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1.
J Immunother Cancer ; 11(1)2023 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36599469

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Groundbreaking studies have linked the gut microbiome with immune homeostasis and antitumor immune responses. Mounting evidence has also demonstrated an intratumoral microbiome, including in soft tissue sarcomas (STS), although detailed characterization of the STS intratumoral microbiome is limited. We sought to characterize the intratumoral microbiome in patients with STS undergoing preoperative radiotherapy and surgery, hypothesizing the presence of a distinct intratumoral microbiome with potentially clinically significant microbial signatures. METHODS: We prospectively obtained tumor and stool samples from adult patients with non-metastatic STS using a strict sterile collection protocol to minimize contamination. Metagenomic classification was used to estimate abundance using genus and species taxonomic levels across all classified organisms, and data were analyzed with respect to clinicopathologic factors. RESULTS: Fifteen patients were enrolled. Most tumors were located at an extremity (67%) and were histologic grade 3 (87%). 40% were well-differentiated/dedifferentiated liposarcoma histology. With a median follow-up of 24 months, 4 (27%) patients developed metastases, and 3 (20%) died. Despite overwhelming human DNA (>99%) intratumorally, we detected a small but consistent proportion of bacterial DNA (0.02-0.03%) in all tumors, including Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Firmicutes, as well as viral species. In the tumor microenvironment, we observed a strong positive correlation between viral relative abundance and natural killer (NK) infiltration, and higher NK infiltration was associated with superior metastasis-free and overall survival by immunohistochemical, flow cytometry, and multiplex immunofluorescence analyses. CONCLUSIONS: We prospectively demonstrate the presence of a distinct and measurable intratumoral microbiome in patients with STS at multiple time points. Our data suggest that the STS tumor microbiome has prognostic significance with viral relative abundance associated with NK infiltration and oncologic outcome. Additional studies are warranted to further assess the clinical impact of these findings.


Assuntos
Sarcoma , Neoplasias de Tecidos Moles , Adulto , Humanos , Viroma , Sarcoma/genética , Prognóstico , Extremidades/patologia , Células Matadoras Naturais , Microambiente Tumoral
2.
Front Genet ; 13: 1072853, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36561310

RESUMO

Milk production by dairy cows is sensitive to increased levels of stress hormones such as glucocorticoids (GC) that also regulate the transcription of several genes required for milk synthesis. Whereas previous studies identified that an exogenous GC such as dexamethasone (DEX) transiently suppresses milk yield in several species without any pronounced effect on milk protein or fat percentage, the mechanism underlying this effect has not been established. In this study we sought to establish changes within the mammary glands of non-pregnant dairy cows in their second lactation (n = 3-4; 648-838 kg) following a single dose of exogenous DEX. Changes in the udder were monitored by serial biopsy of alternating quarters, concurrent with quarter-level monitoring of milk yield and composition. Dexamethasone increased serum glucose levels from 12-36 h (p <0 .05), reduced milk yield from 12-48 h (p <0 .05), increased % milk protein content at 24 h post-DEX, and transiently decreased both milk lactose and α-lactalbumin content, while not altering the level of milk fat. After 72 h, all aspects of milk production had returned to pre-treatment levels. Transcriptomic changes in the mammary glands in response to DEX were identified by RNA sequencing followed by differential gene expression analysis. Coincident with the milk yield and composition changes was the differential expression of 519 and 320 genes at 12 and 24 h after DEX (adjusted p <0 .05), respectively, with the return of all gene expression to baseline levels by 72 h. Among the transcriptomic changes in response to DEX, there was notable downregulation of elements in the lactose synthesis pathway, specifically AQP3, GALE and LALBA (α-lactalbumin) at 12 h, and sustained downregulation of LALBA at 24 h. One gene in the pathway, UGP2, was upregulated at 12-24 h post-DEX. This work supports the hypothesis that there is a direct relationship between the response to DEX and the concurrent suppression of milk yield due to the reduced synthesis of α-lactalbumin and lactose by the mammary epithelium. The ability of glucocorticoids to modulate the homeorrhetic requirements for glucose during stressful states concurrent with immune activation bears significance for dairy animals as well as a broad range of lactating mammals.

