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1.
BMJ Open ; 11(10): e053401, 2021 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34642199

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To study the frequency of observed cases of disciplinary law complaints concerning transgressive behaviour in Dutch healthcare by analysing disciplinary cases handled in Dutch disciplinary law. DESIGN: Retrospective review of complaints in the Dutch disciplinary law tribunals from the period 1 January 2015 to 1 January 2020. SETTING: Dutch healthcare. METHOD: Descriptive retrospective study. All judgements at regional disciplinary tribunals in the first instance from the period 1 January 2015 to 1 January 2020 concerning transgressive behaviour were investigated. The following was studied: year of judgement, number and nature of complaints, type of complainants, profession of defendant. RESULTS: Over the study period, 139 complaints about transgressive behaviour were handled, 90 of which involved sexual behaviour. 66/139 complaints were submitted by patients themselves (47.5%). Most complaints were directed against physicians (44.6%; n=62), followed by nurses (30.2%; n=42), psychologists (11.5%; n=16) and physiotherapists (7.9%; n=11). 80.6% of the complaints were directed against a male healthcare professional (OR 4.25; 95% CI 1.7590 to 10.2685; p=0.0013). 104/139 of the complaints originated from an outpatient work setting and about half of the complaints originated from mental healthcare. Of the 90 disciplinary cases in which the complaint was related to sexually transgressive behaviour, 83.3% (n=75) were ruled to be substantiated (5 of which partially) with a measure imposed in all cases: 6 formal warnings (8%), 11 reprimands (14.7%), 10 denials (partial suspension) (13.3%), 26 temporary suspensions (34.7%) and 22 cancellations of the licence to practice (29.3%). CONCLUSION: This study describes jurisprudence of disciplinary cases about transgressive behaviour of healthcare professionals in the Netherlands. The results of this study can be used to monitor trends in observed cases of transgressive behaviour.

2.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0255510, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34351970

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Novel virus outbreaks, such as the COVID-19 pandemic, may increase psychological distress among frontline workers. Psychological distress may lead to reduced performance, reduced employability or even burnout. In the present study, we assessed experienced psychological distress during the COVID-19 pandemic from a self-determination theory perspective. METHODS: This mixed-methods study, with repeated measures, used surveys (quantitative data) combined with audio diaries (qualitative data) to assess work-related COVID-19 experiences, psychological need satisfaction and frustration, and psychological distress over time. Forty-six participants (nurses, junior doctors, and consultants) completed 259 surveys and shared 60 audio diaries. Surveys and audio diaries were analysed separately. RESULTS: Quantitative results indicated that perceived psychological distress during COVID-19 was higher than pre-COVID-19 and fluctuated over time. Need frustration, specifically autonomy and competence, was positively associated with psychological distress, while need satisfaction, especially relatedness, was negatively associated with psychological distress. In the qualitative, thematic analysis, we observed that especially organisational logistics (rostering, work-life balance, and internal communication) frustrated autonomy, and unfamiliarity with COVID-19 frustrated competence. Despite many need frustrating experiences, a strong connection with colleagues and patients were important sources of relatedness support (i.e. need satisfaction) that seemed to mitigate psychological distress. CONCLUSION: The COVID-19 pandemic resulted in an increase of psychological distress among frontline workers. Both need frustration and need satisfaction explained unique variance of psychological distress, but seemed to originate from different sources. Challenging times require healthcare organisations to better support their professionals by tailored formal and informal support. We propose to address both indirect (e.g. organisation) and direct (e.g. colleagues) elements of the clinical and social environment in order to reduce need frustration and enhance need satisfaction.


