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1.
J Clin Gastroenterol ; 56(1): e11-e19, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33060437

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) is associated with high short-term mortality in those with hepatic encephalopathy (HE). Polyethylene glycol (PEG) 3350 electrolyte solution can ensure rapid gut catharsis, which may resolve HE more effectively than lactulose. In this open-label-randomized trial, we compared PEG+lactulose versus lactulose alone in ACLF with HE grade ≥2 for efficacy and outcome. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients were randomized to receive PEG (2 L q12 h) followed by lactulose (30 mL q8 h) or standard medical treatment [SMT, lactulose (titrated 30 mL q8 h)]. Endpoints were HE grade improvement at 24 hours, 48 hours, and 7 days using hepatic encephalopathy scoring algorithm (HESA), ammonia reduction, HE resolution, and survival benefit. RESULTS: Of 60 patients, 29 were randomized to PEG+lactulose arm and 31 to SMT. In the PEG arm, early reduction in HESA score was noted in more persons [18 (62.1%) vs. 10 (32.2%); P=0.021] with a shorter median time to HE resolution [4.5 (3 to 9) d vs. 9 (8 to 11) d; P=0.023]. On multivariate analysis, age [hazard ratio (HR),1.06 (1.00 to 1.13); P=0.03], HESA score [HR, 6.01 (1.27 to 28.5); P=0.024], and model for end-stage liver disease [HR, 1.26 (1.01 to 1.53); P=0.022] were predictors of mortality at 28 days. Ammonia level or reduction did not correlate with HE grades. Adverse events included excessive diarrhea (20.6% vs. 9.6%) in the PEG and SMT arms, albeit without dyselectrolytemia or worsened renal function. In the PEG versus SMT arm, survival at 28 days were 93.1% versus 67.7% (P=0.010) and at 90 days was 68.9% versus 48.3% (P=0.940), respectively, with fewer persons relapsing with HE in the PEG arm. CONCLUSIONS: PEG resulted in early and sustained HE resolution with improved short-term survival making, it a suitable and safe drug in patients with acute HE in ACLF.

4.
Metabolism ; 126: 154911, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34648769

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A significant proportion of the non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) population is non-obese. Prior studies reporting the severity of NAFLD amongst non-obese patients were heterogenous. Our study, using data from the largest biopsy-proven NAFLD international registry within Asia, aims to characterize the demographic, metabolic and histological differences between non-obese and obese NAFLD patients. METHODS: 1812 biopsy-proven NAFLD patients across nine countries in Asia assessed between 2006 and 2019 were pooled into a curated clinical registry. Demographic, metabolic and histological differences between non-obese and obese NAFLD patients were evaluated. The performance of Fibrosis-4 index for liver fibrosis (FIB-4) and NAFLD fibrosis score (NFS) to identify advanced liver disease across the varying obesity subgroups was compared. A random forest analysis was performed to identify novel predictors of fibrosis and steatohepatitis in non-obese patients. FINDINGS: One-fifth (21.6%) of NAFLD patients were non-obese. Non-obese NAFLD patients had lower proportions of NASH (50.5% vs 56.5%, p = 0.033) and advanced fibrosis (14.0% vs 18.7%, p = 0.033). Metabolic syndrome in non-obese individuals was associated with NASH (OR 1.59, 95% CI 1.01-2.54, p = 0.047) and advanced fibrosis (OR 1.88, 95% CI 0.99-3.54, p = 0.051). FIB-4 performed better than the NFS score (AUROC 81.5% vs 73.7%, p < 0.001) when classifying patients with F2-4 fibrosis amongst non-obese NAFLD patients. Haemoglobin, GGT, waist circumference and cholesterol are additional variables found on random forest analysis useful for identifying non-obese NAFLD patients with advanced liver disease. CONCLUSION: A substantial proportion of non-obese NAFLD patients has NASH or advanced fibrosis. FIB-4, compared to NFS better identifies non-obese NAFLD patients with advanced liver disease. Serum GGT, cholesterol, haemoglobin and waist circumference, which are neither components of NFS nor FIB-4, are important biomarkers for advanced liver disease in non-obese patients.


