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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32361725

RESUMO

AIMS: To evaluate the diagnosis and imaging of patients with suspected endocarditis and the management in routine clinical practice across Europe, the EACVI Scientific Initiatives Committee performed a survey across European centres. In particular, the routine use of echocardiography, advanced imaging modalities and multidisciplinary team was explored. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 100 European Echocardiography Laboratories from 29 different countries responded to the survey, which consisted of 20 questions. For most of the use of echocardiography and advanced imaging, answers from the centres were relatively homogeneous and demonstrated good adherence to current recommendations. In particular, two-thirds of centres report the use of a specific endocarditis team for decision-making. Echocardiography plays a key role in the diagnosis and management of endocarditis. Nuclear imaging modalities are broadly available among the centres and are mainly used in prosthetic valve endocarditis and cardiac device-related infective endocarditis. Computed tomography (CT) is widely available and used to assess for structural valve abnormalities, neurological complications, and to preoperative assessment of the coronary arteries. Most institutions provide structured patients follow-up following hospital discharge. CONCLUSION: In Europe, a relatively homogenous adherence to current recommendation was observed for most diagnostic and management including the follow-up of patients with endocarditis. Decision-making is most commonly performed by a multidisciplinary team. Echocardiography remains the first line and central imaging modality for patient diagnosis and assessment, but 60% of centres also commonly use CT, whilst positron emission tomography imaging is used in patients with prosthetic valve endocarditis or device infection.

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Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol ; : ATVBAHA120313785, 2020 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32375543

RESUMO

Accumulating preclinical and clinical evidence suggests that calcification is one of the body's primary responses to injury and a key pathological feature of cardiovascular disease. Calcification activity can now be imaged using 18F-NaF positron emission tomography (PET) in combination with either computed tomography or magnetic resonance. These techniques allow visualization of calcification activity and, therefore, provide different information to the established macroscopic calcium imaged with computed tomography. Indeed, 18F-NaF PET has been used to investigate a wide range of valvular conditions, including aortic stenosis, mitral annular calcification, and bioprosthetic valve disease, as well as vascular conditions, including abdominal aortic aneurysm disease, coronary, and carotid atherosclerosis, peripheral vascular disease, and erectile dysfunction. In this brief review, we will focus on how 18F-NaF PET has improved our pathophysiological understanding of cardiovascular calcification and how it can be used as a marker of vascular calcification, providing a useful tool that can be utilized in clinical trials investigating the prediction of both disease progression and clinical events. Finally, we will discuss how 18F-NaF might be employed clinically to improve patient assessment and to guide decision-making.

5.
Heart ; 2020 Apr 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32345658

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: First-phase ejection fraction (EF1) is a novel measure of early left ventricular systolic dysfunction. We investigated determinants of EF1 and its prognostic value in aortic stenosis. METHODS: EF1 was measured retrospectively in participants of an echocardiography/cardiovascular magnetic resonance cohort study which recruited patients with aortic stenosis (peak aortic velocity of ≥2 m/s) between 2012 and 2014. Linear regression models were constructed to examine variables associated with EF1. Cox proportional hazards were used to determine the prognostic power of EF1 for aortic valve replacement (AVR, performed as part of clinical care in accordance with international guidelines) or death. RESULTS: Total follow-up of the 149 participants (69.8% male, 70 (65-76) years, mean gradient 33 (21-42) mm Hg) was 238 029 person-days. Sixty-seven participants (45%) had a low baseline EF1 (<25%) despite normal ejection fraction (67% (62%-71%)). Patients with low EF1 had more severe aortic stenosis (mean gradient 39 (34-45) mm Hg vs 24 (16-35) mm Hg, p<0.001) and more myocardial fibrosis (indexed extracellular volume (iECV) (24.2 (19.6-28.7) mL/m2 vs 20.6 (16.8-24.3) mL/m2, p=0.002; late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) prevalence 52% vs 20%, p<0.001). Zva, iECV and infarct LGE were independent predictors of EF1. EF1 improved post-AVR (n=57 with post-AVR EF1 available, baseline 16 (12-24) vs follow-up 27% (22%-31%); p<0.001). Low baseline EF1 was an independent predictor of AVR/death (HR 5.6, 95% CI 3.4 to 9.4), driven by AVR. CONCLUSION: EF1 quantifies early, potentially reversible systolic dysfunction in aortic stenosis, is associated with global afterload and myocardial fibrosis, and is an independent predictor of AVR.

