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1.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(11): 2203-2210, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32856602

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Scalp and neck (SN) melanoma confers a worse prognosis than melanoma of other sites but little is known about its determinants. We aimed to identify associations between SN melanoma and known risk genes, phenotypic traits, and sun exposure patterns. METHODS: Participants were cases from the Western Australian Melanoma Health Study (n = 1,200) and the Genes, Environment, and Melanoma Study (n = 3,280). Associations between risk factors and SN melanoma, compared with truncal and arm/leg melanoma, were investigated using binomial logistic regression. Facial melanoma was also compared with the trunk and extremities, to evaluate whether associations were subregion specific, or reflective of the whole head/neck region. RESULTS: Compared with other sites, increased odds of SN and facial melanoma were observed in older individuals [SN: OR = 1.28, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.92-1.80, P trend = 0.016; Face: OR = 4.57, 95% CI = 3.34-6.35, P trend < 0.001] and those carrying IRF4-rs12203592*T (SN: OR = 1.35, 95% CI = 1.12-1.63, P trend = 0.002; Face: OR = 1.29, 95% CI = 1.10-1.50, P trend = 0.001). Decreased odds were observed for females (SN: OR = 0.49, 95% CI = 0.37-0.64, P < 0.001; Face: OR = 0.66, 95% CI = 0.53-0.82, P < 0.001) and the presence of nevi (SN: OR = 0.66, 95% CI = 0.49-0.89, P = 0.006; Face: OR = 0.65, 95% CI = 0.52-0.83, P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Differences observed between SN melanoma and other sites were also observed for facial melanoma. Factors previously associated with the broader head and neck region, notably older age, may be driven by the facial subregion. A novel finding was the association of IRF4-rs12203592 with both SN and facial melanoma. IMPACT: Understanding the epidemiology of site-specific melanoma will enable tailored strategies for risk factor reduction and site-specific screening campaigns.

2.
Sports Med ; 2020 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32813182

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although low child and adult grip strength is associated with adverse cardiometabolic health, how grip strength across the life course associates with type 2 diabetes is unknown. This study identified the relative contribution of grip strength measured at specific life stages (childhood, young adulthood, mid-adulthood) with prediabetes or type 2 diabetes in mid-adulthood. METHODS: Between 1985 and 2019, 263 participants had their grip strength measured using an isometric dynamometer in childhood (9-15 years), young adulthood (28-36 years) and mid-adulthood (38-49 years). In mid-adulthood, a fasting blood sample was collected and tested for glucose and glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c). Participants were categorized as having prediabetes or type 2 diabetes if fasting glucose levels were ≥ 5.6 mmol or if HbA1c levels were ≥ 5.7% (≥ 39 mmol/mol). A Bayesian relevant life course exposure model examined the association between lifelong grip strength and prediabetes or type 2 diabetes. RESULTS: Grip strength at each time point was equally associated with prediabetes or type 2 diabetes in mid-adulthood (childhood: 37%, young adulthood: 36%, mid-adulthood: 28%). A one standard deviation increase in cumulative grip strength was associated with 34% reduced odds of prediabetes or type 2 diabetes in mid-adulthood (OR 0.66, 95% credible interval 0.40, 0.98). CONCLUSIONS: Greater grip strength across the life course could protect against the development of prediabetes and type 2 diabetes. Strategies aimed at increasing muscular strength in childhood and maintaining behaviours to improve strength into adulthood could improve future cardiometabolic health. The Association Between Grip Strength Measured in Childhood, Young- and Mid-adulthood and Prediabetes or Type 2 Diabetes in Mid-adulthood.