Assuntos
COVID-19/psicologia , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Angústia Psicológica , Adulto , Ansiedade/psicologia , Esgotamento Profissional/psicologia , Depressão/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Satisfação no Emprego , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Satisfação Pessoal , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidade , Inquéritos e Questionários
3.
Med Teach ; : 1-7, 2021 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33956558

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Differences in professional practice might hinder initiation of student participation during international placements, and thereby limit workplace learning. This study explores how healthcare students overcome differences in professional practice during initiation of international placements. METHODS: Twelve first-year physiotherapy students recorded individual audio diaries during the first month of international clinical placement. Recordings were transcribed, anonymized, and analyzed following a template analysis approach. Team discussions focused on thematic interpretation of results. RESULTS: Students described tackling differences in professional practice via ongoing negotiations of practice between them, local professionals, and peers. Three themes were identified as the focus of students' orientation and adjustment efforts: professional practice, educational context, and individual approaches to learning. Healthcare students' initiation during international placements involved a cyclical process of orientation and adjustment, supported by active participation, professional dialogue, and self-regulated learning strategies. CONCLUSIONS: Initiation of student participation during international placements can be supported by establishing a continuous dialogue between student and healthcare professionals. This dialogue helps align mutual expectations regarding scope of practice, and increase understanding of professional and educational practices. Better understanding, in turn, creates trust and favors meaningful students' contribution to practice and patient care.

4.
Pediatrics ; 146(6)2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33154152

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: To describe the supply, distribution, and characteristics of international medical graduates (IMGs) in pediatrics who provide patient care in the United States. METHODS: Cross-sectional study, combining data from the 2019 Physician Masterfile of the American Medical Association and the Educational Commission for Foreign Medical Graduates database. RESULTS: In total, 92 806 pediatric physicians were identified, comprising 9.4% of the entire US physician workforce. Over half are general pediatricians. IMGs account for 23.2% of all general pediatricians and pediatric subspecialists. Of all IMGs in pediatrics, 22.1% or 4775 are US citizens who obtained their medical degree outside the United States or Canada, and 15.4% (3246) attended medical school in the Caribbean. Fifteen non-US medical schools account for 29.9% of IMGs currently in active practice in pediatrics in the United States. IMGs are less likely to work in group practice or hospital-based practice and are more likely to be employed in solo practice (compared with US medical school graduates). CONCLUSIONS: With this study, we provide an overview of the pediatric workforce, quantifying the contribution of IMGs. Many IMGs are US citizens who attend medical school abroad and return to the United States for postgraduate training. Several factors, including the number of residency training positions, could affect future numbers of IMGs entering the United States. Longitudinal studies are needed to better understand the implications that workforce composition and distribution may have for the care of pediatric patients.


Assuntos
Médicos Graduados Estrangeiros/provisão & distribuição , Internato e Residência/estatística & dados numéricos , Pediatria/educação , Médicos/provisão & distribuição , Faculdades de Medicina , Recursos Humanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estados Unidos
5.
BMC Med Educ ; 20(1): 353, 2020 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33032578

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Medical curricula are increasingly internationalized, with international students being mixed with domestic students in small group learning. Small group learning is known to foster competency learning in undergraduate medical education, specifically Communication, Collaboration, Leadership, and Professionalism. However, it is unclear what happens with the learning of competencies when international students are introduced in small groups. This study explores if students in international small groups master the competencies Collaboration, Leadership and Professionalism at the same level as students in domestic groups in an undergraduate medical curriculum. METHOD: In total, 1215 Students of three academic year cohorts participated in the study. They were divided into four learning communities (LCs), per year cohort, in which tutor groups were the main instructional format. The tutorials of two learning communities were taught in English, with a mix of international and Dutch students. The tutorials of the other two learning communities were taught in Dutch with almost all domestic students. Trained tutors assessed three competencies (Collaboration, Leadership, Professionalism) twice per semester, as 'Not-on-track', 'On-track', or 'Fast-on-track'. By using Chi-square tests, we compared students' competencies performance twice per semester between the four LCs in the first two undergraduate years. RESULTS: The passing rate ('On-track' plus 'Fast-on-track') for the minimum level of competencies did not differ between the mixed and domestic groups. However, students in the mixed groups received more excellent performance evaluations ('Fast-on-track') than the students in the homogenous groups of Dutch students. This higher performance was true for both international and Dutch students of the mixed groups. Prior knowledge, age, gender, and nationality did not explain this phenomenon. The effect could also not be explained by a bias of the tutors. CONCLUSION: When students are educated in mixed groups of international and Dutch students, they can obtain the same basic competency levels, no matter what mix of students is made. However, students in the mixed international groups outperformed the students in the homogenous Dutch groups in achieving excellent performance scores. Future research should explore if these findings can be explained from differences in motivation, perceived grading or social network interactions.