Assuntos
Cirrose Hepática/patologia , Fígado/patologia , Síndrome Metabólica/patologia , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/patologia , Obesidade/patologia , Adulto , Ásia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sistema de Registros , Estudos Retrospectivos
5.
J Clin Exp Hepatol ; 11(6): 682-690, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34866847

RESUMO

Background: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has variable etiological risk factors. Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) and surgical resection (SR) are frequently used as curative treatment options. In the present study, we assessed the etiological factors and efficacy of RFA and SR in patients with unifocal HCC in a real-life setting. Methods: Of 870 patients with HCC seen over a period of nine years, 785 patients were assessed for stage and etiological risk factors. Of these, 110 (14%) patients with single HCC who were either treated with RFA (n = 72) or SR (n = 38) were evaluated for their outcomes in terms of overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) over 3 years. Results: Of 785 patients [median age 60 (range 51-65) years, males (n = 685, 87.3%)] with HCC, viral hepatitis [HBV and HCV with or without alcohol = 502 (63.9%)] was the most common etiology; nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and alcohol as an etiology showed increase over the years. About 677 (86.2%) patients had evidence of cirrhosis; NASH and HBV were predominant causes in noncirrhotic patients. Even though the groups were not matched, in 110 patients subjected to either RFA [mean tumor size, 2.2 (1.9-2.8) cm] or SR [mean tumor size, 7.1 (4.8-9.7) cm], tumor progression was observed in 49 (68%) and 16 (42%) patients in RFA and SR groups, respectively, with superior DFS in the SR group (P < 0.01). Of total 31 deaths, 20 (27.8%) deaths were in the RFA group and 11 (28.9%) in the SR group with no difference in OS at 3 years. Conclusion: Viral hepatitis with or without alcohol is the commonest etiological factor for HCC in Northern India; NASH and alcohol are increasing over the years. In a real-life setting, in patients with unifocal HCC, there is no difference in overall 3-year survival subjected to SR or RFA with better DFS in the SR group.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34890020

RESUMO

Portal hypertensive bleeding is a major complication of portal hypertension (PHT) with high morbidity and mortality. A lot of advances have been made in our understanding of screening, risk stratification, and management strategies for portal hypertensive bleeding including acute variceal bleeding leading to improved overall outcomes in patients with PHT. A number of guidelines on variceal bleeding have been published by various societies in the past few years. The Indian Society of Gastroenterology (ISG) Task Force on Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding (UGIB) felt that it was necessary to bring out a standard practice guidance document for the use of Indian health care providers especially physicians, gastroenterologists, and hepatologists. For this purpose, an expert group meeting was convened by the ISG Task Force to deliberate on this matter and write a consensus guidance document for Indian practice. The delegates including gastroenterologists, hepatologists, radiologists, and surgeons from different parts of the country participated in the consensus development meeting at Coorg in 2018. A core group was constituted which reviewed all published literature on portal hypertensive UGIB with special reference to the Indian scenario and prepared unambiguous statements on different aspects for voting and consensus in the whole group. This consensus was produced through a modified Delphi process and reflects our current understanding and recommendations for the diagnosis and management of portal hypertensive UGIB in Indians. Intended for use by the health care providers especially gastroenterologists and hepatologists, these consensus statements provide an evidence-based approach to risk stratification, diagnosis, and management of patients with portal hypertensive bleeding.

7.
J Clin Exp Hepatol ; 2021 Dec 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34898957

RESUMO

Liver transplant recipients are at an increased risk of opportunistic infections due to use of immunosuppression. Coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19) increases the risk of these infections further due to associated immune dysfunction and use of high dose steroids. We present a case of liver transplant recipient who developed disseminated tuberculosis and invasive pulmonary aspergillosis complicated by acquired hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis after recovering from severe COVID-19.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34768009

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Globally, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a common cause of chronic liver disease. We assessed the clinical presentation and patient-reported outcomes (PROs) among NAFLD patients from different countries. METHODS: Clinical, laboratory, and PRO data (Chronic Liver Disease Questionnaire-nonalcoholic steatohepatitis [NASH], Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Fatigue, and the Work Productivity and Activity Index) were collected from NAFLD patients seen in real-world practices and enrolled in the Global NAFLD/NASH Registry encompassing 18 countries in 6 global burden of disease super-regions. RESULTS: Across the global burden of disease super-regions, NAFLD patients (n = 5691) were oldest in Latin America and Eastern Europe and youngest in South Asia. Most males were enrolled at the Southeast and South Asia sites. Latin America and South Asia had the highest employment rates (>60%). Rates of cirrhosis varied (12%-21%), and were highest in North Africa/Middle East and Eastern Europe. Rates of metabolic syndrome components varied: 20% to 25% in South Asia and 60% to 80% in Eastern Europe. Chronic Liver Disease Questionnaire-NASH and Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Fatigue PRO scores were lower in NAFLD patients than general population norms (all P < .001). Across the super-regions, the lowest PRO scores were seen in Eastern Europe and North Africa/Middle East. In multivariate analysis adjusted for enrollment region, independent predictors of lower PRO scores included younger age, female sex, and nonhepatic comorbidities including fatigue (P < .01). Patients whose fatigue scores improved over time experienced a substantial PRO improvement. Nearly 8% of Global NAFLD/NASH Registry patients had a lean body mass index, with fewer metabolic syndrome components, fewer comorbidities, less cirrhosis, and significantly better PRO scores (P < .01). CONCLUSIONS: NAFLD patients seen in real-world practices in different countries experience a high comorbidity burden and impaired quality of life. Future research using global data will enable more precise management and treatment strategies for these patients.