6.
Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging ; 21(4): 357-362, 2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32196100

RESUMO

Aortic stenosis (AS) is the most prevalent valvular disease in developed countries, with a prevalence that is set to expand further with an ageing population. The most recent guidelines on valvular heart disease published by the European Society of Cardiology and the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery, aim to standardize the diagnosis and management of valvular heart diseases. The imaging criteria of the current guidelines are mostly based on EACVI Recommendations, with an appropriate diagnostic workflow being of major importance, to ensure streamlined and efficient patient assessment and accurate diagnoses and decisions regarding the timing of surgery. The EACVI Scientific Initiatives Committee, therefore, created a survey on the imaging assessment of patient with AS to investigate the diagnostic patient pathways used in different centres across Europe. In particular, we conducted this survey to better understand the use and access of advanced imaging techniques in AS including 3D transthoracic echocardiography and 3D transoesophageal echocardiography, cardiac computed tomography, and cardiovascular magnetic resonance.

7.
Heart ; 2020 Mar 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32179586

RESUMO

This review focuses on the available data regarding the utility of advanced left ventricular (LV) imaging in aortic stenosis (AS) and its potential impact for optimising the timing of aortic valve replacement. Ejection fraction is currently the only LV parameter recommended to guide intervention in AS. The cut-off value of 50%, recommended for decision-making in asymptomatic patients with AS, is currently under debate. Several imaging parameters have emerged as predictors of disease progression and clinical outcomes in this setting. Global longitudinal LV strain by speckle tracking echocardiography is useful for risk stratification of asymptomatic patients with severe AS and preserved LV ejection fraction. Its prognostic value was demonstrated in these patients, but further work is required to define the best thresholds to aid the decision-making process. The assessment of myocardial fibrosis is the most studied application of cardiac magnetic resonance in AS. The detection of replacement fibrosis by late gadolinium enhancement offers incremental prognostic information in these patients. Clinical implementation of this technique to optimise the timing of aortic valve intervention in asymptomatic patients is currently tested in a randomised trial. The use of T1 mapping techniques can provide an assessment of interstitial myocardial fibrosis and represents an expanding field of interest. However, convincing data in patients with AS is still lacking. All these imaging parameters have substantial potential to influence the management decision in patients with AS in the future, but data from randomised clinical trials are awaited to define their utility in daily practice.

8.
Circulation ; 141(18): 1452-1462, 2020 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32174130

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The future risk of myocardial infarction is commonly assessed using cardiovascular risk scores, coronary artery calcium score, or coronary artery stenosis severity. We assessed whether noncalcified low-attenuation plaque burden on coronary CT angiography (CCTA) might be a better predictor of the future risk of myocardial infarction. METHODS: In a post hoc analysis of a multicenter randomized controlled trial of CCTA in patients with stable chest pain, we investigated the association between the future risk of fatal or nonfatal myocardial infarction and low-attenuation plaque burden (% plaque to vessel volume), cardiovascular risk score, coronary artery calcium score or obstructive coronary artery stenoses. RESULTS: In 1769 patients (56% male; 58±10 years) followed up for a median 4.7 (interquartile interval, 4.0-5.7) years, low-attenuation plaque burden correlated weakly with cardiovascular risk score (r=0.34; P<0.001), strongly with coronary artery calcium score (r=0.62; P<0.001), and very strongly with the severity of luminal coronary stenosis (area stenosis, r=0.83; P<0.001). Low-attenuation plaque burden (7.5% [4.8-9.2] versus 4.1% [0-6.8]; P<0.001), coronary artery calcium score (336 [62-1064] versus 19 [0-217] Agatston units; P<0.001), and the presence of obstructive coronary artery disease (54% versus 25%; P<0.001) were all higher in the 41 patients who had fatal or nonfatal myocardial infarction. Low-attenuation plaque burden was the strongest predictor of myocardial infarction (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.60 (95% CI, 1.10-2.34) per doubling; P=0.014), irrespective of cardiovascular risk score, coronary artery calcium score, or coronary artery area stenosis. Patients with low-attenuation plaque burden greater than 4% were nearly 5 times more likely to have subsequent myocardial infarction (hazard ratio, 4.65; 95% CI, 2.06-10.5; P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: In patients presenting with stable chest pain, low-attenuation plaque burden is the strongest predictor of fatal or nonfatal myocardial infarction. These findings challenge the current perception of the supremacy of current classical risk predictors for myocardial infarction, including stenosis severity. Registration: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT01149590.

