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1.
Pediatr Blood Cancer ; : e28079, 2019 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31724815

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Total body irradiation (TBI)-based conditioning is the standard of care in the treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) that requires allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). However, TBI is known to be associated with an increased risk of late effects, and therefore, non-TBI regimens have also been utilized successfully. A recent study showed that patients that were next-generation sequencing-minimal residual disease (NGS-MRD) negative prior to allogeneic HSCT had a very low risk of relapse, and perhaps could avoid exposure to TBI without compromising disease control. We examined outcomes at our institution in patients that received a TBI or non-TBI regimen, as well as explored the impact of NGS-MRD status in predicting risk of relapse post transplant. PROCEDURES: This retrospective analysis included 57 children and young adults with ALL that received their first myeloablative allogeneic HSCT from 2012 to 2017 at the University of California San Francisco. Our primary endpoint was the cumulative incidence of relapse at 3 years post transplant. RESULTS: We demonstrated similar cumulative incidence of relapse for patients treated with either a TBI or non-TBI conditioning regimen, while NGS-MRD positivity prior to transplant was highly predictive of relapse. The presence of acute graft-versus-host disease was associated with decreased relapse rates, particularly among patients that received a TBI conditioning regimen and patients that were NGS-MRD positive prior to HSCT. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that the decision to use either a TBI or non-TBI regimens in ALL should depend on NGS-MRD status, with conditioning regimens based on TBI reserved for patients that cannot achieve NGS-MRD negativity prior to allogeneic HSCT.

2.
JAMA ; 322(17): 1673-1681, 2019 11 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31688884

RESUMO

Importance: Children, adolescents, and young adults with acute myeloid leukemia are at high risk of life-threatening invasive fungal disease with both yeasts and molds. Objective: To compare the efficacy of caspofungin vs fluconazole prophylaxis against proven or probable invasive fungal disease and invasive aspergillosis during neutropenia following acute myeloid leukemia chemotherapy. Design, Setting, and Participants: This multicenter, randomized, open-label, clinical trial enrolled patients aged 3 months to 30 years with newly diagnosed de novo, relapsed, or secondary acute myeloid leukemia being treated at 115 US and Canadian institutions (April 2011-November 2016; last follow-up June 30, 2018). Interventions: Participants were randomly assigned during the first chemotherapy cycle to prophylaxis with caspofungin (n = 257) or fluconazole (n = 260). Prophylaxis was administered during the neutropenic period following each chemotherapy cycle. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was proven or probable invasive fungal disease as adjudicated by blinded central review. Secondary outcomes were invasive aspergillosis, empirical antifungal therapy, and overall survival. Results: The second interim efficacy analysis and an unplanned futility analysis based on 394 patients appeared to have suggested futility, so the study was closed to accrual. Among the 517 participants who were randomized (median age, 9 years [range, 0-26 years]; 44% female), 508 (98%) completed the trial. The 23 proven or probable invasive fungal disease events (6 caspofungin vs 17 fluconazole) included 14 molds, 7 yeasts, and 2 fungi not further categorized. The 5-month cumulative incidence of proven or probable invasive fungal disease was 3.1% (95% CI, 1.3%-7.0%) in the caspofungin group vs 7.2% (95% CI, 4.4%-11.8%) in the fluconazole group (overall P = .03 by log-rank test) and for cumulative incidence of proven or probable invasive aspergillosis was 0.5% (95% CI, 0.1%-3.5%) with caspofungin vs 3.1% (95% CI, 1.4%-6.9%) with fluconazole (overall P = .046 by log-rank test). No statistically significant differences in empirical antifungal therapy (71.9% caspofungin vs 69.5% fluconazole, overall P = .78 by log-rank test) or 2-year overall survival (68.8% caspofungin vs 70.8% fluconazole, overall P = .66 by log-rank test) were observed. The most common toxicities were hypokalemia (22 caspofungin vs 13 fluconazole), respiratory failure (6 caspofungin vs 9 fluconazole), and elevated alanine transaminase (4 caspofungin vs 8 fluconazole). Conclusions and Relevance: Among children, adolescents, and young adults with acute myeloid leukemia, prophylaxis with caspofungin compared with fluconazole resulted in significantly lower incidence of invasive fungal disease. The findings suggest that caspofungin may be considered for prophylaxis against invasive fungal disease, although study interpretation is limited by early termination due to an unplanned interim analysis that appeared to have suggested futility. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01307579.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Caspofungina/uso terapêutico , Fluconazol/uso terapêutico , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Micoses/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Adulto , Antifúngicos/efeitos adversos , Aspergilose/epidemiologia , Aspergilose/prevenção & controle , Caspofungina/efeitos adversos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Término Precoce de Ensaios Clínicos , Feminino , Fluconazol/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Lactente , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/complicações , Masculino , Neutropenia/complicações , Adulto Jovem
3.
Blood Adv ; 3(20): 3123-3131, 2019 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31648332