10.
Hepatol Int ; 15(6): 1376-1388, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34608586

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) is a rapidly progressive illness with high short-term mortality. Timely liver transplant (LT) may improve survival. We evaluated various indices for assessment of the severity of liver failure and their application for eligibility and timing of living donor LT (LDLT). METHODS: Altogether 1021 patients were analyzed for the severity and organ failure at admission to determine transplant eligibility and 28 day survival with or without transplant. RESULTS: The ACLF cohort [mean age 44 ± 12.2 years, males 81%) was of sick patients; 55% willing for LT at admission, though 63% of them were ineligible due to sepsis or organ failure. On day 4, recovery in sepsis and/or organ failure led to an improvement in transplant eligibility from 37% at baseline to 63.7%. Delay in LT up to 7 days led to a higher incidence of multiorgan failure (p < 0.01) contributing to 23% of the first week and 55% of all-cause 28-day mortality. In a matched cohort analysis, the actuarial survival with LT (n = 41) and conditional survival in the absence of transplant (n = 191) were comparable, when the condition, i.e., transplant was adjusted. The comparison curve showed differentiation in survival beyond 7 days (p < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: ACLF is a rapidly progressive disease and risk stratification within the first week of hospitalization is needed. 'Emergent LT' should be defined in the first week in the ACLF patients; the transplant window for improving survival in a live donor setting.

11.
Clin Liver Dis (Hoboken) ; 18(3): 158-163, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34691404
12.
EClinicalMedicine ; 41: 101148, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34712928

RESUMO

Background: The prevalence of chronic hepatitis C (CHC) in People Who Inject Drugs (PWID) is 8-10% as compared to 3·6% in the general population in Punjab, India. We assessed the real-world efficacy and safety of free-of-charge generic direct-acting antivirals (DAAs), sofosbuvir with an NS5A inhibitor (ledipasvir, daclatasvir or velpatasvir)±ribavirin in the microelimination of CHC in PWID in a public health setting. Methods: An integrated care team at 25 sites provided algorithm based DAAs treatment to PWID supervised by telemedicine clinics between 18th June 2016 and 31st July 2019. The primary endpoint was sustained virological response at 12 weeks (SVR-12); the secondary endpoints were treatment completion, adherence, safety, and adverse events. ClinicalTrials.gov number: NCT01110447. Findings: We enrolled 3477 PWID (87·2% men; mean age 33·6±12·5 years; 83·8% rural; 6·8% compensated cirrhosis). While 2280 (65·5%) patients completed treatment, 1978 patients completed 12 weeks of follow up for SVR-12. SVR-12 was achieved in 91·1% of patients per protocol, 49.5% as per intention to treat (ITT) and 90·1% in a modified ITT analysis. Of 546 (15·7%) patients with treatment interruptions, 99 (19·7%) could be traced to test for SVR-12 with a cure rate of 77·8%. There were no major adverse events or consequent treatment discontinuation. Interpretation: Integrated care of PWID with CHC with DAAs is safe and effective. Measures for reducing treatment interruptions will further improve outcomes. Funding: The Government of the state of Punjab, India under the Mukh Mantri Punjab Hepatitis C Relief Fund (MMPHCRF) project, funds the project.

