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1.
Patient Educ Couns ; 103(1): 5-14, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31447194

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Several concepts on collaboration between patients and healthcare systems have emerged in the literature but there is little consensus on their meanings and differences. In this study, "patient participation" and related concepts were studied by focusing on the dimensions that compose them. This review follows two objectives: (1) to produce a detailed and comprehensive overview of the "patient participation" dimensions; (2) to identify differences and similarities between the related concepts. METHODS: A scoping review was performed to synthesize knowledge into a conceptual framework. An electronic protocol driven search was conducted in two bibliographic databases and a thematic analysis was used to analyse the data. RESULTS: The search process returned 39 articles after exclusion for full data extraction and analysis. Through the thematic analysis, the dimensions, influencing factors and expected outcomes of "patient participation" were determined. Finally, differences between the included concepts were identified. CONCLUSION: This global vision of "patient participation" allows us to go beyond the distinctions between the existing concepts and reveals their common goal to include the patient in the healthcare system. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS: This scoping review provides useful information to propose a conceptual model of "patient participation", which could impact clinical practice and medical training programs.


Assuntos
Participação do Paciente , Humanos
2.
Folia Neuropathol ; 54(2): 149-55, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27543772

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Cerebrovascular lesions are rare in frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD), in contrast to other neurodegenerative diseases. Cortical microbleeds (CoMBs) are frequent in Alzheimer's disease, in particular in cases associated with cerebral amyloid angiopathy. The present study investigates the gyral topographic distribution of CoMBs in post-mortem FTLD brains with 7.0-tesla magnetic resonance imaging. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The distribution of CoMBs in 11 post-mortem FTLD brains and in 12 control brains was compared on T2*-GRE MRI of six coronal sections of a cerebral hemisphere. The mean values of CoMBs were determined in twenty-two different gyri. The findings were correlated to those separately observed on neuropathological examination. RESULTS: As a whole there was a trend of more CoMBs in the prefrontal section of FTLD as well as of the control brains. CoMBs were significantly increased in the superior frontal gyrus and the insular cortex (p ≤ 0.001) and also in the inferior frontal gyrus and the superior temporal gyrus (p ≤ 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: CoMBs in FTLD are only increased in the regions mainly affected by the neurodegenerative lesions. They probably do not reflect additional cerebrovascular disease.


Assuntos
Angiopatia Amiloide Cerebral/patologia , Hemorragia Cerebral/patologia , Degeneração Lobar Frontotemporal/patologia , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Doença de Alzheimer/patologia , Autopsia/métodos , Angiopatia Amiloide Cerebral/complicações , Angiopatia Amiloide Cerebral/diagnóstico , Hemorragia Cerebral/diagnóstico , Feminino , Degeneração Lobar Frontotemporal/diagnóstico , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
3.
Aging Dis ; 6(6): 437-43, 2015 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26618045

RESUMO

Cortical microbleeds (CMBs) detected on T2*-weighted gradient-echo (GRE) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are considered as a possible hallmark of cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA). The present post-mortem 7.0-tesla MRI study investigates whether topographic differences exist in Alzheimer's brains without (AD) and with CAA (AD-CAA). The distribution of CMBs in thirty-two post-mortem brains, consisting of 12 AD, 8 AD-CAA and 12 controls, was mutually compared on T2*-GRE MRI of six coronal sections of a cerebral hemisphere. The mean numbers of CMBs were determined in twenty-two different gyri. As a whole there was a trend of more CMBs on GRE MRI in the prefrontal section of the AD, the AD-CAA as well as of the control brains. Compared to controls AD brains had significantly more CMBs in the superior frontal, the inferior temporal, the rectus and the cinguli gyrus, and in the insular cortex. In AD-CAA brains CMBs were increased in all gyri with exception of the medial parietal gyrus and the hippocampus. AD-CAA brains showed a highly significant increase of CMBs in the inferior parietal gyrus (p value: 0.001) and a significant increase in the precuneus and the cuneus (p value: 0.01) compared to the AD brains. The differences in topographic distribution of CMBs between AD and AD-CAA brains should be further investigated on MRI in clinically suspected patients.

