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1.
Prev Sci ; 19(8): 1091-1101, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30136245

RESUMO

This review of reviews presents an empirically based set of mean effect size distributions for judging the relative impact of the effects of universal mental health promotion and prevention programs for school-age youth (ages 5 through 18) across a range of program targets and types of outcomes. Mean effect size distributions were established by examining the findings from 74 meta-analyses of universal prevention and promotion programs that included more than 1100 controlled outcome studies involving over 490,000 school-age youth. The distributions of mean effect sizes from these meta-analyses indicated considerable variability across program targets and outcomes that differed substantially from Cohen's (1988, Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences (2nd ed.)) widely used set of conventions for assessing if effects are small, medium, or large. These updated mean effect size distributions will provide researchers, practitioners, and funders with more appropriate evidence-based standards for judging the relative effects of universal prevention programs for youth. Limitations in current data and directions for future work are also discussed.


Assuntos
Saúde Mental , Serviços Preventivos de Saúde/organização & administração , Serviços de Saúde Escolar/organização & administração , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/prevenção & controle , Instituições Acadêmicas , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/prevenção & controle
2.
Child Dev ; 88(4): 1156-1171, 2017 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28685826

RESUMO

This meta-analysis reviewed 82 school-based, universal social and emotional learning (SEL) interventions involving 97,406 kindergarten to high school students (Mage  = 11.09 years; mean percent low socioeconomic status = 41.1; mean percent students of color = 45.9). Thirty-eight interventions took place outside the United States. Follow-up outcomes (collected 6 months to 18 years postintervention) demonstrate SEL's enhancement of positive youth development. Participants fared significantly better than controls in social-emotional skills, attitudes, and indicators of well-being. Benefits were similar regardless of students' race, socioeconomic background, or school location. Postintervention social-emotional skill development was the strongest predictor of well-being at follow-up. Infrequently assessed but notable outcomes (e.g., graduation and safe sexual behaviors) illustrate SEL's improvement of critical aspects of students' developmental trajectories.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento do Adolescente , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Aprendizagem , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Instituições Acadêmicas , Habilidades Sociais , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos
3.
J Couns Psychol ; 64(2): 121-140, 2017 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28277730

RESUMO

This meta-analysis found empirical support for the effectiveness of indicated prevention programs for higher education students at risk for subsequent mental health difficulties based on their current subclinical levels of various presenting problems, such as depression, anxiety, or interpersonal difficulties. A systematic literature search identified 79 controlled published and unpublished interventions involving 4,470 college, graduate, or professional students. Programs were effective at post-intervention overall (ES = 0.49, CI [0.43, 0.55]), and for both targeted outcomes (ES = 0.58, CI [0.51, 0.64]) as well as additional nontargeted outcomes assessed in the studies (ES = 0.32, CI [0.25, 0.39]). Interventions compared with a no-intervention or a wait-list control (ES = 0.64, CI [0.57, 0.71], k = 68) demonstrated significantly larger effects overall than did interventions compared with an attention-placebo control (ES = 0.27, CI [0.11, 0.43], k = 11), although both were significant. Among the former group, modality and presenting problem emerged as significant moderators of intervention effectiveness, and among the 43 of these that assessed effectiveness at an average follow-up period of 35 weeks, the positive effects from intervention remained strong (ES = 0.59, CI [0.50, 0.68]). Overall, programs were fairly brief, attracted and retained students, were positively rated by students, and effective when administered by paraprofessionals as well as professionals. Current findings are promising and stimulate recommendations for improving future research, such as expanding the range of outcomes assessed, and clarifying moderators and mediators of intervention impact. (PsycINFO Database Record


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais/prevenção & controle , Estudantes/psicologia , Adaptação Psicológica , Adolescente , Adulto , Ira , Transtornos de Ansiedade/diagnóstico , Transtornos de Ansiedade/prevenção & controle , Transtornos de Ansiedade/psicologia , Transtorno Depressivo/diagnóstico , Transtorno Depressivo/prevenção & controle , Transtorno Depressivo/psicologia , Diagnóstico Precoce , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/diagnóstico , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Psicoterapia , Fatores de Risco , Estresse Psicológico/complicações , Estresse Psicológico/diagnóstico , Estresse Psicológico/prevenção & controle , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
4.
Child Dev ; 88(2): 408-416, 2017 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28213889