13.
J Clin Exp Hepatol ; 11(5): 544-549, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34511814

RESUMO

Background: Generally diagnosis of non-alcoholic fatty disease is made on imaging, however, mild steatosis is difficult to diagnose on imaging. Liver biopsy is the procedure of choice but is not carried out as it is an invasive procedure. We describe our experience of 157 liver biopsies in living liver donors with normal body mass index (BMI) <23 kg/M2 (lean). Materials and methods: The study was conducted at a tertiary care center in north India. Data of lean living donors who underwent a liver biopsy before donation were analyzed. Data are presented as percentage, mean, or median (25-75 interquartile range). Results: Of 718 donors who had a liver biopsy before donation, 157 (21.8%) donors were lean (BMI < 23 kg/M2). Seventy-eight percent of lean donors had no or only one metabolic risk factor. Fifty-three (33.7%) of lean donors had nonalcoholic fatty liver (NAFL) in liver biopsy. When donors with NAFL were compared to donors with normal histology, donors with NAFL had significantly higher aspartate transaminase (26.6 ± 7.5 versus 23.7 ± 5.4, p = 0.007), alanine transaminase (33.4 ± 11.7 versus 27.8 ± 10.7, p = 0.003), and gamma glutamyl transpeptidase [25 (16-40.5) versus 18 (14-23), p = 0.003]. Only triglycerides (TGs) were statistically different among metabolic factors in lean NAFL and normal histology groups, 97 (70-161) versus 86 (62.5-114.7), p = 0.043. A total of 30% donors in the lean NAFL group had TGs >150 mg/dl as compared with 12.5% in the normal histology group, p = 0.009. Other metabolic risk factors were not statistically different. Conclusion: One third of lean donors had NAFL. Among all metabolic risk factors, only higher TGs levels showed a significant association with NAFL.

15.
Nephrology (Carlton) ; 2021 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34453374

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Sofosbuvir (SOF) and velpatasvir (VEL) is a pan-genotypic regimen for the treatment of Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. The data on the efficacy and safety of this regimen is end-stage renal disease (ESRD) is scanty. This systematic review and meta-analysis was done to ascertain the efficacy and safety of SOF and VEL in patients with chronic Hepatitis C (CHC) and ESRD on renal replacement therapy (RRT). METHODS: Systematic search of Pubmed, Embase, Scopus, and Google Scholar was conducted using the search term (end-stage renal disease OR renal replacement therapy OR chronic kidney failure OR severe renal impairment OR chronic kidney disease OR haemodialysis OR dialysis OR peritoneal dialysis) AND (sofosbuvir OR velpatasvir OR NS5A inhibitors OR directly acting antivirals). Pooled sustained virologic response (SVR) and adverse event rates with 95% confidence intervals were estimated. RESULTS: Seven studies (410 patients with CHC and ESRD on RRT) fulfilled our eligibility criteria. The overall pooled SVR rate of SOF and VEL in patients with HCV on RRT was 97.69% (95% CI: 95.71 to 98.92). There was no significant heterogeneity (I2 : 39.3%, p-value of Cochran's Q = 0.13) among the studies. The pooled estimate of efficacy of SOF-VEL combination among patients with cirrhosis was 91.94% (95% CI 77.03-98.52). Pooled SVR rates in genotype 3 infection [94.6%, (95%: CI 81.3-99.4)] was comparable to that in those with documented non-genotype 3 infection [94.63%, (95% CI 87.12-98.44)]. No serious adverse event attributable to SOF and VEL was reported in the included studies. CONCLUSION: The fixed-dose combination of SOF and VEL is effective and safe in CHC patients with ESRD on RRT.

16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34229038

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Despite rapidly increasing nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) prevalence, providers' knowledge may be limited. We assessed NAFLD knowledge and associated factors among physicians of different specialties globally. METHODS: NAFLD knowledge surveys containing 54 and 59 questions covering 3 domains (epidemiology/pathogenesis, diagnostics, and treatment) were completed electronically by hepatologists, gastroenterologists (GEs), endocrinologists (ENDOs), and primary care physicians (PCPs) from 40 countries comprising 5 Global Burden of Disease super-regions. Over 24 months, 2202 surveys were completed (488 hepatologists, 758 GEs, 148 ENDOs, and 808 PCPs; 50% high-income Global Burden of Disease super-region, 27% from North Africa and Middle East, 12% Southeast Asia, and 5% South Asian and Latin America). RESULTS: Hepatologists saw the greatest number of NAFLD patients annually: median 150 (interquartile range, 60-300) vs 100 (interquartile range, 35-200) for GEs, 100 (interquartile range, 30-200) for ENDOs, and 10 (interquartile range, 4-50) for PCPs (all P < .0001). The primary sources of NAFLD knowledge acquisition for hepatologists were international conferences (33% vs 8%-26%) and practice guidelines for others (39%-44%). The Internet was the second most common source of NAFLD knowledge for PCPs (28%). NAFLD knowledge scores were higher for hepatologists than GEs: epidemiology, 62% vs 53%; diagnostics, 80% vs 73%; and treatment, 61% vs 58% (P < .0001), and ENDOs scores were higher than PCPs: epidemiology, 70% vs 60%; diagnostics, 71% vs 64%; and treatment, 79% vs 68% (P < .0001). Being a hepatologist or ENDO was associated with higher knowledge scores than a GE or PCP, respectively (P < .05). Higher NAFLD knowledge scores were associated independently with a greater number of NAFLD patients seen (P < .05). CONCLUSIONS: Despite the growing burden of NAFLD, a significant knowledge gap remains for the identification, diagnosis, and management of NAFLD.