RESUMO

Allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT) is curative therapy for the treatment of patients with severe aplastic anemia (SAA). However, several conditioning regimens can be used for BMT. We evaluated transplant conditioning regimens for BMT in SAA after HLA-matched sibling and unrelated donor BMT. For recipients of HLA-matched sibling donor transplantation (n = 955), fludarabine (Flu)/cyclophosphamide (Cy)/antithymocyte globulin (ATG) or Cy/ATG led to the best survival. The 5-year probabilities of survival with Flu/Cy/ATG, Cy/ATG, Cy ± Flu, and busulfan/Cy were 91%, 91%, 80%, and 84%, respectively (P = .001). For recipients of 8/8 and 7/8 HLA allele-matched unrelated donor transplantation (n = 409), there were no differences in survival between regimens. The 5-year probabilities of survival with Cy/ATG/total body irradiation 200 cGy, Flu/Cy/ATG/total body irradiation 200 cGy, Flu/Cy/ATG, and Cy/ATG were 77%, 80%, 75%, and 72%, respectively (P = .61). Rabbit-derived ATG compared with equine-derived ATG was associated with a lower risk of grade II to IV acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) (hazard ratio [HR], 0.39; P < .001) but not chronic GVHD. Independent of conditioning regimen, survival was lower in patients aged >30 years after HLA-matched sibling (HR, 2.74; P < .001) or unrelated donor (HR, 1.98; P = .001) transplantation. These data support Flu/Cy/ATG and Cy/ATG as optimal regimens for HLA-matched sibling BMT. Although survival after an unrelated donor BMT did not differ between regimens, use of rabbit-derived ATG may be preferred because of lower risks of acute GVHD.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31563573

RESUMO

Critically ill pediatric allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) patients may benefit from early and aggressive interventions aimed at reversing the progression of multiorgan dysfunction. Therefore, we evaluated 25 early risk factors for pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) mortality to improve mortality prognostication. We merged the Virtual Pediatric Systems and Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research databases and analyzed 936 critically ill patients ≤21 years of age who had undergone allogeneic HCT and subsequently required PICU admission between January 1, 2009, and December 31, 2014. Of 1532 PICU admissions, the overall PICU mortality rate was 17.4% (95% confidence interval [CI], 15.6% to 19.4%) but was significantly higher for patients requiring mechanical ventilation (44.0%), renal replacement therapy (56.1%), or extracorporeal life support (77.8%). Mortality estimates increased significantly the longer that patients remained in the PICU. Of 25 HCT- and PICU-specific characteristics available at or near the time of PICU admission, moderate/severe pre-HCT renal injury, pre-HCT recipient cytomegalovirus seropositivity, <100-day interval between HCT and PICU admission, HCT for underlying acute myeloid leukemia, and greater admission organ dysfunction as approximated by the Pediatric Risk of Mortality 3 score were each independently associated with PICU mortality. A multivariable model using these components identified that patients in the top quartile of risk had 3 times greater mortality than other patients (35.1% versus 11.5%, P < .001, classification accuracy 75.2%; 95% CI, 73.0% to 77.4%). These data improve our working knowledge of the factors influencing the progression of critical illness in pediatric allogeneic HCT patients. Future investigation aimed at mitigating the effect of these risk factors is warranted.