Assuntos
Educação de Graduação em Medicina , Estudantes de Medicina , Currículo , Humanos , Aprendizagem , Profissionalismo
6.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(7): e209418, 2020 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32663311

RESUMO

Importance: Historically, the US physician workforce has included a large number of international medical graduates (IMGs). Recent US immigration policies may affect the inflow of IMGs, particularly those who are citizens of Muslim-majority nations. Objectives: To provide an overview of the characteristics of IMGs from Muslim-majority nations, including their contributions to the US physician workforce, and to describe trends in the number of applications for certification to the Educational Commission for Foreign Medical Graduates between 2019 and 2018, both overall and for citizens of Muslim-majority nations. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cross-sectional study, which included 1 065 606 US physicians listed in the 2019 American Medical Association Physician Masterfile and 156 017 applicants to the Educational Commission for Foreign Medical Graduates certification process between 2009 and 2018, used a repeated cross-sectional study design to review the available data, including country of medical school attended, citizenship when entering medical school, and career information, such as present employment, specialty, and type of practice. Exposures: Country of citizenship when entering medical school. Main Outcomes and Measures: Physician counts and demographic information from the 2019 American Medical Association Physician Masterfile and applicant data from the Educational Commission for Foreign Medical Graduates from 2009 to 2018. Results: Of 1 065 606 physicians in the American Medical Association Physician Masterfile, 263 029 (24.7%) were IMGs, of whom 48 354 were citizens of Muslim-majority countries at time of entry to medical school, representing 18.4% of all IMGs. Overall, 1 in 22 physicians in the US was an IMG from a Muslim-majority nation, representing 4.5% of the total US physician workforce. More than half of IMGs from Muslim-majority nations (24 491 [50.6%]) come from 3 countries: Pakistan (14 352 [29.7%]), Iran (5288 [10.9%]), and Egypt (4851 [10.0%]). The most prevalent specialties include internal medicine (10 934 [23.6%]), family medicine (3430 [7.5%]), pediatrics (2767 [5.9%]), and psychiatry (2251 [4.8%]), with 18 229 (38.1%) practicing in primary care specialties. The number of applicants for Educational Commission for Foreign Medical Graduates certification from Muslim-majority countries increased from 2009 (3227 applicants) to 2015 (4244 applicants), then decreased by 2.1% in 2016 to 4254 applicants, 4.3% in 2017 to 4073 applicants, and 11.5% in 2018 to 3604 applicants. Much of this decrease could be attributed to fewer citizens from Pakistan (1042 applicants in 2015 to 919 applicants in 2018), Egypt (493 applicants in 2015 to 309 applicants in 2018), Iran (281 applicants in 2015 to 182 applicants in 2018), and Saudi Arabia (337 applicants in 2015 to 163 applicants in 2018) applying for certification. Conclusions and Relevance: Based on the findings of this study, the number of ECFMG applicants from Muslim-majority countries decreased from 2015 to 2018. The US physician workforce will continue to rely on IMGs for some time to come. To the extent that citizens from some countries no longer seek residency positions in the US, gaps in the physician workforce could widen.