3.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0277284, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36374931

RESUMO

Numerous single gene mutations identified in humans and mice result in nail deformities with many similarities between the species. A spontaneous, autosomal, recessive mutation called witch nails (whnl) is described here where the distal nail matrix and nail bed undergo degenerative changes resulting in formation of an abnormal nail plate causing mice to develop long, curved nails. This mutation arose spontaneously in a colony of MRL/MpJ-Faslpr/J at The Jackson Laboratory. Homozygous mutant mice are recognizable by 8 weeks of age by their long, curved nails. The whnl mutation, mapped on Chromosome 15, is due to a 7-bp insertion identified in the 3' region of exon 9 in the Krt90 gene (formerly Riken cDNA 4732456N10Rik), and is predicted to result in a frameshift that changes serine 476 to arginine and subsequently introduces 36 novel amino acids into the protein before a premature stop codon (p. Ser476ArgfsTer36). By immunohistochemistry the normal KRT90 protein is expressed in the nail matrix and nail bed in control mice where lesions are located in mutant mice. Immunoreactivity toward equine KRT124, the ortholog of mouse KRT90, is restricted to the hoof lamellae (equine hoof wall and lamellae are homologous to the mouse nail plate and nail bed) and the mouse nail bed. Equine laminitis lesions are similar to those observed in this mutant mouse suggesting that the latter may be a useful model for hoof and nail diseases. This first spontaneous mouse mutation affecting the novel Krt90 gene provides new insight into the normal regulation of the molecular pathways of nail development.


Assuntos
Doenças da Unha , Unhas Malformadas , Animais , Camundongos , Crescimento e Desenvolvimento , Cavalos , Mutação , Doenças da Unha/genética , Unhas/química , Unhas Malformadas/genética
4.
J Neuroinflammation ; 19(1): 250, 2022 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36203187

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Immunosurveillance of the central nervous system (CNS) is vital to resolve infection and injury. However, immune activation within the CNS in the setting of chronic viral infections, such as HIV-1, is strongly linked to progressive neurodegeneration and cognitive decline. Establishment of HIV-1 in the CNS early following infection underscores the need to delineate features of acute CNS immune activation, as these early inflammatory events may mediate neurodegenerative processes. Here, we focused on elucidating molecular programs of neuroinflammation in brain regions based on vulnerability to neuroAIDS and/or neurocognitive decline. To this end, we assessed transcriptional profiles within the subcortical white matter of the pre-frontal cortex (PFCw), as well as synapse dense regions from hippocampus, superior temporal cortex, and caudate nucleus, in rhesus macaques following infection with Simian/Human Immunodeficiency Virus (SHIV.C.CH505). METHODS: We performed RNA extraction and sequenced RNA isolated from 3 mm brain punches. Viral RNA was quantified in the brain and cerebrospinal fluid by RT-qPCR assays targeting SIV Gag. Neuroinflammation was assessed by flow cytometry and multiplex ELISA assays. RESULTS: RNA sequencing and flow cytometry data demonstrated immune surveillance of the rhesus CNS by innate and adaptive immune cells during homeostasis. Following SHIV infection, viral entry and integration within multiple brain regions demonstrated vulnerabilities of key cognitive and motor function brain regions to HIV-1 during the acute phase of infection. SHIV-induced transcriptional alterations were concentrated to the PFCw and STS with upregulation of gene expression pathways controlling innate and T-cell inflammatory responses. Within the PFCw, gene modules regulating microglial activation and T cell differentiation were induced at 28 days post-SHIV infection, with evidence for stimulation of immune effector programs characteristic of neuroinflammation. Furthermore, enrichment of pathways regulating mitochondrial respiratory capacity, synapse assembly, and oxidative and endoplasmic reticulum stress were observed. These acute neuroinflammatory features were substantiated by increased influx of activated T cells into the CNS. CONCLUSIONS: Our data show pervasive immune surveillance of the rhesus CNS at homeostasis and reveal perturbations of important immune, neuronal, and synaptic pathways within key anatomic regions controlling cognition and motor function during acute HIV infection. These findings provide a valuable framework to understand early molecular features of HIV associated neurodegeneration.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , HIV-1 , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida dos Símios , Vírus da Imunodeficiência Símia , Substância Branca , Animais , Lobo Frontal , HIV-1/genética , Humanos , Macaca mulatta/genética , RNA Viral , Carga Viral
5.
Metabolites ; 12(3)2022 Feb 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35323643