RESUMO

Social-emotional competence is a critical factor to target with universal preventive interventions that are conducted in schools because the construct (a) associates with social, behavioral, and academic outcomes that are important for healthy development; (b) predicts important life outcomes in adulthood; (c) can be improved with feasible and cost-effective interventions; and (d) plays a critical role in the behavior change process. This article reviews this research and what is known about effective intervention approaches. Based on that, an intervention model is proposed for how schools should enhance the social and emotional learning of students in order to promote resilience. Suggestions are also offered for how to support implementation of this intervention model at scale.


Assuntos
Ajustamento Emocional , Resiliência Psicológica , Instituições Acadêmicas , Ajustamento Social , Habilidades Sociais , Criança , Humanos
5.
Prev Sci ; 17(6): 659-78, 2016 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27225631

RESUMO

The uses of technology-delivered mental health treatment options, such as interventions delivered via computer, smart phone, or other communication or information devices, as opposed to primarily face-to-face interventions, are proliferating. However, the literature is unclear about their effectiveness as preventive interventions for higher education students, a population for whom technology-delivered interventions (TDIs) might be particularly fitting and beneficial. This meta-analytic review examines technological mental health prevention programs targeting higher education students either without any presenting problems (universal prevention) or with mild to moderate subclinical problems (indicated prevention). A systematic literature search identified 22 universal and 26 indicated controlled interventions, both published and unpublished, involving 4763 college, graduate, or professional students. As hypothesized, the overall mean effect sizes (ESs) for both universal (0.19) and indicated interventions (0.37) were statistically significant and differed significantly from each other favoring indicated interventions. Skill-training interventions, both universal (0.21) and indicated (0.31), were significant, whereas non-skill-training interventions were only significant among indicated (0.25) programs. For indicated interventions, better outcomes were obtained in those cases in which participants had access to support during the course of the intervention, either in person or through technology (e.g., email, online contact). The positive findings for both universal and indicated prevention are qualified by limitations of the current literature. To improve experimental rigor, future research should provide detailed information on the level of achieved implementation, describe participant characteristics and intervention content, explore the impact of potential moderators and mechanisms of success, collect post-intervention and follow-up data regardless of intervention completion, and use analysis strategies that allow for inclusion of cases with partially missing data.


Assuntos
Saúde Mental , Estudantes/psicologia , Telecomunicações , Universidades , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Medicina Preventiva
6.
Prev Sci ; 16(8): 1123-7, 2015 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26399607

RESUMO

This study offers a commentary on the articles contained in the special issue of Prevention Science, "Readiness to implement Social- Emotional Learning interventions." The commentary also puts these articles into current context by summarizing important findings in implementation research and listing some priorities for future work.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento de Programas/métodos , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Adolescente , Desenvolvimento do Adolescente , Criança , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Emoções , Humanos , Instituições Acadêmicas , Apoio Social , Estudantes/psicologia
7.
Prev Sci ; 16(4): 487-507, 2015 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25744536

RESUMO

This meta-analysis investigated the effectiveness of universal mental health prevention programs for higher education students on a range of adjustment outcomes. A systematic literature search identified 103 controlled published and unpublished interventions involving college, graduate, or professional students. As hypothesized, skill-training programs that included a supervised practice component were significantly more effective overall (mean effect size = 0.45, confidence interval (CI) = 0.39 to 0.52) compared to skill-training programs without supervised practice (0.11, CI = -0.01 to 0.22) and psychoeducational (information-only) programs (0.13, CI = 0.06 to 0.21). When comparisons on specific outcomes were possible, skill-training programs including supervised practice were significantly more effective than the other two groups of programs in reducing symptoms of depression, anxiety, stress, and general psychological distress, and in improving social-emotional skills, self-perceptions, and academic behaviors and performance. The magnitude of effects achieved in several outcome areas is comparable to or higher than that reported in other reviews of universal programs, suggesting that skill-training programs for higher education students that incorporate supervised practice now join the ranks of other effective preventive mental health interventions. This review offers several recommendations to improve the experimental rigor of future research.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais/prevenção & controle , Saúde Mental , Estudantes/psicologia , Adolescente , Emoções , Humanos , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
8.
J Prev Interv Community ; 42(4): 243-7, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25321639

