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Water Res ; 203: 117506, 2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371231


The bacterial growth potential (BGP) of drinking water is widely assessed either by flow cytometric intact cell count (BGPICC) or adenosine triphosphate (BGPATP) based methods. Combining BGPICC and BGPATP measurements has been previously applied for various types of drinking water having high to low growth potential. However, this has not been applied for water with ultra-low nutrient content, such as remineralised RO permeate. To conduct a sound comparison, conventionally treated drinking water was included in this study, which was also used as an inoculum source. BGPICC, BGPATP, intact cell-yield (YICC), and ATP-yield (YATP) were determined for conventionally treated drinking water (Tap-water) and remineralised RO permeate (RO-water). In addition, both BGPICC and BGPATP methods were used to identify the growth-limiting nutrient in each water type. The results showed that the BGPICC ratio between Tap-water/RO-water was ∼7.5, whereas the BGPATP ratio was only ∼4.5. Moreover, the YICC ratio between Tap-water/RO-water was ∼2 (9.8 ± 0.6 × 106 vs. 4.6 ± 0.8 × 106 cells/µg-C), whereas the YATP ratio was ∼1 (0.39 ± 0.12 vs. 0.42 ± 0.06 ng ATP/µg-C), resulting in a consistently higher ATP per cell in RO-water than that of Tap-water. Both BGPICC and BGPATP methods revealed that carbon was the growth-limiting nutrient in the two types of water. However, with the addition of extra carbon, phosphate limitation was detected only with the BGPICC method, whereas BGPATP was not affected, suggesting that a combination of carbon and phosphate is essential for biomass synthesis, whereas carbon is probably utilised for cellular activities other than cell synthesis when phosphate is limited. It was estimated that the intact cell-yield growing on phosphate would be 0.70 ± 0.05 × 109 cells/µg PO4-P.

Água Potável , Purificação da Água , Trifosfato de Adenosina , Contagem de Células , Nutrientes , Osmose
Water Res ; 186: 116317, 2020 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32841931


Although water produced by reverse osmosis (RO) filtration has low bacterial growth potential (BGP), post-treatment of RO permeate, which is necessary prior to distribution and human consumption, needs to be examined because of the potential re-introduction of nutrients/contaminants. In this study, drinking water produced from anaerobic groundwater by RO and post-treatment (ion exchange, calcite contactors, and aeration) was compared with that produced by conventional treatment comprising (dry) sand filtration, pellet softening, rapid sand filtration, activated carbon filtration, and UV disinfection. The multi-parametric assessment of biological stability included bacterial quantification, nutrient concentration and composition as well as bacterial community composition and diversity. Results showed that RO permeate remineralised in the laboratory has an extremely low BGP (50 ± 12 × 103 ICC/mL), which increased to 130 ± 10 × 103 ICC/mL after site post-treatment. Despite the negative impact of post-treatment, the BGP of the finished RO-treated water was >75% lower than that of conventionally treated water. Organic carbon limited bacterial growth in both RO-treated and conventionally treated waters. The increased BGP in RO-treated water was caused by the re-introduction of nutrients during post-treatment. Similarly, OTUs introduced during post-treatment, assigned to the phyla of Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes (75-85%), were not present in the source groundwater. Conversely, conventionally treated water shared some OTUs with the source groundwater. It is clear that RO-based treatment achieved an extremely low BGP, which can be further improved by optimising post-treatment, such as using high purity calcite. The multi-parametric approach adopted in this study can offer insights into growth characteristics including limiting nutrients (why) and dominating genera growing (who), which is essential to manage microbiological water quality in water treatment and distribution systems.

Água Potável , Água Subterrânea , Purificação da Água , Filtração , Humanos , Membranas Artificiais , Osmose