9.
Open Heart ; 7(1): e001141, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32201583

RESUMO

Objective: Using combined positron emission tomography and CT (PET-CT), we measured aortic inflammation and calcification in patients with abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA), and compared them with matched controls with atherosclerosis. Methods: We prospectively recruited 63 patients (mean age 76.1±6.8 years) with asymptomatic aneurysm disease (mean size 4.33±0.73 cm) and 19 age-and-sex-matched patients with confirmed atherosclerosis but no aneurysm. Inflammation and calcification were assessed using combined 18F-FDG PET-CT and quantified using tissue-to-background ratios (TBRs) and Agatston scores. Results: In patients with AAA, 18F-FDG uptake was higher within the aneurysm than in other regions of the aorta (mean TBRmax2.23±0.46 vs 2.12±0.46, p=0.02). Compared with atherosclerotic control subjects, both aneurysmal and non-aneurysmal aortae showed higher 18F-FDG accumulation (total aorta mean TBRmax2.16±0.51 vs 1.70±0.22, p=0.001; AAA mean TBRmax2.23±0.45 vs 1.68±0.21, p<0.0001). Aneurysms containing intraluminal thrombus demonstrated lower 18F-FDG uptake within their walls than those without (mean TBRmax2.14±0.43 vs 2.43±0.45, p=0.018), with thrombus itself showing low tracer uptake (mean TBRmax thrombus 1.30±0.48 vs aneurysm wall 2.23±0.46, p<0.0001). Calcification in the aneurysmal segment was higher than both non-aneurysmal segments in patients with aneurysm (Agatston 4918 (2901-8008) vs 1017 (139-2226), p<0.0001) and equivalent regions in control patients (442 (304-920) vs 166 (80-374) Agatston units per cm, p=0.0042). Conclusions: The entire aorta is more inflamed in patients with aneurysm than in those with atherosclerosis, perhaps suggesting a generalised inflammatory aortopathy in patients with aneurysm. Calcification was prominent within the aneurysmal sac, with the remainder of the aorta being relatively spared. The presence of intraluminal thrombus, itself metabolically relatively inert, was associated with lower levels of inflammation in the adjacent aneurysmal wall.

10.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 2018, 2020 Feb 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32029765

RESUMO

Gadolinium chelates are widely used in cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as passive intravascular and extracellular space markers. Manganese, a biologically active paramagnetic calcium analogue, provides novel intracellular myocardial tissue characterisation. We previously showed manganese-enhanced MRI (MEMRI) more accurately quantifies myocardial infarction than gadolinium delayed-enhancement MRI (DEMRI). Here, we evaluated the potential of MEMRI to assess myocardial viability compared to gold-standard 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) viability. Coronary artery ligation surgery was performed in male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 13) followed by dual MEMRI and 18F-FDG PET imaging at 10-12 weeks. MEMRI was achieved with unchelated (EVP1001-1) or chelated (mangafodipir) manganese. T1 mapping MRI was followed by 18F-FDG micro-PET, with tissue taken for histological correlation. MEMRI and PET demonstrated good agreement with histology but native T1 underestimated infarct size. Quantification of viability by MEMRI, PET and MTC were similar, irrespective of manganese agent. MEMRI showed superior agreement with PET than native T1. MEMRI showed excellent agreement with PET and MTC viability. Myocardial MEMRI T1 correlated with 18F-FDG standard uptake values and influx constant but not native T1. Our findings indicate that MEMRI identifies and quantifies myocardial viability and has major potential for clinical application in myocardial disease and regenerative therapies.