RESUMO

With the goal of narrowing disparities in children's school success, a growing number of innovative early childhood interventions have been launched. As these interventions begin to show evidence of enhancing children's development, it is important that we understand the design of these interventions and their implementation. This themed issue of the Journal of Prevention and Intervention in the Community includes four articles that each highlight a different early childhood intervention program, and a fifth article that provides a commentary on the main set of articles, from a community perspective. The first article focuses on children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and a program that sought to integrate children with ASD into public schools. The next two articles center on children from low-income families, with a focus on preschool classrooms. The last article discusses a program that aimed to foster young children's school readiness as well as families' readiness for children's transition to school.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil , Intervenção Educacional Precoce/organização & administração , Resiliência Psicológica , Transtornos Globais do Desenvolvimento Infantil/reabilitação , Pré-Escolar , Cuidados no Lar de Adoção/psicologia , Humanos , Pobreza , Fatores de Risco , Instituições Acadêmicas
9.
J Am Coll Health ; 61(5): 286-301, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23768226

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This review is the first large-scale attempt to evaluate the effectiveness of universal promotion and prevention programs for higher education students on a range of adjustment outcomes. PARTICIPANTS/METHODS: The current review examined 83 controlled interventions involving college, graduate, and professional students, with a focus on 3 main outcomes: social and emotional skills, self-perceptions, and emotional distress. RESULTS/CONCLUSIONS: Skill-oriented programs that included supervised practice demonstrated the strongest benefits, thus showing promise as a successful mental health promotion and preventive intervention. In comparing different intervention strategies, mindfulness training and cognitive-behavioral techniques appear to be the most effective. Furthermore, interventions conducted as a class appear to be effective, suggesting the potential for exposing higher education students to skill training through routine curricula offerings. This review offers recommendations for improving the experimental rigor of future research, and implications for enhancing campus services to optimize student success in psychosocial--and thus ultimately academic--domains.


Assuntos
Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Transtornos Mentais/prevenção & controle , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Saúde Mental , Estudantes/psicologia , Emoções , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Autoimagem , Estresse Psicológico/prevenção & controle , Estresse Psicológico/terapia , Universidades
10.
Am J Community Psychol ; 50(3-4): 462-80, 2012 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22644083

RESUMO

Implementation science is growing in importance among funders, researchers, and practitioners as an approach to bridging the gap between science and practice. We addressed three goals to contribute to the understanding of the complex and dynamic nature of implementation. Our first goal was to provide a conceptual overview of the process of implementation by synthesizing information from 25 implementation frameworks. The synthesis extends prior work by focusing on specific actions (i.e., the "how to") that can be employed to foster high quality implementation. The synthesis identified 14 critical steps that were used to construct the Quality Implementation Framework (QIF). These steps comprise four QIF phases: Initial Considerations Regarding the Host Setting, Creating a Structure for Implementation, Ongoing Structure Once Implementation Begins, and Improving Future Applications. Our second goal was to summarize research support for each of the 14 QIF steps and to offer suggestions to direct future research efforts. Our third goal was to outline practical implications of our findings for improving future implementation efforts in the world of practice. The QIF's critical steps can serve as a useful blueprint for future research and practice. Applying the collective guidance synthesized by the QIF to the Interactive Systems Framework for Dissemination and Implementation (ISF) emphasizes that accountability for quality implementation does not rest with the practitioner Delivery System alone. Instead, all three ISF systems are mutually accountable for quality implementation.