3.
Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act ; 17(1): 87, 2020 07 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32641065

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Partnering and parenting are important life-stage transitions often accompanied by changes in social networks, roles and responsibilities. There have been no longitudinal studies examining associations of partnering and parenting with changes in domain-specific physical activity (PA) and sedentary behaviours, and our understanding of whether these transitions are associated with weight change is limited. METHODS: Two thousand one hundred and twenty-four Australian adults from a national cohort (mean age 31.7 (2.7) years, 47.5% male) completed questionnaires at baseline (2004-06) and follow-up (2009-11), reporting marital and parental status. Weight (kg) was measured at baseline and self-reported at follow-up. PA and sedentary behaviours (sitting and television (TV) viewing) were self-reported in a subset (n = 1221). Linear regression estimated the longitudinal associations of parenting and partnering transitions with PA, sedentary behaviours and weight at follow-up, adjusted for baseline value of the respective outcome variable, age, education, follow-up duration and other life-stage transition. RESULTS: During the 5-year follow-up, 17.3% men and 12.9% women partnered, and 27.3% men and 19.1% women had their first child. Compared to staying not partnered, partnering was associated with an increase in total PA (177.5mins/week, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) 18.0 to 337.0) among men and a greater weight gain (2.2 kg, 95% CI 0.6 to 3.7) among women. Compared to remaining child-free, having a first child was associated with greater reductions in total PA (- 123.9mins/week, 95% CI - 248.8 to 1.1) and TV viewing time (- 27.0mins/day, 95% CI - 50.6 to - 3.3) among men. Women who had their first child had greater weight gain (1.4 kg, 95% CI 0.1 to 2.7) but spent less time sitting (- 103.8mins/day, 95% CI - 135.5 to - 72.1) than those remaining child-free. For women, having additional children was associated with less sitting time (- 39.4mins/week, 95% CI - 66.0 to - 12.8) than having the same number of children. CONCLUSIONS: Partnering was associated with an increase in men's total PA and women's weight. Transitions into parenthood with a first child or additional children were associated with potentially health-impairing changes in weight and PA, but health-promoting changes in sedentary behaviours. Future PA promotion strategies should pay attention to men who had their first child to mitigate declining total PA.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico , Acontecimentos que Mudam a Vida , Casamento , Poder Familiar , Comportamento Sedentário , Cônjuges , Ganho de Peso , Adulto , Austrália/epidemiologia , Peso Corporal , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Autorrelato
4.
Pediatrics ; 146(2)2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32632021

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To examine how overweight and obesity at specific ages and overall BMI growth patterns throughout childhood predict cardiometabolic phenotypes at 11 to 12 years. METHODS: In a population-based sample of 5107 infants, BMI was measured every 2 years between ages 2 to 3 and 10 to 11 years. We identified 5 BMI trajectories using growth curve models. At ages 11 to 12 years, 1811 children completed assessments for metabolic syndrome risk scores, carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity, and carotid intima-media thickness. Multivariable regression models were used to estimate associations, adjusted for potential confounders (eg, age, sex, smoking exposure, and small for gestational age). RESULTS: Overweight and obesity from early childhood onward were strongly associated with higher cardiometabolic risk at 11 to 12 years of age. At age 6 to 7 years, compared with those with a healthy weight, children with overweight had higher metabolic syndrome risk scores by 0.23 SD units (95% confidence interval 0.05 to 0.41) and with obesity by 0.76 SD units (0.51-1.01), with associations almost doubling by age 10 to 11 years. Obese (but not overweight) children had higher outcome pulse wave velocity (0.64-0.73 SD units) from ages 6 to 7 years and slightly higher outcome carotid intima-media thickness (0.20-0.30 SD units) at all ages. Cumulative exposure to high BMI from 2 to 3 years of age carried the greatest cardiometabolic risk, with a gradient of risk across trajectories. CONCLUSIONS: High early-childhood BMI is already silently associated with the development of cardiometabolic risk by 11 to 12 years, highlighting the urgent need for effective action to reduce overweight and obesity in early childhood.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Diagnóstico Precoce , Programas de Rastreamento , Obesidade Pediátrica/epidemiologia , Austrália/epidemiologia , Espessura Intima-Media Carotídea , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Fatores de Confusão Epidemiológicos , Metabolismo Energético , Feminino , Seguimentos , Transtornos do Crescimento/epidemiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido Pequeno para a Idade Gestacional , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Fenótipo , Análise de Onda de Pulso , Risco
5.
Environ Int ; 143: 105955, 2020 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32711331

