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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31566807

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: High folate status in pregnancy has been implicated in the increased prevalence of allergic disease but there are no published data relating directly measured folate status in pregnancy to challenge-proven food allergy among offspring. The study aim was to examine the association between red blood cell (RBC) folate status in trimester three of pregnancy and allergic disease among offspring. METHODS: RBC folate levels were measured at 28-32 weeks gestation in a prospective birth cohort (n=1074). Food allergy outcomes were assessed in 1-year-old infants by skin prick testing and subsequent food challenge. Eczema was assessed by questionnaire and clinical review. High trimester three RBC folate was defined as greater than (>) 1360 nmol/L. Binomial regression was used to examine associations between trimester three RBC folate and allergic outcomes, adjusting for potential confounders. RESULTS: RBC folate levels were measured in 88% (894/1064) of pregnant women. The mean concentration was 1695.6 nmol/L (Standard Deviation 415.4) with 82% (731/894) >1360 nmol/L. There was no evidence of either linear or non-linear relationships between trimester three RBC folate and allergic outcomes, nor evidence of associations between high RBC folate and food allergy (adjusted risk ratio (aRR) 2.89, 95% CI 0.90-9.35), food sensitisation (aRR 1.72, 95% CI 0.85-3.49) or eczema (aRR 0.97, 95% CI 0.67-1.38). CONCLUSION: The majority of pregnant women in this study had high RBC folate levels. There was no evidence of associations between trimester three RBC folate and food allergy, food sensitisation or eczema among the offspring, although larger studies are required.

2.
Int J Obes (Lond) ; 2019 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31597933

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Adult class II/III obesity (BMI ≥ 35 kg/m2) has significant adverse health outcomes. Early prevention and treatment are critical, but prospective childhood risk estimates are lacking. This study aimed to define the prospective risk of adult class II/III obesity, using childhood BMI. METHODS: Children ages 3-19 years enrolled in cohorts of the International Childhood Cardiovascular Cohort (i3C) consortium with measured BMI assessments in childhood and adulthood were included. Prospective risk of adult class II/III obesity was modeled based on childhood age, sex, race, and BMI. RESULTS: A total of 12,142 individuals (44% male, 85% white) were assessed at median age 14 [Interquartile range, IQR: 11, 16] and 33 [28, 39] years. Class II/III adult obesity developed in 6% of children with normal weight; 29% of children with overweight; 56% of children with obesity; and 80% of children with severe obesity. However, 38% of the 1440 adults with class II/III obesity (553/1440) were normal weight as children. Prospective risk of adult class II/III obesity varied by age, sex, and race within childhood weight status classifications, and is notably higher for girls, black participants, and those in the United States. The risk of class II/III obesity increased with older adult age. CONCLUSIONS: Children with obesity or severe obesity have a substantial risk of adult class II/III obesity, and observed prospective risk estimates are now presented by age, sex, race, and childhood BMI. Clinical monitoring of children's BMI for adult class II/III obesity risk may be especially important for females and black Americans.

5.
Pediatr Pulmonol ; 2019 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31456360

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Telomere length is associated with poorer lung health in older adults, possibly from cumulative risk factor exposure, but data are lacking in pediatric and population-based cohorts. We examined associations of telomere length with lung function in children and mid-life adults. METHODS: Data were drawn from a population-based cross-sectional study of 11 to 12 year-olds and mid-life adults. Lung function was assessed by spirometric FEV1 , FVC, FEV 1 /FVC ratio, and MMEF 25-75 . Telomere length was measured by quantitative polymerase chain reaction from blood and expressed as the amount of telomeric genomic DNA to the beta-globin gene (T/S ratio). Associations of telomere length with spirometric parameters were tested by linear and logistic regression models, adjusting for potential confounders of sex, age, body mass index, socioeconomic position, physical activity, inflammation, asthma, pubertal status, and smoking. RESULTS: Mean T/S ratio was 1.09 (n = 1206; SD 0.55) in children and 0.81 (n = 1343; SD 0.38) in adults. In adults, for every additional unit in T/S ratio, FEV 1 /FVC and MMEF 25-75 z-scores were higher (ß 0.21 [95% confidence interval, CI; 0.06-0.36] and 0.23 [95% CI; 0.08-0.38], respectively), and the likelihood of being in the lowest quartile for FEV 1 /FVC and MMEF 25-75 z-scores was lower (odds ratios 0.59 [95% CI, 0.39-0.89] and 0.64 [95% CI, 0.41-0.99], respectively). No evidence of association was seen for adult FEV 1 or FVC, or any childhood spirometric index after adjustments. CONCLUSION: Shorter telomere length showed moderate associations with poorer airflow parameters, but not vital capacity (lung volume) in mid-life adults. However, there was no convincing evidence of associations in children.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31451394