Assuntos
Prática Clínica Baseada em Evidências/métodos , Desenvolvimento de Programas/métodos , Humanos , Modelos Organizacionais
11.
Child Dev ; 82(1): 405-32, 2011.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21291449

RESUMO

This article presents findings from a meta-analysis of 213 school-based, universal social and emotional learning (SEL) programs involving 270,034 kindergarten through high school students. Compared to controls, SEL participants demonstrated significantly improved social and emotional skills, attitudes, behavior, and academic performance that reflected an 11-percentile-point gain in achievement. School teaching staff successfully conducted SEL programs. The use of 4 recommended practices for developing skills and the presence of implementation problems moderated program outcomes. The findings add to the growing empirical evidence regarding the positive impact of SEL programs. Policy makers, educators, and the public can contribute to healthy development of children by supporting the incorporation of evidence-based SEL programming into standard educational practice.


Assuntos
Inteligência Emocional , Instituições Acadêmicas , Socialização , Logro , Adolescente , Sintomas Afetivos/prevenção & controle , Sintomas Afetivos/psicologia , Atitude , Criança , Transtorno da Conduta/prevenção & controle , Transtorno da Conduta/psicologia , Currículo , Prática Clínica Baseada em Evidências , Humanos , Modelos Educacionais , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Comportamento Social
12.
Psychol Sci Public Interest ; 12(2): 55-6, 2011 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26167707
13.
Am J Community Psychol ; 45(3-4): 285-93, 2010 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20358278

RESUMO

Participating in after-school programs (ASPs) has become a common experience for children. This special issue provides a perspective on the current status of research on ASPs. This introductory article overviews the historical and current context of ASPs and then describes a developmental ecological model to guide research in this area. The model offers a framework from which to organize and synthesize the research presented in this issue. Key principles include a holistic view of development that recognizes interrelations between multiple domains of youth adjustment, attention to multiple, relevant factors within and outside of youth that affect development, examining the dynamic interplay between persons, program features, and other contexts over time, and understanding the active role of youth in affecting their own development. These principles are examined in relation to five main areas: youth characteristics, social ecologies, program features, participation, and short- and long-term outcomes. Recommendations for future research are discussed.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil , Instituições Acadêmicas , Ajustamento Social , Criança , Humanos , Desenvolvimento de Programas , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Instituições Acadêmicas/organização & administração
14.
Am J Community Psychol ; 45(3-4): 294-309, 2010 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20300825

RESUMO

A meta-analysis of after-school programs that seek to enhance the personal and social skills of children and adolescents indicated that, compared to controls, participants demonstrated significant increases in their self-perceptions and bonding to school, positive social behaviors, school grades and levels of academic achievement, and significant reductions in problem behaviors. The presence of four recommended practices associated with previously effective skill training (SAFE: sequenced, active, focused, and explicit) moderated several program outcomes. One important implication of current findings is that ASPs should contain components to foster the personal and social skills of youth because youth can benefit in multiple ways if these components are offered. The second implication is that further research is warranted on identifying program characteristics that can help us understand why some programs are more successful than others.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento do Adolescente , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Instituições Acadêmicas/organização & administração , Ajustamento Social , Adolescente , Criança , Humanos , Autoimagem , Comportamento Social
15.
J Pediatr Psychol ; 34(9): 917-28, 2009 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19223279

RESUMO

The objective of this article is to offer guidelines regarding the selection, calculation, and interpretation of effect sizes (ESs). To accomplish this goal, ESs are first defined and their important contribution to research is emphasized. Then different types of ESs commonly used in group and correlational studies are discussed. Several useful resources are provided for distinguishing among different types of effects and what modifications might be required in their calculation depending on a study's purpose and methods. This article should assist producers and consumers of research in understanding the role, importance, and meaning of ESs in research reports.


Assuntos
Projetos de Pesquisa/estatística & dados numéricos , Pesquisa/estatística & dados numéricos , Estatística como Assunto , Humanos , Metanálise como Assunto , Modelos Estatísticos
16.
Am J Community Psychol ; 41(3-4): 327-50, 2008 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18322790

RESUMO

The first purpose of this review was to assess the impact of implementation on program outcomes, and the second purpose was to identify factors affecting the implementation process. Results from over quantitative 500 studies offered strong empirical support to the conclusion that the level of implementation affects the outcomes obtained in promotion and prevention programs. Findings from 81 additional reports indicate there are at least 23 contextual factors that influence implementation. The implementation process is affected by variables related to communities, providers and innovations, and aspects of the prevention delivery system (i.e., organizational functioning) and the prevention support system (i.e., training and technical assistance). The collection of implementation data is an essential feature of program evaluations, and more information is needed on which and how various factors influence implementation in different community settings.