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Living in an agricultural area or on farms has been associated with increased risk of childhood cancer but few studies have evaluated specific agricultural exposures. We prospectively examined residential proximity to crops and animals during pregnancy and risk of childhood leukemia and central nervous system (CNS) tumors in Denmark. METHODS: The Danish National Birth Cohort (DNBC) consists of 91,769 pregnant women (96,841 live-born children) enrolled in 1996-2003. For 61 childhood leukemias and 59 CNS tumors <15 years of age that were diagnosed through 2014 and a ~10% random sample of the live births (N = 9394) with geocoded addresses, we linked pregnancy addresses to crop fields and animal farm locations and estimated the crop area (hectares [ha]) and number of animals (standardized by their nitrogen emissions) by type within 250 meters (m), 500 m, 1000 m, and 2000 m of the home. We also estimated pesticide applications (grams, active ingredient) based on annual sales data for nine herbicides and one fungicide that were estimated to have been applied to >30% of the area of one or more crop. We used Cox proportional hazard models (weighted to the full cohort) to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association of childhood leukemia and CNS tumors with crop area, animals, and pesticide applications adjusted for gender and maternal age. RESULTS: Sixty-three percent of mothers had crops within 500 m of their homes during pregnancy; winter and spring cereals were the major crop types. Compared to mothers with no crops <500 m, we found increasing risk of childhood leukemia among offspring of mothers with increasing crop area near their home (highest tertile >24 ha HR: 2.0, CI:1.02-3.8), which was stronger after adjustment for animals (within 1000 m) (HR: 2.6, CI:1.02-6.8). We also observed increased risk for grass/clover (highest tertile >1.1 ha HR: 3.1, CI:1.2-7.7), peas (>0 HR: 2.4, CI: 1.02-5.4), and maize (>0 HR: 2.8, CI: 1.1-6.9) in animal-adjusted models. We found no association between number of animals near homes and leukemia risk. Crops, total number of animals, and hogs within 500 m of the home were not associated with CNS tumors but we observed an increased risk with >median cattle compared with no animals in crop-adjusted models (HR = 2.2, CI: 1.02-4.9). In models adjusted for total animals, the highest tertiles of use of three herbicides and one fungicide were associated with elevated risk of leukemia but no associations were statistically significant; there were no associations with CNS tumors. CONCLUSIONS: Risk of childhood leukemia was associated with higher crop area near mothers' homes during pregnancy; CNS tumors were associated with higher cattle density. Quantitative estimates of crop pesticides and other agricultural exposures are needed to clarify possible reasons for these increased risks.

6.
Neurotoxicology ; 80: 20-28, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32479765

RESUMO

Prenatal phthalate chemicals may have adverse effects on brain development by various mechanisms including oxidant damage. However, birth cohort findings have been conflicting. This study aimed to (i) investigate the interplay between maternal prenatal phthalate levels, infant genetic vulnerability to oxidative stress, and child neurodevelopment and (ii) examine combined putative oxidant exposures. In a population-based birth cohort of 1064 women with prenatal recruitment in Victoria, Australia, maternal urine was collected at 36 weeks of pregnancy and phthalate metabolite concentrations measured. An unweighted genetic score for oxidative stress was made using a candidate gene approach. Cognition was assessed using the BAYLEY-III at two years (n = 678). Parents completed questionnaires for doctor diagnosed autism spectrum disorder (ASD) (1.4 %), ASD traits (4.9 %) and child inattention/hyperactivity (n = 791). Analyses included multiple linear and logistic regression. Higher prenatal phthalate levels and a higher oxidative stress genetic score were each associated with subsequent ASD. Several oxidative stress-related SNPs modified the association between prenatal phthalates and ASD and other outcomes. Consistent patterns were evident across gene score-phthalate combinations for cognition, ASD, ASD traits and inattention/hyperactivity. Other putative oxidant factors such as prenatal smoking further increased risk. Prenatal phthalate levels and infant oxidative stress-related genetic vulnerability are associated with adverse neurodevelopment. Combined exposures are important. Current recommendations and regulation on maternal phthalate exposure during pregnancy require re-evaluation.