RESUMO

Urothelial carcinoma (UC), the most common urologic cancer in dogs, is often diagnosed late because the clinical signs are shared by other non-malignant lower urinary tract disorders (LUTD). The urine-based BRAFV595E test for UC is highly effective only in certain breeds; hence additional non-invasive biomarkers of UC are needed. Here, urine from dogs with UC (n = 27), urolithiasis (n = 8), or urolithiasis with urinary tract infection (UTI) (n = 8) were subjected to untargeted metabolomics analyses, using GC-TOF-MS for primary metabolites, QTOF-MS for complex lipids, and HILIC-QTOF MS for secondary and charged metabolites. After adjusting for age and sex, we identified 1123 known metabolites that were differentially expressed between UC and LUTD. Twenty-seven metabolites were significant (1.5 ≤ log2FC ≤ -1.5, adjusted p-value < 0.05); however, 10 of these could be attributed to treatment-related changes. Of the remaining 17, 6 (hippuric acid, N-Acetylphenylalanine, sarcosine, octanoylcarnitine, N-alpha-methylhistamine, glycerol-3-galactoside) discriminated between UC and LUTD (area under the ROC curve > 0.85). Of the 6 metabolites, only hippuric acid and N-alpha-methylhistamine were discriminatory in both male (n = 20) and female (n = 23) dogs, while sarcosine was an effective discriminator in several breeds, but only in females. Further investigation of these metabolites is warranted for potential use as non-invasive diagnostic biomarkers of dogs with UC that present with LUTD-related clinical signs.

6.
Genes (Basel) ; 12(12)2021 11 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34946824

RESUMO

Recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEPO) is a well-known performance enhancing drug in human athletes, and there is anecdotal evidence of it being used in horse racing for the same purpose. rHuEPO, like endogenous EPO, increases arterial oxygen content and thus aerobic power. Micro-doping, or injecting smaller doses over a longer period of time, has become an important concern in both human and equine athletics since it is more difficult to detect. Horses offer an additional challenge of a contractile spleen, thus large changes in the red blood cell mass occur naturally. To address the challenge of detecting rHuEPO doping in horse racing, we determined the transcriptomic effects of rHuEPO micro-dosing over seven weeks in exercised Thoroughbreds. RNA-sequencing of peripheral blood mononuclear cells isolated at several time points throughout the study identified three transcripts (C13H16orf54, PUM2 and CHTOP) that were significantly (PFDR < 0.05) different between the treatment groups across two or three time point comparisons. PUM2 and CHTOP play a role in erythropoiesis while not much is known about C13H16orf54, but it is primarily expressed in whole blood. However, gene expression differences were not large enough to detect via RT-qPCR, thereby precluding their utility as biomarkers of micro-doping.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Eritropoetina/genética , Cavalos/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética , Transcriptoma/genética , Animais , Doping nos Esportes/métodos , Eritropoese/genética , Humanos , Leucócitos Mononucleares/metabolismo , Esportes/fisiologia , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
7.
Forensic Sci Int Genet ; 54: 102564, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34315035

RESUMO

This study examines the potential of hair shaft proteomic analysis to delineate genetic relatedness. Proteomic profiling and amino acid sequence analysis provide information for quantitative and statistically-based analysis of individualization and sample similarity. Protein expression levels are a function of cell-specific transcriptional and translational programs. These programs are greatly influenced by an individual's genetic background, and are therefore influenced by familial relatedness as well as ancestry and genetic disease. Proteomic profiles should therefore be more similar among related individuals than unrelated individuals. Likewise, profiles of genetically variant peptides that contain single amino acid polymorphisms, the result of non-synonymous SNP alleles, should behave similarly. The proteomically-inferred SNP alleles should also provide a basis for calculation of combined paternity and sibship indices. We test these hypotheses using matching proteomic and genetic datasets from a family of two adults and four siblings, one of which has a genetic condition that perturbs hair structure and properties. We demonstrate that related individuals, compared to those who are unrelated, have more similar proteomic profiles, profiles of genetically variant peptides and higher combined paternity indices and combined sibship indices. This study builds on previous analyses of hair shaft protein profiling and genetically variant peptide profiles in different real-world scenarios including different human hair shaft body locations and pigmentation status. It also validates the inclusion of proteomic information with other biomolecular substrates in forensic hair shaft analysis, including mitochondrial and nuclear DNA.