4.
J Neurol Sci ; 346(1-2): 85-9, 2014 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25129206

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Until recently cortical microinfarcts (CMIs) were considered as the invisible lesions in clinical-radiological correlation studies that rely on conventional structural magnetic resonance imaging. The present study investigates the presence of CMIs on 7.0-T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in post-mortem brains with different neurodegenerative and cerebrovascular diseases. MATERIALS AND METHODS: One hundred-seventy five post-mortem brains, composed of 37 with pure Alzheimer's disease (AD), 12 with AD associated to cerebral amyloid angiopathy (AD-CAA), 38 with frontotemporal lobar degeneration, 12 with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, 16 with Lewy body disease (LBD), 21 with progressive supranuclear palsy, 18 with vascular dementia (VaD) and 21 controls were examined. According to their size several types of CMIs were detected on 3 coronal sections of a cerebral hemisphere with 7.0-T MRI and compared to the mean CMI load observed on histological examination of one standard separate coronal section of a cerebral hemisphere at the level of the mamillary body. RESULTS: Overall CMIs were significantly prevalent in those brains with neurodegenerative and cerebrovascular diseases associated to CAA compared to those without CAA. VaD, AD-CAA and LBD brains had significantly more CMIs compared to the controls. While all types of CMIs were increased in VaD and AD-CAA brains, a predominance of the smallest ones was observed in the LBD brains. CONCLUSIONS: The present study shows that 7.0-T MRI allows the detection of several types of MICs and their contribution to the cognitive decline in different neurodegenerative and cerebrovascular diseases.


Assuntos
Angiopatia Amiloide Cerebral/complicações , Infarto Cerebral/etiologia , Infarto Cerebral/patologia , Demência Vascular/complicações , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/complicações , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Autopsia , Feminino , Humanos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
5.
Eur J Neurol ; 21(7): 1026-31, 2014 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24698410

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Accumulation of iron (Fe) is often detected in brains of people suffering from neurodegenerative diseases. However, no studies have compared the Fe load between these disease entities. The present study investigates by T2*-weighted gradient-echo 7.0 T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) the Fe content in post-mortem brains with different neurodegenerative and cerebrovascular diseases. METHODS: One hundred and fifty-two post-mortem brains, composed of 46 with Alzheimer's disease (AD), 37 with frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD), 11 with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, 13 with Lewy body disease, 14 with progressive supranuclear palsy, 16 with vascular dementia (VaD) and 15 controls without a brain disease, were examined. The Fe load was determined semi-quantitatively on T2*-weighted MRI serial brain sections in the claustrum, caudate nucleus, putamen, globus pallidus, thalamus, subthalamic nucleus, hippocampus, mamillary body, lateral geniculate body, red nucleus, substantia nigra and dentate nucleus. The disease diagnosis was made on subsequent neuropathological examination. RESULTS: The Fe load was significantly increased in the claustrum, caudate nucleus and putamen of FTLD brains and to a lesser degree in the globus pallidus, thalamus and subthalamic nucleus. In the other neurodegenerative diseases no Fe accumulation was observed, except for a mild increase in the caudate nucleus of AD brains. In VaD brains no Fe increase was detected. CONCLUSIONS: Only FTLD displays a significant Fe load, suggesting that impaired Fe homeostasis plays an important role in the pathogenesis of this heterogeneous disease entity.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/metabolismo , Transtornos Cerebrovasculares/metabolismo , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/metabolismo , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Encéfalo/patologia , Transtornos Cerebrovasculares/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/instrumentação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/patologia
6.
Cerebrovasc Dis ; 36(5-6): 412-7, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24281052

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Superficial siderosis (SS) is a rare finding on T2*-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), regarded as a radiological marker of cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA). The present study investigates with 7.0-tesla MRI the prevalence of SS and its underlying pathological substrate in a consecutive series of post-mortem brains of elderly patients with various neurodegenerative and cerebrovascular lesions. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The prevalence of SS and associated lesions was screened using 7.0-tesla MRI and their neuropathological correlates in 120 post-mortem brains of patients with various neurodegenerative and cerebrovascular diseases. RESULTS: Eighty-three separate zones of SS were detected in 45 brains (37.5%), including 25 areas of disseminated SS (dSS) and 58 areas of focal SS (fSS), restricted to less than 3 sulci. dSS was spatially related to sequels of 14 lobar haematomas and 11 cerebral infarcts, while fSS was connected to 19 microbleeds and 39 micro-infarcts (p < 0.001). Comparison of the 15 CAA to the 30 non-CAA brains showed that dSS was due to an old lobar haematoma in 53% of the former group compared to 3% of the latter group (p = 0.003). fSS was due to a microbleed in 7% of the CAA brains and to 40% of the non-CAA brains (p = 0.03). CONCLUSIONS: SS is associated with both haemorrhagic and ischaemic underlying lesions. It is frequently observed on T2*-weighted 7.0-tesla MRI, and two types of SS may be described. Clinicians should keep in mind that SS may be found in other settings than CAA.