7.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 9(7): e014381, 2020 04 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32264731

RESUMO

Background Despite declining US adolescent smoking prevalence from 40% among 12th graders in 1995 to around 10% in 2018, adolescent smoking is still a significant problem. Using the International Childhood Cardiovascular Cohort (i3C) Consortium, which includes 7 international cohorts recruited in childhood and followed into adulthood, the present study was designed to confirm the important relation between adolescent smoking and daily adult smoking and present new data on adult smoking into the forties and comparison of smoking in the United States, Finland, and Australia. Methods and Results Childhood smoking experience during ages 6 to 19 in the 1970s and 1980s was classifiable in 6687 i3C participants who also provided smoking status in their twenties and forties through 2011-2018. Prevalence of daily smoking in their twenties was directly related to degree of smoking during adolescence and inversely related to the age at which that smoking experience occurred (P trend, <0.001). Similar patterns were observed for prediction of smoking during age forties. Among the 2465 smokers in their twenties, cessation by their forties was generally inverse to degree of smoking in ages 6 to 19 (P trend, <0.001). Prevalence of smoking during adolescence and adulthood was similar among US, Finnish, and Australian participants. Conclusions These long-term follow-up data show that smoking intensity increased throughout adolescence. Prevalence of adult smoking and cessation by the forties were both correlated with levels of childhood smoking intensity. These data lend support to preventive strategies designed to reduce, delay, or eliminate any youth access to cigarettes.

8.
Chronobiol Int ; 37(7): 1034-1047, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32233647

RESUMO

Experimental evidence suggests that perinatal light imprinting of circadian clocks and systems may affect downstream physiology and cancer risk in later life. For humans, the predominant circadian stimulus is the daily light-dark cycle. Herein, we explore associations between perinatal photoperiod characteristics (photoperiod: duration of daylight as determined by time-of-year and location) and childhood cancer risk. We use pooled data on 182,856 mothers and babies from prospective birth cohorts in six countries (Australia, Denmark, Israel, Norway, UK, USA) within the International Childhood Cancer Cohort Consortium (I4C). Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). In line with predicted differential dose-responses, restricted cubic splines indicate a potential non-linear, non-monotonic relationship between perinatal mean daily photoperiod (0-24 h) and childhood cancer risk. In a restricted analysis of 154,121 individuals who experienced third trimester photoperiods exclusively within the 8-16-h range, the relative risk of developing childhood cancer decreased by 9% with every hour increase in third trimester mean daily photoperiod [HR: 0.91 (95%CIs: 0.84-0.99)]. In conclusion, in this first study of perinatal photoperiod and childhood cancer, we detected an inverse ["protective"] linear association between third trimester mean daily photoperiod and childhood cancer risk in the 8-16-h set of the total study population. Limited statistical power impeded the investigation of risks with individuals exposed to more extreme photoperiods. Future studies are needed to confirm differential photoperiod-associated risks and further investigations into the hypothesized circadian imprinting mechanism are warranted.

9.
Open Heart ; 7(1): e001099, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32153787

RESUMO

Objective: The impact of heart failure (HF) on perceived and objectively measured levels of physical activity (PA) can inform risk stratification and treatment recommendation. We aimed to compare self-reported and objectively measured PA levels in a large sample of participants with and without HF. Methods: A validated PA questionnaire was used to estimate self-reported weekly PA among 1600 participants with HF and 387 580 participants without HF. Accelerometer data were studied in 596 participants with HF and 96 105 participants without HF for a period of 7 days. Using multivariable linear regression models, we compared the PA levels between participants with HF and without HF, focusing on both the average daily PA levels and the intensity of PAs throughout the day. Results: PA levels were significantly lower in participants with HF using both self-report (excess metabolic equivalent of task hours per week of 26.5 (95% CI 24.7 to 28.4) vs 34.7 (95% CI 34.5 to 34.9), respectively (p<0.001)) and accelerometer measures (mean accelerations of 23.7 milligravity (95% CI 23.1 to 24.4) vs 28.1 milligravity (95% CI 28.0 to 28.1), respectively (p<0.001)). Findings were consistent across different PA intensities. Hour-by-hour comparisons showed that accelerometer-derived PA levels of patients with HF were reduced throughout the day. Conclusion: Perceived and objectively recorded PA levels of patients with chronic HF are significantly lower than those of individuals without HF. This difference is continuous throughout the different hours of the day, with individuals with HF being on average 16% less active than individuals without HF. In patients with HF, increases in everyday activity may be a potential alternative to structured exercise programmes.