Assuntos
Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Proteômica , Cabelo , Humanos , Espectrometria de Massas , Peptídeos/genética
9.
Autism Res ; 14(1): 11-28, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33159718

RESUMO

The prenatal period is a critical window for the development of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The relationship between prenatal nutrients and gestational gene expression in mothers of children later diagnosed with ASD or non-typical development (Non-TD) is poorly understood. Maternal blood collected prospectively during pregnancy provides insights into the effects of nutrition, particularly one-carbon metabolites, on gene pathways and neurodevelopment. Genome-wide transcriptomes were measured with microarrays in 300 maternal blood samples in Markers of Autism Risk in Babies-Learning Early Signs. Sixteen different one-carbon metabolites, including folic acid, betaine, 5'-methyltretrahydrofolate (5-MeTHF), and dimethylglycine (DMG) were measured. Differential expression analysis and weighted gene correlation network analysis (WGCNA) were used to compare gene expression between children later diagnosed as typical development (TD), Non-TD and ASD, and to one-carbon metabolites. Using differential gene expression analysis, six transcripts (TGR-AS1, SQSTM1, HLA-C, and RFESD) were associated with child outcomes (ASD, Non-TD, and TD) with genome-wide significance. Genes nominally differentially expressed between ASD and TD significantly overlapped with seven high confidence ASD genes. WGCNA identified co-expressed gene modules significantly correlated with 5-MeTHF, folic acid, DMG, and betaine. A module enriched in DNA methylation functions showed a suggestive protective association with folic acid/5-MeTHF concentrations and ASD risk. Maternal plasma betaine and DMG concentrations were associated with a block of co-expressed genes enriched for adaptive immune, histone modification, and RNA processing functions. These results suggest that the prenatal maternal blood transcriptome is a sensitive indicator of gestational one-carbon metabolite status and changes relevant to children's later neurodevelopmental outcomes. LAY SUMMARY: Pregnancy is a time when maternal nutrition could interact with genetic risk for autism spectrum disorder. Blood samples collected during pregnancy from mothers who had a prior child with autism were examined for gene expression and nutrient metabolites, then compared to the diagnosis of the child at age three. Expression differences in gene pathways related to the immune system and gene regulation were observed for pregnancies of children with autism and non-typical neurodevelopment and were associated with maternal nutrients.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Transtorno Autístico , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/genética , Carbono , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Epigênese Genética/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos
10.
Front Genet ; 11: 558762, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33193640

RESUMO

Among people of European descent, the ability to digest lactose into adulthood arose via strong positive selection of a highly advantageous allele encompassing the lactase gene. Lactose-tolerant and intolerant individuals may have different disease risks due to the shared genetics of their haplotype block. Therefore, the overall objective of the study was to assess the genetic association of the lactase persistence haplotype to disease risk. Using data from the 1000Genomes project, we estimated the size of the lactase persistence haplotype block to be 1.9 Mbp containing up to 9 protein-coding genes and a microRNA. Based on the function of the genes and microRNA, we studied health phenotypes likely to be impacted by the lactase persistence allele: prostate cancer status, cardiovascular disease status, and bone mineral density. We used summary statistics from large genome-wide metanalyses-32,965 bone mineral density, 140,306 prostate cancer and 184,305 coronary artery disease subjects-to evaluate whether the lactase persistence allele was associated with these disease phenotypes. Despite the fact that previous work demonstrated that the lactase persistence haplotype block harbors increased deleterious mutations, these results suggest little effect on the studied disease phenotypes.

11.
Forensic Sci Int Genet ; 47: 102309, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32485593

RESUMO

Recent reports highlight possible improvements in individual identification using proteomic information from human hair evidence. These reports have stimulated investigation of parameters that affect the utility of proteomic information. In addition to variables already studied relating to processing technique and anatomic origin of hair shafts, an important variable is hair ageing. Present work focuses on the effect of age on protein profiling and analysis of genetically variant peptides (GVPs). Hair protein profiles may be affected by developmental and physiological changes with age of the donor, exposure to different environmental conditions and intrinsic processes, including during storage. First, to explore whether general trends were evident in the population at different ages, hair samples were analyzed from groups of different subjects in their 20's, 40's and 60's. No significant differences were seen as a function of age, but consistent differences were evident between European American and African American hair profiles. Second, samples collected from single individuals at different ages were analyzed. Mostly, these showed few protein expression level differences over periods of 10 years or less, but samples from subjects at 44 and 65 year intervals were distinctly different in profile. The results indicate that use of protein profiling for personal identification, if practical, would be limited to decadal time intervals. Moreover, batch effects were clearly evident in samples processed by different staff. To investigate the contribution of storage (at room temperature) in affecting the outcomes, the same proteomic digests were analyzed for GVPs. In samples stored over 10 years, GVPs were reduced in number in parallel with the yield of identified proteins and unique peptides. However, a very different picture emerged with respect to personal identification. Numbers of GVPs sufficed to distinguish individuals despite the age differences of the samples. As a practical matter, three hair samples per person provided nearly the maximal number obtained from 5 or 6 samples. The random match probability (where the log increased in proportion to the number of GVPs) reached as high as 1 in 108. The data indicate that GVP results are dependent on the single nucleotide polymorphism profile of the donor genome, where environmental/processing factors affect only the yield, and thus are consistent despite the ages of the donors and samples and batchwise effects in processing. This conclusion is critical for application to casework where the samples may be in storage for long periods and used to match samples recently collected.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento , Cabelo/metabolismo , Peptídeos/metabolismo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Proteínas/metabolismo , Adulto , Cromatografia Líquida , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Espectrometria de Massas , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Peptídeos/genética , Proteínas/genética , Proteômica , Adulto Jovem
12.
Cancer Lett ; 483: 12-21, 2020 07 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32330514