Assuntos
Promoção da Saúde/organização & administração , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Desenvolvimento de Programas/métodos
17.
J Abnorm Child Psychol ; 36(4): 527-37, 2008 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18071896

RESUMO

Relations among past maternal depressive disorder, current depressive symptoms, current maternal interaction behaviors, and children's adjustment were examined in a sample of 204 women and their young adolescent offspring (mean age = 11.86, SD = 0.55). Mothers either had (n = 157) or had not (n = 57) experienced at least one depressive disorder during the child's life. Mothers and children participated in a problem-solving task, video-taped for later coding. Mothers with current depressive symptoms and those with histories of chronic/severe depressive disorders displayed fewer positive behaviors toward their children; mothers with current depressive symptoms also showed more negative behaviors with their children. The relation between mothers' depression history and their behavior during the interaction with their child was partially mediated by mothers' current mood state. Moreover, high levels of maternal negativity and low levels of positivity during the problem-solving task were related to children's externalizing problems. Maternal positivity partially mediated the relation between maternal depression and children's externalizing symptoms. These findings highlight the importance of providing parenting interventions for depressed mothers.


Assuntos
Agressão/psicologia , Transtornos do Comportamento Infantil/psicologia , Filho de Pais Incapacitados/psicologia , Transtorno Depressivo/psicologia , Controle Interno-Externo , Relações Mãe-Filho , Criança , Transtornos do Comportamento Infantil/diagnóstico , Doença Crônica , Transtorno Depressivo/diagnóstico , Emoções Manifestas , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Comportamento Materno/psicologia , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Determinação da Personalidade , Resolução de Problemas , Fatores de Risco , Temperamento
18.
Am J Community Psychol ; 39(3-4): 269-86, 2007 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17401642

RESUMO

A review of efforts at social system change in 526 universal competence-promotion outcome studies indicated that 64% of the interventions attempted some type of microsystemic or mesosystemic change involving schools, families, or community-based organizations in an attempt to foster developmental competencies in children and adolescents. Only 24% of the reports provided quantitative data on the change that occurred in targeted systems. However, studies containing the necessary information produced several mean effect sizes that were statistically significant, and ranged from modest to large in magnitude. These data indicate that attempts to change social systems affecting children and adolescents can be successful. Future work should measure more thoroughly the extent to which the systemic changes that are targeted through intervention are achieved, and investigate how such changes contribute to the development and sustainability of the outcomes that might be demonstrated by participants of competence-promotion programs.


Assuntos
Redes Comunitárias/organização & administração , Família , Instituições Acadêmicas , Mudança Social , Adolescente , Humanos , Estados Unidos
19.
Am Psychol ; 60(6): 628-48, 2005 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16173895

RESUMO

For decades, empirically tested youth interventions have prevented dysfunction by addressing risk and ameliorated dysfunction through treatment. The authors propose linking prevention and treatment within an integrated model. The model suggests a research agenda: Identify effective programs for a broadened array of problems and disorders, examine ethnicity and culture in relation to intervention adoption and impact, clarify conditions under which programs do and do not work, identify change mechanisms that account for effects, test interventions in real-world contexts, and make tested interventions accessible and effective in community and practice settings. Connecting the science and practice of prevention and treatment will be good for science, for practice, and for children, adolescents, and their families.


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde do Adolescente/tendências , Medicina Baseada em Evidências , Promoção da Saúde/tendências , Transtornos Mentais/reabilitação , Serviços de Saúde Mental/tendências , Adolescente , Terapia Combinada , Transtorno da Conduta/prevenção & controle , Transtorno da Conduta/reabilitação , Feminino , Previsões , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde/tendências , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/prevenção & controle , Metanálise como Assunto , Modelos Psicológicos , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Resultado do Tratamento
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