Assuntos
Actigrafia/instrumentação , Exercício Físico , Monitores de Aptidão Física , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Comportamento Sedentário , Autorrelato , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Doença Crônica , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Fatores de Tempo , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
10.
Pediatrics ; 145(4)2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32209701

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Elevated non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels are used to identify children at increased cardiovascular risk, but the use of non-HDL-C in childhood to predict atherosclerosis is unclear. We examined whether the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute classification of youth non-HDL-C status predicts high common carotid artery intima-media thickness in adulthood. METHODS: We analyzed data from 4 prospective cohorts among 4582 children aged 3 to 19 years who were remeasured as adults (mean follow-up of 26 years). Non-HDL-C status in youth and adulthood was classified according to cut points of the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute and the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III. High carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) in adulthood was defined as at or above the study visit-, age-, sex-, race-, and cohort-specific 90th percentile of intima-media thickness. RESULTS: In a log-binomial regression analysis adjusted with age at baseline, sex, cohort, length of follow-up, baseline BMI, and systolic blood pressure, children with dyslipidemic non-HDL-C were at increased risk of high cIMT in adulthood (relative risk [RR], 1.29; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.07-1.55). Compared with the persistent normal group, the persistent dyslipidemia group (RR, 1.80; 95% CI, 1.37-2.37) and incident dyslipidemia (normal to dyslipidemia) groups (RR, 1.45; 95% CI, 1.07-1.96) had increased risk of high cIMT in adulthood, but the risk was attenuated for the resolution (dyslipidemia to normal) group (RR, 1.17; 95% CI, 0.97-1.41). CONCLUSIONS: Dyslipidemic non-HDL-C levels predict youth at risk for developing high cIMT in adulthood. Those who resolve their non-HDL-C dyslipidemia by adulthood have normalized risk of developing high cIMT in adulthood.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose/sangue , Artéria Carótida Primitiva/diagnóstico por imagem , Espessura Intima-Media Carotídea , Colesterol/sangue , Previsões , Medição de Risco/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Aterosclerose/diagnóstico , Aterosclerose/epidemiologia , Austrália/epidemiologia , Biomarcadores/sangue , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Finlândia/epidemiologia , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Triglicerídeos/sangue , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
11.
Pregnancy Hypertens ; 19: 218-225, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31810823

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE(S): To investigate the associations between adiposity in childhood, and adiposity change from childhood to adulthood, with pregnancy hypertension. STUDY DESIGN: The study followed-up 985 girls from the 1985 Australian Schools Health and Fitness Survey (aged 9-15 years) who were ever pregnant in 2004-2006 and/or 2009-2011. In childhood, overweight and obesity were defined by age-sex-specific international standard for body mass index (BMI) and in adulthood as BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2. Childhood and adult abdominal obesity were defined as waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) ≥ 0.5. A subsample of adults had abdominal obesity measures (n = 549). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Pregnancy hypertension was self-reported as having had high blood pressure during or due to pregnancy. RESULTS: Childhood overweight/obesity (relative risk [RR] = 1.66, 95% confidence interval [CI]:1.07-2.52) and abdominal obesity (RR = 2.55, 95% CI:1.34-4.85) were associated with higher risks of pregnancy hypertension after adjustment for age, socioeconomic status and parity. Further adjustment for adult BMI attenuated the association for childhood overweight/obesity which was no longer statistically significant (RR = 1.28, 95% CI:0.79-2.07). The association with childhood abdominal obesity persisted after adjustment for adult WHtR (RR = 2.15, 95% CI:1.10-4.20). Compared to participants with persistently normal BMI or WHtR, those who were overweight/obese in adulthood only (RR = 1.49, 95% CI:1.10-2.02), persistently overweight/obese (RR = 2.06, 95% CI:1.29-3.29) or persistently abdominally obese (RR = 3.09, 95% CI:1.54-6.20) had increased risks of pregnancy hypertension. CONCLUSION(S): Childhood adiposity was associated with increased risk of pregnancy hypertension, with the association of childhood abdominal obesity independent of adult abdominal obesity. Women who were persistently overweight/obese or abdominally obese since childhood had the highest risk of pregnancy hypertension.