RESUMO

Prostate cancer (PCa) is characterized by a unique dependence on optimal androgen receptor (AR) activity where physiological androgen concentrations induce proliferation but castrate and supraphysiological levels suppress growth. This feature has been exploited in bipolar androgen therapy (BAT) for castrate resistant malignancies. Here, we investigated the role of the tumor suppressor protein p14ARF in maintaining optimal AR activity and the function of the AR itself in regulating p14ARF levels. We used a tumor tissue array of differing stages and grades to define the relationships between these components and identified a strong positive correlation between p14ARF and AR expression. Mechanistic studies utilizing CWR22 xenograft and cell culture models revealed that a decrease in AR reduced p14ARF expression and deregulated E2F factors, which are linked to p14ARF and AR regulation. Chromatin immunoprecipitation studies identified AR binding sites upstream of p14ARF. p14ARF depletion enhanced AR-dependent PSA and TMPRSS2 transcription, hence p14ARF constrains AR activity. However, p14ARF depletion ultimately results in apoptosis. In PCa cells, AR co-ops p14ARF as part of a feedback mechanism to ensure optimal AR activity for maximal prostate cancer cell survival and proliferation.


Assuntos
Apoptose , Inibidor p16 de Quinase Dependente de Ciclina/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Próstata/metabolismo , Receptores Androgênicos/metabolismo , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p14ARF/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Inibidor p16 de Quinase Dependente de Ciclina/genética , Fatores de Transcrição E2F/genética , Fatores de Transcrição E2F/metabolismo , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Calicreínas/genética , Calicreínas/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos Nus , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Antígeno Prostático Específico/genética , Antígeno Prostático Específico/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Receptores Androgênicos/genética , Serina Endopeptidases/genética , Serina Endopeptidases/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p14ARF/genética
13.
Forensic Sci Int ; 310: 110200, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32182563

RESUMO

Proteomic genotyping uses genetically variant peptides that contain single amino acid polymorphisms to infer the genotype of corresponding non-synonymous SNP alleles. We have focused on hair proteins as a source of protein-based genetic information in a forensic context. An optimized sample processing protocol for hair shafts has been developed for use on a single hair that allows us to conduct validation protocols on real world samples. This includes whether the inferred SNP genotypes are robust and not systematically affected by biological or chemical variation in hair proteomes that might be obtained from a crime scene. To this end we analyzed the hair of 4 mature individuals with a mixture of pigmented and non-pigmented hair. We demonstrate significant changes in the proteomes of grey versus pigmented hair. Vesicle specific proteins and lipid catabolism proteins were enriched in pigmented hair, and housekeeping proteins and lipid anabolic enzymes were enriched in grey, non-pigmented hair. The resulting profiles of genetically variant peptides, however, were more correlated with profiles from the same individuals regardless of pigmentation status. Together with other published evidence, this finding indicates that profiles of genetically variant peptides are robust and more correlated with other genetically variant peptide profiles from the same individual irrespective of changes occurring in the hair protein profile. Based on this small sample, investigators using profiles of genetically variant peptides to infer random match probabilities should not expect to observe differences based on the pigmentation of the hair shaft.