Assuntos
Sistema Nervoso Central/patologia , Angiopatia Amiloide Cerebral/patologia , Hemorragia Cerebral/patologia , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/patologia , Siderose/patologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Autopsia/instrumentação , Feminino , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/diagnóstico por imagem , Prevalência , Radiografia
7.
Rev Med Liege ; 68(12): 644-9, 2013 Dec.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24564030

RESUMO

The hierarchy of evidence from medical research is a key concept in evidence-based medicine (EBM). In 1998, the Oxford Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine published a levels table based on study designs. An updated and more user-friendly version, published in 2011, focuses on the issues of prevalence, diagnosis, prognosis, treatment and screening. This paper presents and discusses this approach.


Assuntos
Medicina Baseada em Evidências , Inglaterra , Humanos
8.
Eur J Neurol ; 19(10): 1355-60, 2012 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22642502

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Microbleeds (MBs) are frequently detected in brains of patients with Alzheimer dementia and rare in those with frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD). This study investigates for the first time the topographic distribution of MBs on a T2*-weighted gradient-echo 7.0-T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in post-mortem FTLD brains. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The neuropathological and MRI findings in 12 FTLD brains were compared with eight age-matched controls. The presence of cerebrovascular lesions was evaluated on a coronal section of a cerebral hemisphere at the level of the mamillary body and on a horizontal section through pons and cerebellum. On MRI, the distribution and the number of cortical focal signal intensity losses, representing MBs, were assessed on coronal sections at the frontal, the central and the occipital level of a cerebral hemisphere. RESULTS: Overall, cerebrovascular lesions were rare. Only white matter damage was significantly more severe in FTLD brains compared with controls (P = 0.03). On MRI, MBs were only significantly prevalent in the deep cortical layers (P < 0.01) and borderline increased in the middle cortical layers (P = 0.07) of the frontal section. CONCLUSIONS: Cerebrovascular lesions are rare in FTLD. The white matter damage has to be considered as part of the neurodegenerative process. MBs prevail in the frontal regions with the most severe neuronal damage and probably represent associated disruption of the blood-brain barrier.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/patologia , Hemorragia Cerebral/patologia , Degeneração Lobar Frontotemporal/patologia , Adulto , Idade de Início , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Autopsia , Barreira Hematoencefálica/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
9.
Cerebrovasc Dis ; 31(5): 511-7, 2011.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21422755

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In view of the increasing recognition of cerebral microbleeds (MCBs) with MRI, there is a need to validate their detection in post-mortem brains in patients with cerebrovascular diseases and dementia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Out of 20 post-mortem brains of patients with Alzheimer dementia and with different cerebrovascular lesions, 45 large sections of the cerebral hemispheres, brainstem and cerebellum were submitted to a 7.0-T T2*-weighted MRI, and afterwards compared to the histological detection of haematomas, MCBs and mini-bleeds (MNBs). RESULTS: The sensitivity, specificity, predictive positive value and predictive negative value of the T2* imaging to detect MCBs and MNBs were excellent for those in the cortico-subcortical regions. There was a significant overestimation of MNBs in the striatum due to iron deposits unrelated to old haemorrhages. Also in the deep white matter, 42% of MNBs were not detected, while 31% of T2* hyposignals were not due to MNBs but to vessels filled with post-mortem thrombi. CONCLUSIONS: When evaluating the 'bleeding load' with 7.0-T T2*-weighted MRI in post-mortem brain sections of patients with dementia and vascular risk factors, only quantification of small cerebral bleeds in the cortico-subcortical regions is reliable.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/patologia , Encéfalo/patologia , Hemorragia Cerebral/patologia , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Doença de Alzheimer/diagnóstico , Autopsia , Angiopatia Amiloide Cerebral/patologia , Artérias Cerebrais/patologia , Hemorragia Cerebral/diagnóstico , Transtornos Cerebrovasculares/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Ferro/metabolismo , Masculino , Inclusão em Parafina , Mudanças Depois da Morte , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Fatores de Risco , Tromboembolia/patologia
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