risk susceptibility and to identify potential epigenetics-based biomarkers for risk stratification. METHODS: Here, we profiled DNA methylation changes in a nested case-control study embedded in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort (n = 960) using the Illumina HumanMethylation 450K BeadChip arrays and used the Horvath age estimation method to calculate epigenetic age for these samples. Intrinsic epigenetic age acceleration (IEAA) was estimated as the residuals by regressing epigenetic age on chronological age. RESULTS: We observed an association between IEAA and breast cancer risk (OR, 1.04; 95% CI, 1.007-1.076, P = 0.016). One unit increase in IEAA was associated with a 4% increased odds of developing breast cancer (OR, 1.04; 95% CI, 1.007-1.076). Stratified analysis based on menopausal status revealed that IEAA was associated with development of postmenopausal breast cancers (OR, 1.07; 95% CI, 1.020-1.11, P = 0.003). In addition, methylome-wide analyses revealed that a higher mean DNA methylation at cytosine-phosphate-guanine (CpG) islands was associated with increased risk of breast cancer development (OR per 1 SD = 1.20; 95 %CI: 1.03-1.40, P = 0.02) whereas mean methylation levels at non-island CpGs were indistinguishable between cancer cases and controls. CONCLUSION: Epigenetic age acceleration and CpG island methylation have a weak, but statistically significant, association with breast cancer susceptibility.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Metilação de DNA/genética , Epigênese Genética/genética , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Metilação de DNA/fisiologia , Epigenômica , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pós-Menopausa/genética
17.
Oncotarget ; 7(48): 78827-78840, 2016 Nov 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27705932

RESUMO

The utility of KRAS mutations in plasma circulating cell-free DNA (cfDNA) samples as non-invasive biomarkers for the detection of pancreatic cancer has never been evaluated in a large case-control series. We applied a KRAS amplicon-based deep sequencing strategy combined with analytical pipeline specifically designed for the detection of low-abundance mutations to screen plasma samples of 437 pancreatic cancer cases, 141 chronic pancreatitis subjects, and 394 healthy controls. We detected mutations in 21.1% (N=92) of cases, of whom 82 (89.1%) carried at least one mutation at hotspot codons 12, 13 or 61, with mutant allelic fractions from 0.08% to 79%. Advanced stages were associated with an increased proportion of detection, with KRAS cfDNA mutations detected in 10.3%, 17,5% and 33.3% of cases with local, regional and systemic stages, respectively. We also detected KRAS cfDNA mutations in 3.7% (N=14) of healthy controls and in 4.3% (N=6) of subjects with chronic pancreatitis, but at significantly lower allelic fractions than in cases. Combining cfDNA KRAS mutations and CA19-9 plasma levels on a limited set of case-control samples did not improve the overall performance of the biomarkers as compared to CA19-9 alone. Whether the limited sensitivity and specificity observed in our series of KRAS mutations in plasma cfDNA as biomarkers for pancreatic cancer detection are attributable to methodological limitations or to the biology of cfDNA should be further assessed in large case-control series.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/genética , DNA Tumoral Circulante/genética , Mutação , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas p21(ras)/genética , Idoso , Biomarcadores Tumorais/sangue , Antígeno CA-19-9/sangue , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/sangue , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/patologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , DNA Tumoral Circulante/sangue , República Tcheca , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Feminino , Frequência do Gene , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/sangue , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patologia , Fenótipo , Projetos Piloto , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas p21(ras)/sangue , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Eslováquia
18.
Sci Rep ; 6: 31628, 2016 08 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27545006