17.
Hepatol Commun ; 2021 Apr 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34230904

RESUMO

Background & Aims: COVID-19 has hampered health-care delivery globally. We evaluated the feasibility, outcomes, and safety of tele-hepatology in delivering quality-care amidst the pandemic. Approach and Results: A telemedicine setup using smartphones by hepatologists was organized at our tertiary-care centre after pilot testing. Consecutive patients availing tele-hepatology services were recruited between March and July 2020. An adapted-MAST-model (Model for assessment of telemedicine) was used after validity and reliability testing, to evaluate services 7-21 days after index teleconsultation. Of 1419 registrations, 1281 (90.3%) consultations were completed. From 245 randomly surveyed patients, 210 (85.7%) responded [age (years, IQR): 46 (35-56); 32.3% females]. Seventy-percent patients belonged to the middle or lower socio-economic class whereas 61% were from rural areas. Modes of teleconsultation were audio (54.3%) or hybrid video-call (45.7%). Teleconsultation alone was deemed suitable in 88.6% patients. Diagnosis-rate and compliance-rate were 94% and 82.4%, respectively. Patient's convenience-rate, satisfaction-rate, improvement-rate, success-rate and net promoter score were 99.0%, 85.2%, 49.5%, 46.2% and 70, respectively. Physical and mental-quality of life improved in 67.1% and 82.8% patients, respectively post index-teleconsultation. Man-hours and money spent by patients were significantly lower with teleconsultation (p<0.001), however, man-hours spent by hospital per teleconsultation were higher than in physical-outpatient services (p<0.001). Dissatisfied patients were more likely to have lower diagnosis-rate, unsuitability for teleconsultation, noncompliance, poorer understanding, and uncomfortable conversation during teleconsultation. Connectivity-issues (22.9%) were the commonest barrier. Three patients, all of whom were advised emergency care during teleconsultation, succumbed to their illness. Conclusions: Tele-hepatology is a feasible and reasonably effective tool for rendering health-care services using smartphones during the COVID-19 pandemic. Systematic implementation, possible integration into routine healthcare delivery and formal cost-effectiveness of tele-hepatology services need further exploration.

18.
Hepatol Int ; 15(4): 970-982, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34275111

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We evaluated the dynamics of hepatic encephalopathy (HE) and ammonia estimation in acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) patients due to a paucity of evidence. METHODS: ACLF patients recruited from the APASL-ACLF Research Consortium (AARC) were followed up till 30 days, death or transplantation, whichever earlier. Clinical details, including dynamic grades of HE and laboratory data, including ammonia levels, were serially noted. RESULTS: Of the 3009 ACLF patients, 1315 (43.7%) had HE at presentation; grades I-II in 981 (74.6%) and grades III-IV in 334 (25.4%) patients. The independent predictors of HE at baseline were higher age, systemic inflammatory response, elevated ammonia levels, serum protein, sepsis and MELD score (p < 0.05; each). The progressive course of HE was noted in 10.0% of patients without HE and 8.2% of patients with HE at baseline, respectively. Independent predictors of progressive course of HE were AARC score (≥ 9) and ammonia levels (≥ 85 µmol/L) (p < 0.05; each) at baseline. A final grade of HE was achieved within 7 days in 70% of patients and those with final grades III-IV had the worst survival (8.9%). Ammonia levels were a significant predictor of HE occurrence, higher HE grades and 30-day mortality (p < 0.05; each). The dynamic increase in the ammonia levels over 7 days could predict nonsurvivors and progression of HE (p < 0.05; each). Ammonia, HE grade, SIRS, bilirubin, INR, creatinine, lactate and age were the independent predictors of 30-day mortality in ACLF patients. CONCLUSIONS: HE in ACLF is common and is associated with systemic inflammation, poor liver functions and high disease severity. Ammonia levels are associated with the presence, severity, progression of HE and mortality in ACLF patients.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Hepática Crônica Agudizada , Encefalopatia Hepática , Amônia , Humanos , Cirrose Hepática , Prognóstico , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
19.
Hepatol Int ; 15(3): 753-765, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34173167