5.
Blood Adv ; 3(17): 2562-2570, 2019 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31471325

RESUMO

We studied 1110 patients with ß-thalassemia major aged ≤25 years who received transplants with grafts from HLA-matched related (n = 677; 61%), HLA-mismatched related (n = 78; 7%), HLA-matched unrelated (n = 252; 23%), and HLA-mismatched unrelated (n = 103; 9%) donors between 2000 and 2016. Ninety percent of transplants were performed in the last decade. Eight-five percent of patients received ≥20 transfusions and 88% were inadequately chelated. All patients received myeloablative-conditioning regimen. Overall and event-free survival were highest for patients aged ≤6 years and after HLA-matched related and HLA-matched unrelated donor transplantation. The 5-year probabilities of overall survival for patients aged ≤6 years, 7 to 15 years, and 16 to 25 years, adjusted for donor type and conditioning regimen were 90%, 84%, and 63%, respectively (P < .001). The corresponding probabilities for event-free survival were 86%, 80%, and 63% (P < .001). Overall and event-free survival did not differ between HLA-matched related and HLA-matched unrelated donor transplantation (89% vs 87% and 86% vs 82%, respectively). Corresponding probabilities after mismatched related and mismatched unrelated donor transplantation were 73% vs 83% and 70% vs 78%. In conclusion, if transplantation is considered as a treatment option it should be offered early (age ≤6 years). An HLA-matched unrelated donor is a suitable alternative if an HLA-matched relative is not available.

7.
J Clin Immunol ; 39(7): 653-667, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31376032

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) affects approximately 1/3 of patients with chronic granulomatous disease (CGD). Comprehensive investigation of the effect of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) on CGD IBD and the impact of IBD on transplant outcomes is lacking. METHODS: We collected data retrospectively from 145 patients with CGD who had received allogeneic HCT at 26 Primary Immune Deficiency Treatment Consortium (PIDTC) centers between January 1, 2005 and June 30, 2016. RESULTS: Forty-nine CGD patients with IBD and 96 patients without IBD underwent allogeneic HCT. Eighty-nine percent of patients with IBD and 93% of patients without IBD engrafted (p = 0.476). Upper gastrointestinal acute GVHD occurred in 8.5% of patients with IBD and 3.5% of patients without IBD (p = 0.246). Lower gastrointestinal acute GVHD occurred in 10.6% of patients with IBD and 11.8% of patients without IBD (p = 0.845). The cumulative incidence of acute GVHD grades II-IV was 30% (CI 17-43%) in patients with IBD and 20% (CI 12-29%) in patients without IBD (p = 0.09). Five-year overall survival was equivalent for patients with and without IBD: 80% [CI 66-89%] and 83% [CI 72-90%], respectively (p = 0.689). All 33 surviving evaluable patients with a history of IBD experienced resolution of IBD by 2 years following allogeneic HCT. CONCLUSIONS: In this cohort, allogeneic HCT was curative for CGD-associated IBD. IBD should not contraindicate HCT, as it does not lead to an increased risk of mortality. This study is registered at clinicaltrials.gov NCT02082353.

8.
Pediatr Blood Cancer ; 66(11): e27948, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31347788

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite the intensity of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HCT), relapse remains the most common cause of death in juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia (JMML). In contrast to other leukemias where therapy is used to reduce leukemic burden prior to transplant, many patients with JMML proceed directly to HCT with active disease. The objective of this study was to elucidate whether pre-HCT therapy has an effect on the molecular burden of disease and how this affects outcome post-HCT. PROCEDURE: Twenty-one patients with JMML who received pre-HCT therapy and were transplanted at UCSF were analyzed in this study. The mutant allele frequency of the driver mutation was assessed before and after pre-HCT therapy, using custom amplicon next-generation sequencing. RESULTS: Of the 21 patients, seven patients (33%) responded to therapy with a significant reduction in their mutant allele frequency and were classified as molecular responders. Six of these patients received moderate-intensity chemotherapy, one patient received only azacitidine. The 5-year progression-free survival after HCT of molecular responders was 100% versus 61% for nonresponders (P = .12). Survival of molecular nonresponders was not improved by use of high-intensity conditioning, but patients were salvaged if they experienced severe graft versus host disease. There were no baseline clinical characteristics that were associated with response to pre-HCT therapy. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the myelodysplastic nature of JMML, patients treated with pre-HCT therapy can achieve molecular remissions. These patients experienced a trend toward improved outcomes post-HCT. Importantly, molecular testing can be helpful to distinguish between responders and nonresponders and should become an integral part of clinical care.