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Historically, cutoff points for childhood and adolescent overweight and obesity have been based on population-specific percentiles derived from cross-sectional data. To obtain cutoff points that might better predict overweight and obesity in young adulthood, we examined the association between childhood body-mass index (BMI) and young adulthood BMI status in a longitudinal cohort. METHODS: In this study, we used data from the International Childhood Cardiovascular Cohort (i3C) Consortium (which included seven childhood cohorts from the USA, Australia, and Finland) to establish childhood overweight and obesity cutoff points that best predict BMI status at the age of 18 years. We included 3779 children who were followed up from 1970 onwards, and had at least one childhood BMI measurement between ages 6 years and 17 years and a BMI measurement specifically at age 18 years. We used logistic regression to assess the association between BMI in childhood and young adulthood obesity. We used the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) to assess the ability of fitted models to discriminate between different BMI status groups in young adulthood. The cutoff points were then compared with those defined by the International Obesity Task Force (IOTF), which used cross-sectional data, and tested for sensitivity and specificity in a separate, independent, longitudinal sample (from the Special Turku Coronary Risk Factor Intervention Project [STRIP] study) with BMI measurements available from both childhood and adulthood. FINDINGS: The cutoff points derived from the longitudinal i3C Consortium data were lower than the IOTF cutoff points. Consequently, a larger proportion of participants in the STRIP study was classified as overweight or obese when using the i3C cutoff points than when using the IOTF cutoff points. Especially for obesity, i3C cutoff points were significantly better at identifying those who would become obese later in life. In the independent sample, the AUROC values for overweight ranged from 0·75 (95% CI 0·70-0·80) to 0·88 (0·84-0·93) for the i3C cutoff points, and the corresponding values for the IOTF cutoff points ranged from 0·69 (0·62-0·75) to 0·87 (0·82-0·92). For obesity, the AUROC values ranged from 0·84 (0·75-0·93) to 0·90 (0·82-0·98) for the i3C cutoff points and 0·57 (0·49-0·66) to 0·76 (0·65-0·88) for IOTF cutoff points. INTERPRETATION: The childhood BMI cutoff points obtained from the i3C Consortium longitudinal data can better predict risk of overweight and obesity in young adulthood than can standards that are currently used based on cross-sectional data. Such cutoff points should help to more accurately identify children at risk of adult overweight or obesity. FUNDING: None.

7.
Med Sci Sports Exerc ; 2019 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31361713

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Child and adult muscular power have been shown to associate with contemporary cardiometabolic health. Muscular power typically persists (tracks) between childhood and adulthood. Few studies span childhood to adulthood, so we aimed to identify modifiable and environmental factors associated with the persistence or change in muscular power across the life course. METHODS: Prospective study examining 1,938 participants who had their muscular power (standing long jump distance) measured in 1985 as children aged 7-15-years and again 20-years later in adulthood (aged 26-36-years). A selection of objectively measured anthropometric characteristics (adiposity and fat-free mass), cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), self-reported physical activity, dietary (quality and fruit, vegetable, protein intake) and sociodemographic data were available at both time-points. Muscular power was separated into thirds and participants were reported as having persistently low, decreasing, persistently moderate, increasing, or persistently high muscular power. RESULTS: Higher adiposity, lower physical activity, diet quality and socioeconomic status (SES) across the life course, and lower adult CRF were associated with persistently low muscular power. Lower adult protein intake and an increase in adiposity over time were associated with decreasing muscular power. An increase in fat-free mass was associated with a reduced probability of decreasing or persistently high muscular power, and an increased probability of increasing muscular power. Higher adult fruit intake was associated with increasing muscular power. Lower adiposity across the life course, higher adult CRF and SES, and higher child protein intake were associated with persistently high muscular power. CONCLUSION: A healthy weight, good CRF, greater protein intake and high SES are important correlates of high muscular power maintained from childhood to adulthood.