11.
Expert Rev Cardiovasc Ther ; 18(2): 65-76, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32066291

RESUMO

Introduction: In aortic stenosis (AS), there are clear sex differences in clinical presentation, left ventricular (LV) response to pressure overload, and pathophysiology of valvular calcification. These differences may affect outcome following valve intervention.Area covered: This review aims to discuss sex differences in clinical presentation, pathophysiology of aortic valve calcification, LV remodeling in view of historic and recent echocardiographic and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging studies, and outcome after valve intervention. In addition, it will also provide some brief insights on the exercise physiology in women and men with AS.Expert commentary: Women at presentation are often older, have higher prevalence of hypertension and diastolic dysfunction, while men are younger, and more often have a bicuspid aortic valve and higher atherosclerotic disease burden. Men have more valve calcification than women for a given severity of AS and develop different patterns of LV remodeling and myocardial fibrosis. Although women tend to walk shorter on treadmill and achieve lower metabolic equivalents, they achieve similar peak heart rates and blood pressure, and the frequency of revealed symptoms during exercise test is comparable in both sexes. Men are more likely to undergo a surgical AVR with better outcome, while women have generally better outcome after TAVI.


Assuntos
Estenose da Valva Aórtica/fisiopatologia , Caracteres Sexuais , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Valva Aórtica/patologia , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/etiologia , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/terapia , Calcinose , Feminino , Fibrose , Implante de Prótese de Valva Cardíaca , Humanos , Masculino , Função Ventricular Esquerda , Remodelação Ventricular
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13.
J Cardiovasc Imaging ; 28(1): 77, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31997610

RESUMO

This corrects the article on p. 235 in vol. 27, PMID: 31614393.

14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31977010

RESUMO

AIMS: To assess contemporary pre-test probability estimates for obstructive coronary artery disease in patients with stable chest pain. METHODS AND RESULTS: In a substudy of a multicentre randomised controlled trial, we compared 2019 European Society of Cardiology (ESC)-endorsed pre-test probabilities with observed prevalence of obstructive coronary artery disease on computed tomography coronary angiography (CTCA). We assessed associations between pre-test probability, 5-year coronary heart disease death or non-fatal myocardial infarction and study intervention (standard care versus CTCA).The study population consisted of 3755 patients (30-75 years, 46% women) with a median pre-test probability of 11% of whom 1622 (43%) had a pre-test probability >15%. In those who underwent CTCA (n = 1613), the prevalence of obstructive disease was 22%. When divided into deciles of pre-test probability, the observed disease prevalence was similar but higher than the corresponding median pre-test probability (median difference 2.3 [1.3-5.6]%). There were more clinical events in patients with a pre-test probability >15% compared to those at 5-15% and <5% (4.1%, 1.5% and 1.4% respectively, p < 0.001). Across the total cohort, fewer clinical events occurred in patients who underwent CTCA, with the greatest difference in those with a pre-test probability >15% (2.8% vs 5.3%, log rank p = 0.01), although this interaction was not statistically significant on multivariable modelling. CONCLUSION: The updated 2019 ESC guideline pre-test probability recommendations tended to slightly underestimate disease prevalence in our cohort. Pre-test probability is a powerful predictor of future coronary events and helps select those who may derive the greatest absolute benefit from CTCA.