Assuntos
Cabelo/química , Genótipo , Cor de Cabelo , Humanos , Espectrometria de Massas , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Proteômica
14.
Eye (Lond) ; 34(6): 1108-1115, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31659287

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate the management and long-term outcomes of patients with diabetic macular oedema (DMO) and good initial visual acuity in real-world settings. METHODS: We reviewed 122 eyes of 100 patients with treatment-naive DMO and initial best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) of 20/25 or better. We assessed clinical characteristics, logMAR BCVA, central subfield thickness (CST), cumulative intravitreal injections and laser treatments at yearly intervals, and characteristics at time of initial treatment. Linear mixed effects models were used to identify predictors of visual outcomes. RESULTS: At presentation, mean BCVA was 0.057 ± 0.048 logMAR (Snellen 20/23) and mean CST was 288 ± 57 µm. After a median follow-up of 3 years, 51% of eyes underwent treatment. More eyes underwent intravitreal injection as initial treatment (54%), but lasers were initiated at an earlier time and at better BCVA. Final BCVA was associated with better BCVA (P < 0.001) and earlier timing (P = 0.017) at initial treatment, but not CST at first treatment (P = 0.634) or cumulative number of injections or lasers (P = 0.441-0.606). CONCLUSION: DMO with good initial visual acuity should be monitored closely, as delay in treatment initiation is associated with worse visual outcomes. BCVA at time of initial treatment is the strongest determinant of final visual acuity.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus , Retinopatia Diabética , Edema Macular , Inibidores da Angiogênese/uso terapêutico , Bevacizumab/uso terapêutico , Retinopatia Diabética/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Injeções Intravítreas , Edema Macular/tratamento farmacológico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica , Resultado do Tratamento , Acuidade Visual
15.
mSphere ; 4(6)2019 12 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31826975

RESUMO

The microbiome is an integral and dynamic component of the host and is emerging as a critical determinant of immune responses; however, its influence on vaccine immunogenicity is largely not well understood. Here, we examined the pivotal relationship between the mucosal microbiome and vaccine-induced immune responses by assessing longitudinal changes in vaginal and rectal microbiome profiles after intradermal immunization with a human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) DNA vaccine in adult rhesus macaques that received two prior DNA primes. We report that both vaginal and rectal microbiomes were dominated by Firmicutes but were composed of distinct genera, denoting microbiome specialization across mucosal tissues. Following immunization, the vaginal microbiome was resilient, except for a transient decrease in Streptococcus In contrast, the rectal microbiome was far more responsive to vaccination, exhibiting an increase in the ratio of Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes Within Bacteroidetes, multiple genera were significantly decreased, including Prevotella, Alloprevotella, Bacteroides, Acetobacteroides, Falsiporphyromonas, and Anaerocella. Decreased abundance of Prevotella correlated with induction of gut-homing α4ß7+ effector CD4 T cells. Prevotella abundance also negatively correlated with rectal HIV-1 specific IgG levels. While rectal Lactobacillus was unaltered following DNA vaccination, baseline Lactobacillus abundance showed strong associations with higher rectal HIV-1 gp140 IgA induced following a protein boost. Similarly, the abundance of Clostridium in cluster IV was associated with higher rectal HIV-1 gp140 IgG responses. Collectively, these data reveal that the temporal stability of bacterial communities following DNA immunization is site dependent and highlight the importance of host-microbiome interactions in shaping HIV-1 vaccine responses. Our findings have significant implications for microbial manipulation as a strategy to enhance HIV vaccine-induced mucosal immunity.IMPORTANCE There is considerable effort directed toward evaluating HIV-1 vaccine platforms to select the most promising candidates for enhancing mucosal HIV-1 antibody. The most successful thus far, the RV144 trial provided partial protection due to waning HIV-1 antibody titers. In order to develop an effective HIV vaccine, it may therefore be important to understand how biological factors, such as the microbiome, modulate host immune responses. Furthermore, as intestinal microbiota antigens may generate antibodies cross-reactive to the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein, understanding the relationship between gut microbiota composition and HIV-1 envelope antibody responses after vaccination is important. Here, we demonstrate for the first time in rhesus macaques that the rectal microbiome composition can influence HIV-1 vaccine immunogenicity, and we report temporal changes in the mucosal microbiome profile following HIV-1 vaccination. Our results could inform findings from the HIV Vaccine Trials Network (HVTN) vaccine studies and contribute to an understanding of how the microbiome influences HIV-1 antibody responses.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra a AIDS/imunologia , Anticorpos Anti-HIV/sangue , HIV-1/imunologia , Microbiota , Reto/microbiologia , Vacinas contra a AIDS/administração & dosagem , Animais , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Feminino , Injeções Intradérmicas , Estudos Longitudinais , Macaca mulatta , Vacinas de DNA/administração & dosagem , Vacinas de DNA/imunologia , Vagina/microbiologia
16.
Evol Appl ; 12(6): 1212-1226, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31293632