8.
BMJ Open ; 9(Suppl 3): 106-117, 2019 Jul 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31273021

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) metabolomics is high throughput and cost-effective, with the potential to improve the understanding of disease and risk. We examine the circulating metabolic profile by quantitative NMR metabolomics of a sample of Australian 11-12 year olds children and their parents, describe differences by age and sex, and explore the correlation of metabolites in parent-child dyads. DESIGN: The population-based cross-sectional Child Health CheckPoint study nested within the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children. SETTING: Blood samples collected from CheckPoint participants at assessment centres in seven Australian cities and eight regional towns; February 2015-March 2016. PARTICIPANTS: 1180 children and 1325 parents provided a blood sample and had metabolomics data available. This included 1133 parent-child dyads (518 mother-daughter, 469 mother-son, 68 father-daughter and 78 father-son). OUTCOME MEASURES: 228 metabolic measures were obtained for each participant. We focused on 74 biomarkers including amino acid species, lipoprotein subclass measures, lipids, fatty acids, measures related to fatty acid saturation, and composite markers of inflammation and energy homeostasis. RESULTS: We identified differences in the concentration of specific metabolites between childhood and adulthood and in metabolic profiles in children and adults by sex. In general, metabolite concentrations were higher in adults than children and sex differences were larger in adults than in children. Positive correlations were observed for the majority of metabolites including isoleucine (CC 0.33, 95% CI 0.27 to 0.38), total cholesterol (CC 0.30, 95% CI 0.24 to 0.35) and omega 6 fatty acids (CC 0.28, 95% CI 0.23 to 0.34) in parent-child comparisons. CONCLUSIONS: We describe the serum metabolite profiles from mid-childhood and adulthood in a population-based sample, together with a parent-child concordance. Differences in profiles by age and sex were observed. These data will be informative for investigation of the childhood origins of adult non-communicable diseases and for comparative studies in other populations.

9.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 8(14): e011852, 2019 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31286813

RESUMO

Background High-throughput nuclear magnetic resonance profiling of circulating metabolites is suggested as an adjunct for cardiovascular risk evaluation. The relationship between metabolites and subclinical atherosclerosis remains unclear, particularly among children. Therefore, we examined the associations of metabolites with carotid intima-media thickness ( cIMT ) and arterial pulse wave velocity ( PWV ). Methods and Results Data from two independent population-based studies was examined; (1) cross-sectional associations with cIMT and PWV in 1178 children (age 11-12 years, 51% female) and 1316 parents (mean age 45 years, 87% female) from the CheckPoint study (Australia); and (2) longitudinal associations in 4249 children (metabolites at 7-8 years, PWV at 10-11 years, 52% female), and cross-sectional associations in 4171 of their mothers (mean age 48 years, cIMT data) from ALSPAC (The Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children; UK ). Metabolites were measured by the same nuclear magnetic resonance platform in both studies, comprising of 69 biomarkers. Biophysical assessments included body mass index, blood pressure, cIMT and PWV . In linear regression analyses adjusted for age, sex, body mass index, and blood pressure, there was no evidence of metabolite associations in either children or adults for cIMT at a 10% false discovery threshold. In CheckPoint adults, glucose was positively, and some high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol derived measures and amino acids (glutamine, histidine, tyrosine) inversely associated with PWV. Conclusions These data suggest that in children circulating metabolites have no consistent association with cIMT and PWV once adjusted for body mass index and blood pressure. In their middle-aged parents, some evidence of metabolite associations with PWV were identified that warrant further investigation.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31359517