9.
Biol Blood Marrow Transplant ; 25(10): 2031-2039, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31199983

RESUMO

High-risk neuroblastoma has a poor prognosis, and research studies have shown that increasing the intensity of therapy improves outcomes. Autologous hematopoietic cell transplant (aHCT) as consolidation therapy confers a significant survival advantage but is accompanied by significant morbidity. Transplant-associated thrombotic microangiopathy (TA-TMA) is a life-threatening complication caused by endothelial injury that often leads to hemolytic anemia, microthrombotic platelet consumption, and renal injury. Here we investigated the incidence, potential risk factors, and sequelae of TA-TMA in patients with high-risk neuroblastoma. We conducted a retrospective chart review of all patients (n = 141) with neuroblastoma in our institutions who underwent aHCT from 2000 to 2017. Ten patients (7%) developed TA-TMA. The patients in the TA-TMA group were similar to the rest of the subjects in demographics, disease burden, prior therapies, renal function, and timing of transplant. The type of conditioning regimen was the only statistically significant pretransplant variable (P < .001). Six of 15 patients (40%) intended to receive tandem transplants (cyclophosphamide/thiotepa and then carboplatin/etoposide/melphalan (CEM)), 4 of 68 patients (6%) who received conditioning with single CEM, and none of the 56 patients who received busulfan/melphalan were diagnosed with TA-TMA. Patients with TA-TMA were more likely to require intensive care unit transfer, have a longer length of stay in the hospital, and experience a delay or change in their subsequent therapy. In our cohort overall, patients with a delay in therapy after transplant appeared to have a worse overall survival, although the difference was not statistically significant. Because of this high incidence and significant morbidity, we have implemented standardized screening for TA-TMA during and after transplant. We anticipate that screening will lead to earlier intervention and decreased severity of disease.

10.
Biol Blood Marrow Transplant ; 25(8): 1603-1610, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31002993

RESUMO

The primary objective of this work was to characterize the pharmacokinetics (PK) of systemic clofarabine (clo-fara) in pediatric allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) recipients receiving either nucleoside monotherapy or a dual nucleoside analog preparative regimen. Fifty-one children (median age, 4.9 years; range, .25 to 14.9 years) undergoing allogeneic HCT for a variety of malignant and nonmalignant disorders underwent PK assessment. Plasma samples were collected over the 4 to 5 days of clo-fara treatment and quantified for clo-fara, using a validated liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry assay. Nonlinear mixed-effects modeling was used to develop the population PK model, including identification of covariates that influenced drug disposition. In agreement with previously published models, a 2-compartment PK model with first-order elimination best described the PK of clo-fara. Final parameter estimates for clo-fara were consistent with previous reports and were as follows: clearance (CL), 23 L/h/15 kg; volume of the central compartment, 42 L/15 kg; volume of peripheral compartment, 47 L/15 kg; and intercompartmental CL, 9.8 L/h/15 kg. Unexplained variability was acceptable at 33%, and the additive residual error (reflective of the assay) was estimated to be 0.36 ng/mL. Patient-specific factors significantly impacting clo-fara CL included actual body weight and age. The covariate model was able to estimate clo-fara CL with good precision in children spanning a wide age range from infancy to early adulthood and demonstrates the need for variable dosing in children of different ages. For example, the dose required for a 6-month and 1-year old was approximately 43% and 17% lower, respectively, than the typical 40 mg/m2dose to achieve the median AUC0-24of 1.04 mg·h/L in the study population. Despite the known renal elimination of clo-fara, no significant clinical parameters for renal function were retained in the final model (P> .05). Coadministration of fludarabine with clo-fara did not alter the CL of clo-fara (P> .05). These results will help inform individualized dosing strategies for clo-fara to improve clinical outcomes and limit drug-related adverse events in children undergoing HCT.