Assuntos
Certificação/estatística & dados numéricos , Médicos Graduados Estrangeiros , Islamismo , Médicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Recursos Humanos/estatística & dados numéricos , American Medical Association , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Médicos Graduados Estrangeiros/provisão & distribuição , Médicos Graduados Estrangeiros/tendências , Humanos , Internato e Residência/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Prevalência , Estados Unidos
7.
Perspect Med Educ ; 9(1): 41-48, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32016811

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: International placements challenge students to find the right level of participation, as local practices, language and time pressure may affect their engagement in patient-related tasks or team activities. This study sought to unpack the initiation process during international clinical placements with the ultimate aim to achieve active student participation. METHODS: Following a constructivist grounded theory approach, we conducted two individual interviews with 15 undergraduate healthcare students (before departure and whilst on placement). To identify emerging themes, we applied an iterative process of data collection and constant comparative analysis. Several team discussions informed further analysis, allowing us to reach a more conceptual level of theory. RESULTS: From our findings we constructed a four-phase model of healthcare students' initiation of international clinical placements, which brings into focus how the phases of 'orientation', 'adjustment' and 'contribution to patient care' build up towards a 'sense of belonging'. We identified several factors that induced active student participation in practice, such as a favourable workplace setting, opportunities for learning and a local support network. DISCUSSION: Active student participation is aimed at different goals, depending on the four phases of initiation that eventually lead to a sense of belonging and support workplace learning.


Assuntos
Intercâmbio Educacional Internacional/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes de Medicina/estatística & dados numéricos , Engajamento no Trabalho , Teoria Fundamentada , Pessoal de Saúde/educação , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Pessoal de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Intercâmbio Educacional Internacional/tendências , Entrevistas como Assunto/métodos , Países Baixos , Desenvolvimento de Programas , Pesquisa Qualitativa
8.
Aust J Prim Health ; 2019 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31738874

RESUMO

Transgender individuals who desire medical transition need to access care through their local healthcare system. This is the first study to explore the perceptions of the community and attitudes of healthcare providers towards the delivery of transgender health care in an Australian context. An anonymous survey was conducted of trans and gender-diverse community members; and physicians and trainees in the Hunter New England Local Health District of New South Wales, Australia. Community members were surveyed about their healthcare experiences. Medical students, GPs and hospital physicians were surveyed on their attitudes towards the delivery of transgender health care before and after a 1-h education session that included the lived experience of a community member. Community members expressed a need for increased education for healthcare providers in transgender medicine. Following the intervention, significantly more healthcare providers felt confident to facilitate transgender health care for adults, adolescents and children; and more healthcare providers agreed that medical and surgical treatment should be offered to transgender patients if desired. The positive safety profile of treatment was felt to be the most persuasive factor for the provision of care. Healthcare providers identified a need for health education in transgender medicine; easy access to evidence-based resources; and local referral pathways as key strategies to improving transgender health care.

10.
BMC Fam Pract ; 20(1): 47, 2019 03 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30927914

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To describe the supply, distribution, and characteristics of international medical graduates (IMGs) in family medicine who provide patient care in the U.S. METHODS: A cross-sectional study design, using descriptive statistics on combined data from the Educational Commission for Foreign Medical Graduates and the American Medical Association, including medical school attended, country of medical school, and citizenship when entering medical school. RESULTS: In total, 118,817 physicians in family medicine were identified, with IMGs representing 23.8% (n = 28,227) of the U.S. patient care workforce. Of all 9579 residents in family medicine, 36.0% (n = 3452) are IMGS. In total, 35.9% of IMGs attended medical school in the Caribbean (n = 10,136); 19.9% in South-Central Asia (n = 5607) and 9.1% in South-Eastern Asia (n = 2565). The most common countries of medical school training were Dominica, Mexico, and Sint Maarten. Of all IMGs in family medicine who attended medical school in the Caribbean, 74.5% were U.S. citizens. In total, 40.5% of all IMGs in family medicine held U.S. citizenship at entry to medical school. IMGs comprise almost 40% of the family medicine workforce in Florida, New Jersey and New York. CONCLUSIONS: IMGs play an important role in the U.S. family medicine workforce. Many IMGs are U.S. citizens who studied abroad and then returned to the U.S. for graduate training. Given the shortage of family physicians, and the large number of IMGs in graduate training programs, IMGs will continue to play a role in the U.S. physician workforce for some time to come. Many factors, including the supply of residency training positions, could eventually restrict the number of IMGs entering the U.S., including those contributing to family practice.