RESUMO

This study aimed to assess whether the longitudinal association between childhood muscular fitness and adult measures of glucose homeostasis persist despite changes in muscular fitness across the life course. This prospective longitudinal study included 586 participants who had their muscular power (standing long jump distance), cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), and waist circumference measured as children (aged 9, 12, 15 years) and again 20 years later as adults. In adulthood, these participants also provided a fasting blood sample which was tested for glucose and insulin. Glucose homeostasis measures including insulin resistance (HOMA2-IR) and beta cell function (HOMA2-ß) were estimated. Child and adult muscular power levels were separated into thirds, and tracking groups (persistently low, decreasing, persistently moderate, increasing, and persistently high) were created. Sex-stratified multivariable linear regression models were used to examine the association between muscular power tracking groups and adult measures of glucose homeostasis. Compared with males with persistently high muscular power, males with increasing and persistently low muscular power had higher fasting insulin (increasing: ß = 1.12 mU/L, P = .04; persistently low: ß = 2.12 mU/L, P = .001) and HOMA2-ß (increasing: ß = 8.50%, P = .03; persistently low: ß = 11.27%, P = .01) independent of CRF and males with persistently low muscular power had greater fasting insulin (ß = 1.22 mU/L, P = .02) and HOMA2-IR (ß = 0.14, P = .02) independent of waist circumference. Non-significant associations were present for females. For males, maintaining persistently high muscular power between childhood and adulthood could lead to a healthier adult glucose homeostasis profile.

12.
Int J Cancer ; 2019 May 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31054169

RESUMO

Parental occupational exposures to pesticides, animals and organic dust have been associated with an increased risk of childhood cancer based mostly on case-control studies. We prospectively evaluated parental occupational exposures and risk of childhood leukemia and central nervous system (CNS) tumors in the International Childhood Cancer Cohort Consortium. We pooled data on 329,658 participants from birth cohorts in five countries (Australia, Denmark, Israel, Norway and United Kingdom). Parental occupational exposures during pregnancy were estimated by linking International Standard Classification of Occupations-1988 job codes to the ALOHA+ job exposure matrix. Risk of childhood (<15 years) acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL; n = 129), acute myeloid leukemia (AML; n = 31) and CNS tumors (n = 158) was estimated using Cox proportional hazards models to generate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Paternal exposures to pesticides and animals were associated with increased risk of childhood AML (herbicides HR = 3.22, 95% CI = 0.97-10.68; insecticides HR = 2.86, 95% CI = 0.99-8.23; animals HR = 3.89, 95% CI = 1.18-12.90), but not ALL or CNS tumors. Paternal exposure to organic dust was positively associated with AML (HR = 2.38 95% CI = 1.12-5.07), inversely associated with ALL (HR = 0.55, 95% CI = 0.31-0.99) and not associated with CNS tumors. Low exposure prevalence precluded evaluation of maternal pesticide and animal exposures; we observed no significant associations with organic dust exposure. This first prospective analysis of pooled birth cohorts and parental occupational exposures provides evidence for paternal agricultural exposures as childhood AML risk factors. The different risks for childhood ALL associated with maternal and paternal organic dust exposures should be investigated further.

13.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 8(11): e012707, 2019 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31140354

RESUMO

Background Telomere length has been inversely associated with cardiovascular disease in adulthood, but its relationship to preclinical cardiovascular phenotypes across the life course remains unclear. We investigated associations of telomere length with vascular structure and function in children and midlife adults. Methods and Results Population-based cross-sectional CheckPoint (Child Health CheckPoint) study of 11- to 12-year-old children and their parents, nested within the LSAC (Longitudinal Study of Australian Children). Telomere length (telomeric genomic DNA [T]/ß-globin single-copy gene [S] [T/S ratio]) was measured by quantitative polymerase chain reaction from blood-derived genomic DNA. Vascular structure was assessed by carotid intima-media thickness, and vascular function was assessed by carotid-femoral pulse-wave velocity and carotid elasticity. Mean (SD) T/S ratio was 1.09 (0.55) in children (n=1206; 51% girls) and 0.81 (0.38) in adults (n=1343; 87% women). Linear regression models, adjusted for potential confounders, revealed no evidence of an association between T/S ratio and carotid intima-media thickness, carotid-femoral pulse-wave velocity, or carotid elasticity in children. In adults, longer telomeres were associated with greater carotid elasticity (0.14% per 10-mm Hg higher per unit of T/S ratio; 95% CI, 0.04%-0.2%; P=0.007), but not carotid intima-media thickness (-0.9 µm; 95% CI, -14 to 13 µm; P=0.9) or carotid-femoral pulse-wave velocity (-0.10 m/s; 95% CI, -0.3 to 0.07 m/s; P=0.2). In logistic regression analysis, telomere length did not predict poorer vascular measures at either age. Conclusions In midlife adults, but not children, there was some evidence that telomere length was associated with vascular elasticity but not thickness. Associations between telomere length and cardiovascular phenotypes may become more evident in later life, with advancing pathological changes.