12.
Biol Blood Marrow Transplant ; 25(7): 1355-1362, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30876930

RESUMO

After allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT), the minimal myeloid chimerism required for full T and B cell reconstitution in patients with severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) is unknown. We retrospectively reviewed our experience with low-exposure busulfan (cumulative area under the curve, 30 mg·hr/L) in 10 SCID patients undergoing either first or repeat HCT from unrelated or haploidentical donors. The median busulfan dose required to achieve this exposure was 5.9 mg/kg (range, 4.8 to 9.1). With a median follow-up of 4.5 years all patients survived, with 1 requiring an additional HCT. Donor myeloid chimerism was generally >90% at 1 month post-HCT, but in most patients it fell during the next 3 months, such that 1-year median myeloid chimerism was 14% (range, 2% to 100%). Six of 10 patients had full T and B cell reconstitution, despite myeloid chimerism as low as 3%. Three patients have not recovered B cell function at over 2 years post-HCT, 2 of them in the setting of treatment with rituximab for post-HCT autoimmunity. Low-exposure busulfan was well tolerated and achieved sufficient myeloid chimerism for full immune reconstitution in over 50% of patients. However, other factors beyond busulfan exposure may also play critical roles in determining long-term myeloid chimerism and full T and B cell reconstitution.

13.
Cancer Chemother Pharmacol ; 83(5): 905-910, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30847504

RESUMO

It is desirable to develop a fast method for quantification of melphalan due to its instability. Here we report a method for quantification of melphalan (MPL) in human plasma using a UPLC-PDA system. Briefly, 50 µL plasma sample was mixed with 25 µL internal standard (2500 ng/mL acetylmelphalan in methanol) and 25 µL 20% trichloroacetic acid, and centrifuged at 21,000 g (15,000 rpm) at 4 °C for 3 min. The supernatant (5 µL) was injected onto an Acquity™ BEH C18 LC column (2.1 × 50 mm, 1.7 µm) and eluted with 25 mM NH4AC (pH 4.7)-acetonitrile in a gradient mode at a flow rate of 0.6 mL/min. The column kept at 40 ± 5 °C and the autosampler kept at 4 ± 5 °C. The detector set at 261 nm, and sampling rate was 40points/sec. The retention times were typically 2.11 min for melphalan and 2.38 min for the internal standard. Total run time is 4 min per sample. Calibration range was 100-40,000 ng/mL. The lower limit of quantification was 100 ng/mL. The method was validated based on the FDA guidelines, and applied to a clinical pharmacokinetic study in pediatric patients.

14.
JAMA Pediatr ; 173(5): e190081, 2019 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30882883

RESUMO

Importance: Studies demonstrating improved survival after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant generally exclude infants. Objective: To analyze overall survival trends and other outcomes among infants who undergo allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant. Design, Setting, and Participants: In this cohort study, we used time-trend analysis to evaluate 3 periods: 2000 through 2004, 2005 through 2009, and 2010 through 2014. The study was conducted in a multicenter setting through the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research, which is made up of a voluntary working group of more than 450 transplant centers worldwide. Two groups of infants aged 1 year or younger in 2 cohorts were included: those with malignant conditions, such as leukemia, and those with nonmalignant disorders, including immunodeficiencies. Data analysis was conducted from July 2017 to December 2018. Exposures: Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant. Main Outcomes and Measures: Survival trends, disease relapse, and toxicity. Results: A total of 2498 infants with a median age of 7 months (range, <1-12 months) were included. In the nonmalignant cohort (n = 472), survival rates improved from the first to the second period (hazard ratio, 0.77 [95% CI, 0.63-0.93]; P = .007) but did not change after 2004. Compared with infants with nonmalignant diseases (n = 2026; 3-year overall survival: 2000-2004, 375/577 [65.0%]; 2005-2009, 503/699 [72.0%]; and 2010-2014, 555/750 [74.0%]), those with malignant conditions had poorer survival rates, without improvement over time (3-year overall survival: 2000-2004, 109/199 [54.8%]; 2005-2009, 104/161 [64.6%]; and 2010-2014, 66/112 [58.9%]). From 2000 through 2014, relapse rates increased in infants with malignant conditions (3-year relapse rate: 2000-2004, 19% [95% CI, 14%-25%]; 2005-2009, 23% [95% CI, 17%-30%]; 2010-2014, 36% [95% CI, 27%-46%]; P = .01). Sinusoidal obstruction syndrome was frequent, occurring with a cumulative incidence of 13% (95% CI, 11%-16%) of infants with nonmalignant diseases and 32% (95% CI, 22%-42%) of those with malignant diseases. Generally, recipients of human leukocyte antigen-identical sibling bone marrow grafts had the best outcomes. Conclusions and Relevance: Survival rates have not improved for infants with malignant diseases over the 15-year study period. Infants with nonmalignant diseases had improved survival rates in the earlier but not the later study period. Higher relapses for the malignant cohort and toxicities for all infants remain significant challenges. Strategies to reduce relapse and toxicity and optimize donor and graft selection may improve outcomes in the future.