Assuntos
Emigrantes e Imigrantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Medicina de Família e Comunidade/estatística & dados numéricos , Médicos Graduados Estrangeiros/provisão & distribuição , Médicos de Família/provisão & distribuição , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Medicina de Família e Comunidade/educação , Feminino , Médicos Graduados Estrangeiros/estatística & dados numéricos , Mão de Obra em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Médicos de Família/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos
11.
PLoS One ; 14(4): e0214378, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30933988

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Migration of physicians has been a cause for global concern. In China, reforms of the higher education and healthcare systems have led to a shortage of postgraduate training positions relative to the number of medical graduates. Medical graduates opt for non-clinical roles or move abroad to pursue further training and practice opportunities. The impact of this physician migration is not known. This study quantifies where Chinese migrant physicians to the U.S. were educated, where they went to practice, and how these trends have changed over time. METHODS: We combined data on physician characteristics from the 2008 and 2017 American Medical Association Physician Masterfiles with demographic information from the Educational Commission for Foreign Medical Graduates. Using a repeated cross-sectional approach, we reviewed the available data, including citizenship at entry to medical school, medical school attended, practice specialty, and practice location. RESULTS: The number of Chinese-educated physicians (CEPs) to the United States (US) has increased over the past 10 years, from 3,878 in 2008 to 5,355 in 2017 (+38.1%). The majority held Chinese citizenship at entry to medical school (98.4% vs 97.1%) with the remainder being citizens of other East Asian nations. Of the Chinese citizens identified in 2008, 913 (19.3%) attended medical school outside of China; in 2017, 376 (6.7%) attended medical school outside of China, representing a decrease of 58.8%. Overall, in 2017, four Chinese medical schools provided 32.1% of all Chinese-educated physicians in the US. Over 50% of the CEPs were practicing in Internal Medicine, Anatomic/ Clinical Pathology, Anesthesiology, Family Medicine or Neurology. Compared with all IMGs, CEPs are more likely to be Anatomic/ Clinical Pathologists and Anesthesiologists. CEPs were concentrated in several states, including New York, California and Massachusetts. In 2017, a lower proportion of CEPs in the US healthcare workforce were in residency training, compared to 2008 (13.2% vs 22.8%). CONCLUSIONS: Unlike trends from some other South Asian countries, the number of CEPs in the US has increased over the past 10 years. Migration trends may vary depending on citizenship and country of medical school training. The majority of Chinese-educated graduates come to the US from relatively few medical schools. Fewer CEPs currently in residency training might indicate lower success rates in securing GME training in the US.


Assuntos
American Medical Association , Atenção à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Educação de Pós-Graduação em Medicina/estatística & dados numéricos , Médicos/estatística & dados numéricos , China , Atenção à Saúde/tendências , Educação de Pós-Graduação em Medicina/tendências , Feminino , Médicos Graduados Estrangeiros , Migração Humana/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Medicina Interna/estatística & dados numéricos , Internato e Residência , Masculino , Estados Unidos
12.
Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd ; 1622018 Aug 30.
Artigo em Holandês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30211998

RESUMO

Good supervision during clinical placements is essential for the medical student's learning process. Supervision of medical students can, however, be challenging for doctors and resident physicians, and it can also be challenging for students to request this supervision. Here we give 5 tips for provision of good supervision and 5 tips for requesting good supervision, on the basis of three relevant educational theories - 'self-regulated learning', 'cognitive apprenticeship', and 'communities of practice'.