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Multiple predictive models of mortality exist for acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) patients that often create confusion during decision-making. We studied the natural history and evaluated the performance of prognostic models in ACLF patients. METHODS: Prospectively collected data of ACLF patients from APASL-ACLF Research Consortium (AARC) was analyzed for 30-day outcomes. The models evaluated at days 0, 4, and 7 of presentation for 30-day mortality were: AARC (model and score), CLIF-C (ACLF score, and OF score), NACSELD-ACLF (model and binary), SOFA, APACHE-II, MELD, MELD-Lactate, and CTP. Evaluation parameters were discrimination (c-indices), calibration [accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, and positive/negative predictive values (PPV/NPV)], Akaike/Bayesian Information Criteria (AIC/BIC), Nagelkerke-R2, relative prediction errors, and odds ratios. RESULTS: Thirty-day survival of the cohort (n = 2864) was 64.9% and was lowest for final-AARC-grade-III (32.8%) ACLF. Performance parameters of all models were best at day 7 than at day 4 or day 0 (p < 0.05 for C-indices of all models except NACSELD-ACLF). On comparison, day-7 AARC model had the numerically highest c-index 0.872, best accuracy 84.0%, PPV 87.8%, R2 0.609 and lower prediction errors by 10-50%. Day-7 NACSELD-ACLF-binary was the simple model (minimum AIC/BIC 12/17) with the highest odds (8.859) and sensitivity (100%) but with a lower PPV (70%) for mortality. Patients with day-7 AARC score > 12 had the lowest 30-day survival (5.7%). CONCLUSIONS: APASL-ACLF is often a progressive disease, and models assessed up to day 7 of presentation reliably predict 30-day mortality. Day-7 AARC model is a statistically robust tool for classifying risk of death and accurately predicting 30-day outcomes with relatively lower prediction errors. Day-7 AARC score > 12 may be used as a futility criterion in APASL-ACLF patients.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Hepática Crônica Agudizada , APACHE , Teorema de Bayes , Humanos , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico
20.
J Clin Transl Hepatol ; 9(2): 210-219, 2021 Apr 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34007803

RESUMO

Background and Aims: Patients with cirrhosis and acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) may have bleeding complications and need for invasive procedures. Point-of-care (POC) coagulation tests like thromboelastography (TEG) and Sonoclot may be better for guiding patient management than the standard coagulation tests (SCTs), like prothrombin time, platelet count and international normalized ratio. Methods: We prospectively compared and validated the POC tests and SCTs in 70 persons with ACLF and 72 persons with decompensated cirrhosis who had clinical bleeding and checked for episodes of re-bleeding and transfusion requirements. We assessed pre-procedure requirement of blood components when correction was done based on an SCT or POC strategy. Results: Episodes of bleeding were seen in 45% and 28% of ACLF and cirrhosis patient, respectively (p=0.036), with the major site of bleeding being gastrointestinal (31% and 16%, respectively). Platelet counts correlated with TEG-maximum amplitude in cirrhosis (p=0.045) and prothrombin time correlated positively with TEG-reaction (R) time (p=0.032), TEG-Clot kinetics (K) time (p=0.042), Son-activated clotting time (p=0.038) and negatively with clot rate (p=0.043) in ACLF, making these correctable target variables in POC transfusion algorithms. Of 223 procedures, transfusion of fresh frozen plasma and platelet concentrate was reduced by 25% (p=0.035) and 20.8% (p=0.045) by using a POC strategy in 76 patients. Correction of deranged Son-activated clotting time and TEG-reaction time was noted in 68% and 72% after 24 h of fresh frozen plasma transfusion in ACLF and 85% and 80% in cirrhosis, respectively. Conclusions: Our study clinically validates that POC tests can better detect coagulation defects and transfusion thresholds in ACLF and cirrhosis, whereas use of conventional tests appear to be less suitable in patients with clinical bleeding. Trial Registration: NCT04332484.

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