15.
Biol Blood Marrow Transplant ; 25(5): 955-964, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30605731

RESUMO

Although donation of bone marrow (BM) or peripheral blood stem cells (PBSCs) from children to family members undergoing allogeneic transplantation are well-established procedures, studies detailing levels of pain, symptoms, and long-term recovery are lacking. To address this lack, we prospectively enrolled 294 donors age <18 years at 25 pediatric transplantation centers in North America, assessing them predonation, peridonation, and at 1 month, 6 months, and 1 year postdonation. We noted that 71% of children reported pain and 59% reported other symptoms peridonation, with resolution to 14% and 12% at 1 month postdonation. Both older age (age 13 to 17 years versus younger) and female sex were associated with higher levels of pain peridonation, with the highest rates in older females (57% with grade 2-4 pain and 17% with grade 3-4 pain). Multivariate analyses showed a 4-fold increase in risk for older females compared with males age <13 years (P <.001). At 1 year, 11% of 13- to 17-year-old females reported grade 2-4 pain, compared with 3% of males age 13 to 17 years, 0% of females age <13 years, and 1% of males age <13 years (P = .01). Males and females age 13 to 17 years failed to return to predonation pain levels at 1 year 22% and 23% of the time, respectively, compared with 3% and 10% in males and females age <13 years (P = .002). Our data show that females age 13 to 17 years are at increased risk of grade 2-4 pain at 1 year and >20% of females and males age 13 to 17 years do not return to baseline pain levels by 1 year after BM donation. Studies aimed at decreasing symptoms and improving recovery in older children are warranted.

16.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 143(6): 2238-2253, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30660643

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: CD40 ligand (CD40L) deficiency, an X-linked primary immunodeficiency, causes recurrent sinopulmonary, Pneumocystis and Cryptosporidium species infections. Long-term survival with supportive therapy is poor. Currently, the only curative treatment is hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). OBJECTIVE: We performed an international collaborative study to improve patients' management, aiming to individualize risk factors and determine optimal HSCT characteristics. METHODS: We retrospectively collected data on 130 patients who underwent HSCT for CD40L deficiency between 1993-2015. We analyzed outcome and variables' relevance with respect to survival and cure. RESULTS: Overall survival (OS), event-free survival (EFS), and disease-free survival (DFS) were 78.2%, 58.1%, and 72.3% 5 years after HSCT. Results were better in transplantations performed in 2000 or later and in children less than 10 years old at the time of HSCT. Pre-existing organ damage negatively influenced outcome. Sclerosing cholangitis was the most important risk factor. After 2000, superior OS was achieved with matched donors. Use of myeloablative regimens and HSCT at 2 years or less from diagnosis associated with higher OS and DFS. EFS was best with matched sibling donors, myeloablative conditioning (MAC), and bone marrow-derived stem cells. Most rejections occurred after reduced-intensity or nonmyeloablative conditioning, which associated with poor donor cell engraftment. Mortality occurred mainly early after HSCT, predominantly from infections. Among survivors who ceased immunoglobulin replacement, T-lymphocyte chimerism was 50% or greater donor in 85.2%. CONCLUSION: HSCT is curative in patients with CD40L deficiency, with improved outcome if performed before organ damage development. MAC is associated with better OS, EFS, and DFS. Prospective studies are required to compare the risks of HSCT with those of lifelong supportive therapy.