15.
Nutr Res ; 65: 43-53, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30954345

RESUMO

Measuring diet quality over time is important due to health impacts, but to our knowledge, a Dietary Guidelines Index (DGI) with consistent scoring across childhood/adolescence (youth) and adulthood has not been validated. We hypothesized that a DGI that reflected age- and sex-specific guidelines would be a valid measure of diet quality in youth and adulthood. The DGI is based on the 2013 Australian Dietary Guidelines to reflect current understanding of diet quality and comprises 9 indicators, with a maximum score of 100 points. DGI scores were calculated for participants of the Australian Childhood Determinants of Adult Health study, which included a 24-hour food record during youth (1985, n = 5043, age: 10-15 years) and a 127-item food frequency questionnaire during adulthood (2004-2006, n = 2689, age: 26-36 years). We evaluated construct validity (distribution of scores, principal components analysis, correlation with nutrient density of intakes) and criterion validity (linear regression with population characteristics). DGI scores were multidimensional in underlying structure and normally distributed. Among youth, a lower DGI was significantly associated (P < .05) with smoking and with lower academic achievement and socioeconomic status. DGI scores were negatively correlated with energy, sugar, and fat and positively correlated with fiber, protein, and micronutrients. Among adults, a lower DGI was associated with lower education and self-reported health and higher waist circumference, insulin resistance, and total and low-density lipoprotein serum cholesterol. The DGI is an appropriate measure of diet quality in youth and adulthood because higher scores reflect nutrient-dense, rather than energy-dense, intake and discriminate between population characteristics consistent with the literature.

16.
Health Psychol ; 38(4): 297-305, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30896216

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This research examined if childhood health motivation was associated with adult health behaviors and objectively measured health outcomes. METHOD: Data were from the Childhood Determinants of Adult Health study. Children aged 9 to 15 years in 1985 completed a questionnaire with health motivation items. In 2004-2006, when aged 26 to 36, participants completed assessments of health behaviors (smoking, diet, alcohol consumption, and physical activity) and cardiometabolic outcomes (body mass index, carotid intima-media thickness from ultrasound, and HOMA insulin resistance from fasting blood samples). Structural path regression analyses examined pathways from health motivation in childhood to adult cardiometabolic outcomes, mediated via adult health behaviors measured concurrently, controlling for age, sex and socioeconomic position. RESULTS: There were 6,230 (49% female) children with data on health motivation. There were two latent constructs: health motivation (4 items: visiting a dentist, visiting a doctor, knowing about your body, and eating a good diet) and risk motivation (3 items: not being a smoker, not being fat, and not drinking alcohol). Greater health motivation was directly associated with nonsmoking, lower carotid intima-media thickness, and lower body mass index in adulthood. Greater risk motivation was directly associated with smoking, higher alcohol consumption, and poorer diets in adulthood. It was also indirectly associated with higher carotid intima-media thickness and higher HOMA insulin resistance via poorer health behaviors. CONCLUSIONS: Health motivation during childhood appears important to maintain health across the life course. It could be a target for interventions to improve cardiovascular health in children and adults. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/psicologia , Motivação/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Risco
17.
Lancet Child Adolesc Health ; 3(5): 332-342, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30872112