RESUMO

In estuary and coastal systems, human demand for freshwater, climate change-driven precipitation variability, and extreme weather impact salinity levels, reducing connectivity between mesohaline coastal fish populations and potentially contributing to genomic divergence. We examined gill transcriptome responses to salinity in wild-caught juveniles from two populations of Sacramento splittail (Pogonichthys macrolepidotus), a species of conservation concern that is endemic to the San Francisco Estuary, USA, and the lower reaches of its tributaries. Recent extreme droughts have led to salinities above the tolerance limits for this species, creating a migration barrier between these populations, which potentially contributed to population divergence. We identified transcripts involved in a conserved response to salinity; however, the more salinity-tolerant San Pablo population had greater transcriptome plasticity (3.6-fold more transcripts responded than the Central Valley population) and a response consistent with gill remodeling after 168 hr of exposure to elevated salinity. The reorganization of the gill in response to changing osmotic gradients is a process critical for acclimation and would facilitate enhanced salinity tolerance. We detected an upregulation of receptors that control the Wnt (wingless-type) cell signaling pathway that may be required for an adaptive response to increases in salinity, patterns not observed in the relatively salinity-sensitive Central Valley population. We detected 62 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in coding regions of 26 transcripts that differed between the populations. Eight transcripts that contained SNPs were associated with immune responses, highlighting the importance of diversity in immune gene sequences as a defining characteristic of genomic divergence between these populations. Our data demonstrate that these populations have divergent transcriptomic responses to salinity, which is consistent with observed physiological differences in salinity tolerance.

17.
Forensic Sci Int Genet ; 41: 19-23, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30939338

RESUMO

The microanatomy of human hair differs as a function of the site of origin on the body. This was a major consideration when anatomical features of hair were used as a means of comparison and human identification. Recent advances have demonstrated that proteomics of the hair shaft can be used to develop profiles of protein abundance and genetically variant peptides, the latter in turn being used to infer genotypes of SNP alleles. Because the profile of proteins would be expected to change as hair anatomy changes, it is an open question if the profile of genetically variant peptides will also change. While some sample to sample variation is expected, a potential drawback of using genetically variant peptides to infer an individual genotype is that the proteomic profile might change as a function of body site origin as well as an individual's genotype. The hypothesis in this study is that the profile of hair shaft genetically variant peptides depends more on an individual's genotype than on the site of hair shaft origin. To test this an analysis of both protein expression levels and genetically variant peptides was conducted on 4 body sites (scalp, axillary, beard and pubic hair) from 5 individuals with 4 biological replicates. Levels of protein expression were estimated using label-free quantification on resulting proteomic mass spectrometry datasets. The same datasets were then also analyzed for the presence of genetically variant peptides. This study demonstrates that the protein profiles of hair shafts varied as a function of somatic origin. By contrast the profile of genetically variant peptides, and resulting inferred genotype of SNP alleles, were more dependent on the individual. In this study random match probabilities ranged up to 1 in 196. Individual identification based on genetically variant peptides therefore can be obtained from human hair without regard to the site of origin. If the site of hair shaft origin was legally relevant then microscopic analysis is still necessary. This study demonstrates the utility of proteomic analysis for extracting forensic information from hair shaft evidence.


Assuntos
Genótipo , Cabelo/metabolismo , Proteínas/metabolismo , Proteômica , Alelos , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Genética Forense/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Espectrometria de Massas , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
18.
Eye (Lond) ; 33(5): 714-723, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31000833