Assuntos
Estágio Clínico/organização & administração , Aprendizagem , Estudantes de Medicina , Humanos
14.
LGBT Health ; 4(4): 295-303, 2017 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28723306

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study aims at establishing the scope of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer, and intersex (LGBTQI) health in Australian and New Zealand medical curricula. METHODS: We sent medical school curriculum administrators an online cross-sectional survey. RESULTS: The response rate was 15 medical schools (71%): 14 Australian schools and 1 New Zealand school. Respondents included program directors (n = 5; 33%), course coordinators (n = 4; 27%), Heads of School (n = 2; 13%), one Dean (7%), and three others (20%). Most schools (n = 9; 60%) reported 0-5 hours dedicated to teaching LGBTQI content during the required pre-clinical phase; nine schools (60%) reported access to a clinical rotation site where LGBTQI patient care is common. In most schools (n = 9; 60%), LGBTQI-specific content is interspersed throughout the curriculum, but five schools (33%) have dedicated modules. The most commonly used teaching modalities include lectures (n = 12; 80%) and small-group sessions (n = 9; 60%). LGBTQI content covered in curricula is varied, with the most common topics being how to obtain information about same-sex sexual activity (80%) and the difference between sexual behavior and identity (67%). Teaching about gender and gender identity is more varied across schools, with seven respondents (47%) unsure about what is taught. Eight respondents (53%) described the coverage of LGBTQI content at their institution as "fair," two (13%) as "good," and two (13%) as "poor," with one respondent (7%) describing the coverage as "very poor." None of the respondents described the coverage as "very good." CONCLUSIONS: Currently, medical schools include limited content on LGBTQI health, most of which focuses on sexuality. There is a need for further inclusion of curriculum related to transgender, gender diverse, and intersex people.


Assuntos
Currículo , Educação Médica , Saúde das Minorias/educação , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Austrália , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Nova Zelândia , Faculdades de Medicina , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero/educação
15.
Hum Resour Health ; 15(1): 41, 2017 06 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28651539

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Migration of health professionals has been a cause for global concern, in particular migration from African countries with a high disease burden and already fragile health systems. An estimated one fifth of African-born physicians are working in high-income countries. Lack of good data makes it difficult to determine what constitutes "African" physicians, as most studies do not distinguish between their country of citizenship and country of training. Thus, the real extent of migration from African countries to the United States (US) remains unclear. This paper quantifies where African migrant physicians come from, where they were educated, and how these trends have changed over time. METHODS: We combined data from the Educational Commission for Foreign Medical Graduates with the 2005 and 2015 American Medical Association Physician Masterfiles. Using a repeated cross-sectional study design, we reviewed the available data, including medical school attended, country of medical school, and citizenship when entering medical school. RESULTS: The outflow of African-educated physicians to the US has increased over the past 10 years, from 10 684 in 2005 to 13 584 in 2015 (27.1% increase). This represents 5.9% of all international medical graduates in the US workforce in 2015. The number of African-educated physicians who graduated from medical schools in sub-Saharan countries was 2014 in 2005 and 8150 in 2015 (304.6% increase). We found four distinct categorizations of African-trained physicians migrating to the US: (1) citizens from an African country who attended medical school in their own country (86.2%, n = 11,697); (2) citizens from an African country who attended medical school in another African country (2.3%, n = 317); (3) US citizens who attended medical school in an African country (4.0%, n = 537); (4) citizens from a country outside Africa, and other than the United States, who attended medical school in an African country (7.5%, n = 1013). Overall, six schools in Africa provided half of all African-educated physicians. CONCLUSIONS: The number of African-educated physicians in the US has increased over the past 10 years. We have distinguished four migration patterns, based on citizenship and country of medical school. The majority of African graduates come to the US from relatively few countries, and from a limited number of medical schools. A proportion are not citizens of the country where they attended medical school, highlighting the internationalization of medical education.


Assuntos
Emigração e Imigração/tendências , Médicos Graduados Estrangeiros/tendências , Médicos/provisão & distribuição , África , American Medical Association , Estudos Transversais , Médicos Graduados Estrangeiros/provisão & distribuição , Humanos , Estados Unidos
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