17.
Pediatrics ; 143(2)2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30683812

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Newborn screening for severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) was instituted in California in 2010. In the ensuing 6.5 years, 3 252 156 infants in the state had DNA from dried blood spots assayed for T-cell receptor excision circles (TRECs). Abnormal TREC results were followed-up with liquid blood testing for T-cell abnormalities. We report the performance of the SCID screening program and the outcomes of infants who were identified. METHODS: Data that were reviewed and analyzed included demographics, nursery summaries, TREC and lymphocyte flow-cytometry values, and available follow-up, including clinical and genetic diagnoses, treatments, and outcomes. RESULTS: Infants with clinically significant T-cell lymphopenia (TCL) were successfully identified at a rate of 1 in 15 300 births. Of these, 50 cases of SCID, or 1 in 65 000 births (95% confidence interval 1 in 51 000-1 in 90 000) were found. Prompt treatment led to 94% survival. Infants with non-SCID TCL were also identified, diagnosed and managed, including 4 with complete DiGeorge syndrome who received thymus transplants. Although no cases of typical SCID are known to have been missed, 2 infants with delayed-onset leaky SCID had normal neonatal TREC screens but came to clinical attention at 7 and 23 months of age. CONCLUSIONS: Population-based TREC testing, although unable to detect immune defects in which T cells are present at birth, is effective for identifying SCID and clinically important TCL with high sensitivity and specificity. The experience in California supports the rapid, widespread adoption of SCID newborn screening.


Assuntos
Teste em Amostras de Sangue Seco/métodos , Linfopenia/sangue , Linfopenia/diagnóstico , Triagem Neonatal/métodos , Imunodeficiência Combinada Severa/sangue , Imunodeficiência Combinada Severa/diagnóstico , Linfócitos T/metabolismo , California/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Linfopenia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Imunodeficiência Combinada Severa/epidemiologia
19.
Bone Marrow Transplant ; 54(8): 1254-1265, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30546070

RESUMO

We analyzed CIBMTR data to evaluate the incidence of non-relapse mortality (NRM) and association with overall survival (OS) for bacterial blood stream infections (BSIs) occurring within 100 days of alloHCT in 2 different phases: pre-/peri-engraftment (BSI very early phase, BSI-VEP) and BSI post-engraftment (BSI occurring between 2 weeks after engraftment and day 100, late early phase, BSI-LEP). Of the 7128 alloHCT patients, 2656 (37%) had ≥1 BSI by day 100. BSI-VEP, BSI-LEP, and BSI-Both constituted 56% (n = 1492), 31% (n = 824), and 13% (n = 340) of total BSI, respectively. Starting in 2009, we observed a gradual decline in BSI incidence through 2012 (61-48%). Patients with BSI-VEP were more likely to receive a myeloablative conditioning (MAC) regimen with total body irradiation (TBI). NRM was significantly higher in patients with any BSI (RR 1.82 95% CI 1.63-2.04 for BSI-VEP, RR 2.46, 95% CI 2.05-2.96 for BSI-LEP, and RR 2.29, 95% CI 1.87-2.81 for BSI-Both) compared with those without BSI. OS was significantly lower in patients with any BSI compared with patients without BSI (RR 1.36, 95% CI 1.26-1.47 for BSI-VEP; RR 1.83, 95% CI 1.58-2.12 for BSI-LEP: RR 1.66, 95% CI 1.43-1.94 for BSI-Both). BSIs within day 100 after alloHCT are common and remain a risk factor for mortality.

20.
Pediatr Blood Cancer ; 66(1): e27471, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30259647

RESUMO

Providing evidence-based supportive care for children with cancer has the potential to optimize treatment outcomes and improve quality of life. The Children's Oncology Group (COG) Supportive Care Guidelines Subcommittee conducted a systematic review to identify current supportive care clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) relevant to childhood cancer or pediatric hematopoietic stem cell transplant. Only 22 papers met the 2011 Institute of Medicine criteria to be considered a CPG. The results highlight the paucity of CPGs available to pediatric oncology healthcare professionals and the pressing need to create CPGs using current methodological standards.


Assuntos
Neoplasias/terapia , Cuidados Paliativos/normas , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto/normas , Padrões de Prática Médica/normas , Criança , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde , Humanos
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