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the long-term progression of idiopathic epiretinal membranes (iERMs) with good baseline visual acuity, and to identify predictors of visual decline. DESIGN: Retrospective case series SUBJECTS METHODS: We reviewed records of 145 eyes with iERM and best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) of 20/40 or greater at presentation, including BCVA, lens status, and central macular thickness (CMT) at yearly visits; as well as anatomic biomarkers including vitreomacular adhesion, pseudohole, lamellar hole, intraretinal cysts, disorganization of the inner retinal layers (DRIL), and disruption of outer retinal layers. Linear mixed effects and mixed-effects Cox proportional hazards models were used to identify clinical and anatomic predictors of vision change and time to surgery. RESULTS: At presentation, mean BCVA was 0.17 ± 0.10 logMAR units (Snellen 20/30) and mean CMT was 353.3 ± 75.4 µm. After a median follow-up of 3.7 years (range 1-7 years), BCVA declined slowly at 0.012 ± 0.003 logMAR units/year, with phakic eyes declining more rapidly than pseudophakic eyes (0.019 ± 0.003 vs. 0.010 ± 0.004 logMAR units/year). Metamorphopsia, phakic lens status, lamellar hole, and inner nuclear layer cysts were associated with faster visual decline. Cumulative rates of progression to surgery were 2.9, 5.6, 12.2, and 21.1% at years 1-4. Visual symptoms, metamorphopsia, greater CMT, and disruption of outer retinal layers were associated with greater hazard for surgery. CONCLUSION: Eyes with iERM and visual acuity ≥ 20/40 experience slow visual decline, with 21% of eyes requiring surgery after 4 years. Clinical and anatomic predictors of vision loss may be distinct from factors associated with earlier surgical intervention.


Assuntos
Membrana Epirretiniana/diagnóstico , Transtornos da Visão/diagnóstico , Acuidade Visual/fisiologia , Idoso , Progressão da Doença , Membrana Epirretiniana/fisiopatologia , Membrana Epirretiniana/cirurgia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica , Transtornos da Visão/fisiopatologia , Vitrectomia
19.
J Urol ; 201(3): 620-625, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30266334

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Bladder fullness and urgency are difficult for some patients to express. We hypothesized that images on a pictorial urgency scale would correlate with International Continence Society standard verbal descriptors and bladder volume. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study population consisted of 267 toilet trained children with a mean age of 7.2 years and their parents (91 adults). Patients were excluded if they had a history of urinary infection, voiding dysfunction, genitourinary surgery or reflux. Participants were read each of the 4 descriptors and asked to point to an image. Correlation between descriptors and figures was analyzed using a mixed effects proportional odds logistic regression model (aim 1 of study). In addition, 73 children undergoing voiding cystourethrography were asked to point to the images during bladder filling. Correlation between percent of expected capacity and image was analyzed using a linear mixed effects model (aim 2 of study). RESULTS: Correlation between descriptors and images (aim 1) was 0.87 (95% CI 0.84 to 0.89) for all participants, 0.84 (95% CI 0.81 to 0.88) for patients younger than age 6 years and 0.88 (95% CI 0.85 to 0.90) for patients 6 to 17 years old. Sequencing of the images was appropriate for increasing degree of urgency. In 73 children undergoing voiding cystourethrography correlation between image and percent of expected capacity (aim 2) was 0.75 (95% CI 0.67 to 0.81, p <0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Figures on the pictorial urgency scale correlate with standard verbal descriptors and bladder volume. The pictorial scale could be a supplemental tool to improve communication of urgency sensation in younger children.


Assuntos
Sensação , Micção , Adolescente , Adulto , Recursos Audiovisuais , Criança , Expressão Facial , Humanos , Postura
20.
Exp Dermatol ; 27(8): 931-938, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30033667

RESUMO

Advances in mass spectrometry-based proteomics now permit analysis of complex cellular structures. Application to epidermis and its appendages (nail plate, hair shaft) has revealed a wealth of information about their protein profiles. The results confirm known site-specific differences in levels of certain keratins and add great depth to our knowledge of site specificity of scores of other proteins, thereby connecting anatomy and pathology. An example is the evident overlap in protein profiles of hair shaft and nail plate, helping rationalize their sharing of certain dystrophic syndromes distinct from epidermis. In addition, interindividual differences in protein level are manifest as would be expected. This approach permits characterization of altered profiles as a result of disease, where the magnitude of perturbation can be quantified and monitored during treatment. Proteomic analysis has also clarified the nature of the isopeptide cross-linked residual insoluble material after vigorous extraction with protein denaturants, nearly intractable to analysis without fragmentation. These structures, including the cross-linked envelope of epidermal corneocytes, are comprised of hundreds of protein constituents, evidence for strengthening the terminal structure complementary to disulphide bonding. Along with other developing technologies, proteomic analysis is anticipated to find use in disease risk stratification, detection, diagnosis and prognosis after the discovery phase and clinical validation.


Assuntos
Dermatologia/métodos , Células Epidérmicas/metabolismo , Epiderme/metabolismo , Proteômica/métodos , Animais , Cabelo/metabolismo , Humanos , Queratinas/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas , Camundongos , Pele/citologia , Pele/metabolismo , Transglutaminases/metabolismo
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