15.
J Nucl Cardiol ; 2020 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31898004

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hybrid PET/MR imaging has significant potential in cardiology due to its combination of molecular PET imaging and cardiac MR. Multi-tissue-class MR-based attenuation correction (MRAC) is necessary for accurate PET quantification. Moreover, for thoracic PET imaging, respiration is known to lead to misalignments of MRAC and PET data that result in PET artifacts. These factors can be addressed by using multi-echo MR for tissue segmentation and motion-robust or motion-gated acquisitions. However, the combination of these strategies is not routinely available and can be prone to errors. In this study, we examine the qualitative and quantitative impacts of multi-class MRAC compared to a more widely available simple two-class MRAC for cardiac PET/MR. METHODS AND RESULTS: In a cohort of patients with cardiac sarcoidosis, we acquired MRAC data using multi-echo radial gradient-echo MR imaging. Water-fat separation was used to produce attenuation maps with up to 4 tissue classes including water-based soft tissue, fat, lung, and background air. Simultaneously acquired 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose PET data were subsequently reconstructed using each attenuation map separately. PET uptake values were measured in the myocardium and compared between different PET images. The inclusion of lung and subcutaneous fat in the MRAC maps significantly affected the quantification of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose activity in the myocardium but only moderately altered the appearance of the PET image without introduction of image artifacts. CONCLUSION: Optimal MRAC for cardiac PET/MR applications should include segmentation of all tissues in combination with compensation for the respiratory-related motion of the heart. Simple two-class MRAC is adequate for qualitative clinical assessment.

16.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 75(3): 304-316, 2020 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31976869

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Myocardial fibrosis is a key mechanism of left ventricular decompensation in aortic stenosis and can be quantified using cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) measures such as extracellular volume fraction (ECV%). Outcomes following aortic valve intervention may be linked to the presence and extent of myocardial fibrosis. OBJECTIVES: This study sought to determine associations between ECV% and markers of left ventricular decompensation and post-intervention clinical outcomes. METHODS: Patients with severe aortic stenosis underwent CMR, including ECV% quantification using modified Look-Locker inversion recovery-based T1 mapping and late gadolinium enhancement before aortic valve intervention. A central core laboratory quantified CMR parameters. RESULTS: Four-hundred forty patients (age 70 ± 10 years, 59% male) from 10 international centers underwent CMR a median of 15 days (IQR: 4 to 58 days) before aortic valve intervention. ECV% did not vary by scanner manufacturer, magnetic field strength, or T1 mapping sequence (all p > 0.20). ECV% correlated with markers of left ventricular decompensation including left ventricular mass, left atrial volume, New York Heart Association functional class III/IV, late gadolinium enhancement, and lower left ventricular ejection fraction (p < 0.05 for all), the latter 2 associations being independent of all other clinical variables (p = 0.035 and p < 0.001). After a median of 3.8 years (IQR: 2.8 to 4.6 years) of follow-up, 52 patients had died, 14 from adjudicated cardiovascular causes. A progressive increase in all-cause mortality was seen across tertiles of ECV% (17.3, 31.6, and 52.7 deaths per 1,000 patient-years; log-rank test; p = 0.009). Not only was ECV% associated with cardiovascular mortality (p = 0.003), but it was also independently associated with all-cause mortality following adjustment for age, sex, ejection fraction, and late gadolinium enhancement (hazard ratio per percent increase in ECV%: 1.10; 95% confidence interval [1.02 to 1.19]; p = 0.013). CONCLUSIONS: In patients with severe aortic stenosis scheduled for aortic valve intervention, an increased ECV% is a measure of left ventricular decompensation and a powerful independent predictor of mortality.

17.
Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging ; 47(7): 1736-1745, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31897586