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Germline variants in the melanocortin 1 receptor gene (MC1R) might increase the risk of childhood and adolescent melanoma, but a clear conclusion is challenging because of the low number of studies and cases. We assessed the association of MC1R variants with childhood and adolescent melanoma in a large study comparing the prevalence of MC1R variants in child or adolescent patients with melanoma to that in adult patients with melanoma and in healthy adult controls. METHODS: In this retrospective pooled analysis, we used the M-SKIP Project, the Italian Melanoma Intergroup, and other European groups (with participants from Australia, Canada, France, Greece, Italy, the Netherlands, Serbia, Spain, Sweden, Turkey, and the USA) to assemble an international multicentre cohort. We gathered phenotypic and genetic data from children or adolescents diagnosed with sporadic single-primary cutaneous melanoma at age 20 years or younger, adult patients with sporadic single-primary cutaneous melanoma diagnosed at age 35 years or older, and healthy adult individuals as controls. We calculated odds ratios (ORs) for childhood and adolescent melanoma associated with MC1R variants by multivariable logistic regression. Subgroup analysis was done for children aged 18 or younger and 14 years or younger. FINDINGS: We analysed data from 233 young patients, 932 adult patients, and 932 healthy adult controls. Children and adolescents had higher odds of carrying MC1R r variants than did adult patients (OR 1·54, 95% CI 1·02-2·33), including when analysis was restricted to patients aged 18 years or younger (1·80, 1·06-3·07). All investigated variants, except Arg160Trp, tended, to varying degrees, to have higher frequencies in young patients than in adult patients, with significantly higher frequencies found for Val60Leu (OR 1·60, 95% CI 1·05-2·44; p=0·04) and Asp294His (2·15, 1·05-4·40; p=0·04). Compared with those of healthy controls, young patients with melanoma had significantly higher frequencies of any MC1R variants. INTERPRETATION: Our pooled analysis of MC1R genetic data of young patients with melanoma showed that MC1R r variants were more prevalent in childhood and adolescent melanoma than in adult melanoma, especially in patients aged 18 years or younger. Our findings support the role of MC1R in childhood and adolescent melanoma susceptibility, with a potential clinical relevance for developing early melanoma detection and preventive strategies. FUNDING: SPD-Pilot/Project-Award-2015; AIRC-MFAG-11831.

18.
Eur J Prev Cardiol ; : 2047487319834767, 2019 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30857428

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Metabolomic analysis may help us to understand the association between alcohol consumption and cardio-metabolic health. We aimed to: (i) replicate a previous study of alcohol consumption and metabolic profiles, (ii) examine associations between types of alcoholic beverages and metabolites and (iii) include potential confounders not examined in previous studies. METHODS: Cross-sectional data of 1785 participants (age 26-36 years, 52% women) from the 2004-2006 Childhood Determinants of Adult Health study were used. Consumption of beer, wine and spirits was assessed by questionnaires. Metabolites were measured by a high-throughput nuclear magnetic resonance platform and multivariable linear regression examined their association with alcohol consumption (combined total and types) adjusted for covariates including socio-demographics, health behaviours and mental health. RESULTS: Alcohol consumption was associated with 23 out of 37 lipids, 12 out of 16 fatty acids and six out of 20 low-molecular-weight metabolites independent of confounders with similar associations for combined total alcohol consumption and different types of alcohol. Many metabolites (lipoprotein lipids in high-density lipoprotein (HDL) subclasses, HDL cholesterol, apolipoprotein A-1, phosphotriglycerides, total fatty acids, monounsaturated fatty acids, omega-3 fatty acids) had positive linear associations with alcohol consumption but some showed negative linear (low-density lipoprotein particle size, omega-6 fatty acids ratio to total fatty acids, citrate) or U-shaped (lipoprotein lipids in very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) subclasses, VLDL triglycerides) associations. CONCLUSIONS: Our results were similar to those of the only previous study. Associations with metabolites were similar for total and types of alcohol. Alcohol consumption in young adults is related to a diverse range of metabolomic signatures associated with benefits and harms to health.

19.
Int J Epidemiol ; 2019 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30721947

RESUMO

Background: Physical inactivity is associated with an increased risk of major chronic diseases, although uncertainty exists about which chronic diseases, themselves, might contribute to physical inactivity. The objective of this study was to compare the physical activity of those with chronic diseases to healthy individuals using an objective measure of physical activity. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of data from 96 706 participants aged 40 years or older from the UK Biobank prospective cohort study (2006-10). Diagnoses were identified through ICD 9 and 10 coding within hospital admission records and a cancer registry linked to UK Biobank participants. We extracted summary physical activity information from participants who wore a wrist-worn triaxial accelerometer for 7 days. Statistical analyses included computation of adjusted geometric means and means using general linear models. Results: Participants with chronic disease undertook 9% or 61 minutes (95% confidence interval: 57.8-64.8) less moderate activity and 11% or 3 minutes (95% confidence interval: 2.7-3.3) less vigorous activity per week than individuals without chronic disease. Participants in every chronic-disease subgroup undertook less physical activity than those without chronic disease. Sixty-seven diagnoses within these subgroups were associated with lower moderate activity. Conclusions: The cross-sectional association of physical activity with chronic disease is broad. Given the substantial health benefits of being physically active, clinicians and policymakers should be aware that their patients with any chronic disease are at greater health risk from other diseases than anticipated because of their physical inactivity.

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