RESUMO

To examine the diversity of somatic alterations and clonal evolution according to aggressiveness of disease, nineteen tumor-blood pairs of 'formerly bronchiolo-alveolar carcinoma (BAC)' which had been reclassified into preinvasive lesion (adenocarcinoma in situ; AIS), focal invasive lesion (minimally invasive adenocarcinoma; MIA), and invasive lesion (lepidic predominant adenocarcinoma; LPA and non-lepidic predominant adenocarcinoma; non-LPA) according to IASLC/ATS/ERS 2011 classification were explored by whole exome sequencing. Several distinct somatic alterations were observed compare to the lung adenocarcinoma study from the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). There were higher numbers of tumors with significant APOBEC mutation fold enrichment (73% vs. 58% TCGA). The frequency of KRAS mutations was lower in our study (5% vs. 32% TCGA), while a higher number of mutations of RNA-splicing genes, RBM10 and U2AF1, were found (37% vs. 11% TCGA). We found neither mutational pattern nor somatic copy number alterations that were specific to AIS/MIA. We demonstrated that clonal cell fraction was the only distinctive feature that discriminated LPA/non-LPA from AIS/MIA. The broad range of clonal frequency signified a more branched clonal evolution at the time of diagnosis. Assessment of tumor clonal cell fraction might provide critical information for individualized therapy as a prognostic factor, however this needs further study.


Assuntos
Desaminases APOBEC/genética , Adenocarcinoma/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Mutação , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas p21(ras)/genética , Adenocarcinoma/patologia , Adenocarcinoma/terapia , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/terapia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Invasividade Neoplásica
19.
J Med Genet ; 53(5): 298-309, 2016 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26921362

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: BRCA1 interacting protein C-terminal helicase 1 (BRIP1) is one of the Fanconi Anaemia Complementation (FANC) group family of DNA repair proteins. Biallelic mutations in BRIP1 are responsible for FANC group J, and previous studies have also suggested that rare protein truncating variants in BRIP1 are associated with an increased risk of breast cancer. These studies have led to inclusion of BRIP1 on targeted sequencing panels for breast cancer risk prediction. METHODS: We evaluated a truncating variant, p.Arg798Ter (rs137852986), and 10 missense variants of BRIP1, in 48 144 cases and 43 607 controls of European origin, drawn from 41 studies participating in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC). Additionally, we sequenced the coding regions of BRIP1 in 13 213 cases and 5242 controls from the UK, 1313 cases and 1123 controls from three population-based studies as part of the Breast Cancer Family Registry, and 1853 familial cases and 2001 controls from Australia. RESULTS: The rare truncating allele of rs137852986 was observed in 23 cases and 18 controls in Europeans in BCAC (OR 1.09, 95% CI 0.58 to 2.03, p=0.79). Truncating variants were found in the sequencing studies in 34 cases (0.21%) and 19 controls (0.23%) (combined OR 0.90, 95% CI 0.48 to 1.70, p=0.75). CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that truncating variants in BRIP1, and in particular p.Arg798Ter, are not associated with a substantial increase in breast cancer risk. Such observations have important implications for the reporting of results from breast cancer screening panels.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Mutação , RNA Helicases/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Estudos de Coortes , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Proteínas de Grupos de Complementação da Anemia de Fanconi , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Risco
20.
Oncotarget ; 6(42): 44877-91, 2015 Dec 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26565721

RESUMO

Viral infections are able to modify the host's cellular programs, with DNA methylation being a biological intermediate in this process. The extent to which viral infections deregulate gene expression and DNA methylation is not fully understood. In the case of Hepatitis B virus (HBV), there is evidence for an interaction between viral proteins and the host DNA methylation machinery. We studied the ability of HBV to modify the host transcriptome and methylome, using naturally infected primary human hepatocytes to better mimic the clinical setting.Gene expression was especially sensitive to culture conditions, independently of HBV infection. However, we identified non-random changes in gene expression and DNA methylation occurring specifically upon HBV infection. There was little correlation between expression and methylation changes, with transcriptome being a more sensitive marker of time-dependent changes induced by HBV. In contrast, a set of differentially methylated sites appeared early and were stable across the time course experiment. Finally, HBV-induced DNA methylation changes were defined by a specific chromatin context characterized by CpG-poor regions outside of gene promoters.These data support the ability of HBV to modulate host cell expression and methylation programs. In addition, it may serve as a reference for studies addressing the genome-wide consequences of HBV infection in human hepatocytes.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Genômica/métodos , Vírus da Hepatite B/patogenicidade , Hepatite B/genética , Hepatócitos/metabolismo , Células Cultivadas , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Hepatite B/virologia , Hepatócitos/virologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Humanos , Cultura Primária de Células , Fatores de Tempo , Transcriptoma
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