RESUMO

PURPOSE: 18F-sodium fluoride (18F-NaF) has shown promise in assessing disease activity in coronary arteries, but currently used measures of activity - such as maximum target to background ratio (TBRmax) - are defined by single pixel count values. We aimed to develop a novel coronary-specific measure of 18F-NaF PET reflecting activity throughout the entire coronary vasculature (coronary microcalcification activity [CMA]). METHODS: Patients with recent myocardial infarction and multi-vessel coronary artery disease underwent 18F-NaF PET and coronary CT angiography. We assessed the association between coronary 18F-NaF uptake (both TBRmax and CMA) and coronary artery calcium scores (CACS) as well as low attenuation plaque (LAP, attenuation < 30 Hounsfield units) volume. RESULTS: In 50 patients (64% males, 63 ± 7 years), CMA and TBRmax were higher in vessels with LAP compared to those without LAP (1.09 [0.02, 2.34] versus 0.0 [0.0, 0.0], p < 0.001 and 1.23 [1.16, 1.37] versus 1.04 [0.93, 1.11], p < 0.001). Compared to a TBRmax threshold of 1.25, CMA > 0 had a higher diagnostic accuracy for detection of LAP: sensitivity of 93.1 (83.3-98.1)% versus 58.6 (44.9-71.4)% and a specificity of 95.7 (88.0-99.1)% versus 80.0 (68.7-88.6)% (both p < 0.001). 18F-NaF uptake assessed by CMA correlated more closely with LAP (r = 0.86, p < 0.001) than the CT calcium score (r = 0.39, p < 0.001), with these associations outperforming those observed for TBRmax values (LAP r = 0.63, p < 0.001; CT calcium score r = 0.30, p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Automated assessment of disease activity across the entire coronary vasculature is feasible using 18F-NaF CMA, providing a single measurement that has closer agreement with CT markers of plaque vulnerability than more traditional measures of plaque activity.

18.
JACC Cardiovasc Imaging ; 13(2 Pt 1): 481-493, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31202751

RESUMO

New insights into the pathophysiology and natural history of patients with aortic stenosis, coupled with advances in diagnostic imaging and the dramatic evolution of transcatheter aortic valve replacement, are fueling intense interest in the management of asymptomatic patients with severe aortic stenosis. An intervention that is less invasive than surgery could conceivably justify pre-emptive transcatheter aortic valve replacement in subsets of patients, rather than waiting for the emergence of early symptoms to trigger valve intervention. Clinical experience has shown that symptoms can be challenging to ascertain in many sedentary, deconditioned, and/or elderly patients. Evolving data based on imaging and biomarker evidence of adverse ventricular remodeling, hypertrophy, inflammation, or fibrosis may radically transform existing clinical decision paradigms. Clinical trials currently enrolling asymptomatic patients have the potential to change practice patterns and lower the threshold for intervention.

19.
Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging ; 21(2): 119-123, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31819943

RESUMO

AIMS: To evaluate standard reporting of cardiac chambers size and function by transthoracic echocardiography (TTE), the EACVI Scientific Initiatives Committee performed a survey across European centres. In particular, the routine use of three-dimensional echocardiography (3DE) and speckle tracking-derived myocardial deformation imaging (STE) was explored. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 96 European Echocardiography Laboratories from 22 different countries responded to the survey, which consisted of 20 questions. For most of the standard parameters of cardiac chamber size and function, answers from the centres were homogeneous and demonstrated good adherence to current recommendations. In particular, all centres assessed left ventricular (LV) and left atrial (LA) size combining diameter measurements with volumes obtained using the bi-plane Simpson's method. More variability was observed in the measurements of the right heart chambers and thoracic aorta. Interestingly, >90% of centres had access to 3DE and STE; however, the large majority of centres reserved the use of these techniques for selected cases, particularly for the measure of 3D LV volumes and ejection fraction and global longitudinal strain in patients being considered for cardiac device implantation, surgical intervention (valvular heart disease) or screened for cardiotoxicity. Only 10% of centres used 3DE for right ventricular and LA volumes. Also, <30% of the centres used LA strain imaging. CONCLUSION: In Europe, a good adherence to current recommendations was observed for most of the standard parameters of cardiac chambers quantification by TTE. Advanced echocardiography modalities, such as 3DE and STE, are widely available but used only in selected cases.

20.
Cardiol Clin ; 38(1): 1-12, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31753168

RESUMO

Calcific aortic valve stenosis is the commonest form of heart valve disease in high-income countries and set to become a major health care burden. Currently, there are no medical therapies that have proved to slow down or halt disease progression. The only available treatment is aortic valve replacement, of which the optimal timing is unknown and to which not all patients are suited. This review discusses the pathophysiology of aortic stenosis, how noninvasive imaging techniques have improved our understanding of the underlying biology, and how these emerging insights might translate into potential novel treatments targeting oxidized lipids, fibrosis, and calcification.

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