12.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 105(4)2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31723976

RESUMO

CONTEXT: No universal waist circumference (WC) percentile cutoffs used have been proposed for screening central obesity in children and adolescents. OBJECTIVE: To develop international WC percentile cutoffs for children and adolescents with normal weight based on data from 8 countries in different global regions and to examine the relation with cardiovascular risk. DESIGN AND SETTING: We used pooled data on WC in 113,453 children and adolescents (males 50.2%) aged 4 to 20 years from 8 countries in different regions (Bulgaria, China, Iran, Korea, Malaysia, Poland, Seychelles, and Switzerland). We calculated WC percentile cutoffs in samples including or excluding children with obesity, overweight, or underweight. WC percentiles were generated using the general additive model for location, scale, and shape (GAMLSS). We also estimated the predictive power of the WC 90th percentile cutoffs to predict cardiovascular risk using receiver operator characteristics curve analysis based on data from 3 countries that had available data (China, Iran, and Korea). We also examined which WC percentiles linked with WC cutoffs for central obesity in adults (at age of 18 years). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: WC measured based on recommendation by the World Health Organization. RESULTS: We validated the performance of the age- and sex-specific 90th percentile WC cutoffs calculated in children and adolescents (6-18 years of age) with normal weight (excluding youth with obesity, overweight, or underweight) by linking the percentile with cardiovascular risk (area under the curve [AUC]: 0.69 for boys; 0.63 for girls). In addition, WC percentile among normal weight children linked relatively well with established WC cutoffs for central obesity in adults (eg, AUC in US adolescents: 0.71 for boys; 0.68 for girls). CONCLUSION: The international WC cutoffs developed in this study could be useful to screen central obesity in children and adolescents aged 6 to 18 years and allow direct comparison of WC distributions between populations and over time.

13.
Med J Aust ; 212(4): 169-174, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31760661

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To investigate blood lead levels in an Australian birth cohort of children; to identify factors associated with higher lead levels. DESIGN, SETTING: Cross-sectional study within the Barwon Infant Study, a population birth cohort study in the Barwon region of Victoria (1074 infants, recruited June 2010 - June 2013). Data were adjusted for non-participation and attrition by propensity weighting. PARTICIPANTS: Blood lead was measured in 523 of 708 children appraised in the Barwon Infant Study pre-school review (mean age, 4.2 years; SD, 0.3 years). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Blood lead concentration in whole blood (µg/dL). RESULTS: The median blood lead level was 0.8 µg/dL (range, 0.2-3.7 µg/dL); the geometric mean blood lead level after propensity weighting was 0.97 µg/dL (95% CI, 0.92-1.02 µg/dL). Children in houses 50 or more years old had higher blood lead levels (adjusted mean difference [AMD], 0.13 natural log units; 95% CI, 0.02-0.24 natural log units; P = 0.020), as did children of families with lower household income (per $10 000, AMD, -0.035 natural log units; 95% CI, -0.056 to -0.013 natural log units; P = 0.002) and those living closer to Point Henry (inverse square distance relationship; P = 0.002). Associations between hygiene factors and lead levels were evident only for children living in older homes. CONCLUSION: Blood lead levels in our pre-school children were lower than in previous Australian surveys and recent surveys in areas at risk of higher exposure, and no children had levels above 5 µg/dL. Our findings support advice to manage risks related to exposure to historical lead, especially in older houses.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/análise , Habitação , Chumbo/sangue , Austrália , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Análise Multivariada , Fatores Socioeconômicos
14.
J Pediatr ; 217: 98-109.e8, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31810630

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To summarize the published evidence regarding the association between maternal infection during pregnancy and childhood leukemia. STUDY DESIGN: In this systematic review and meta-analysis (PROSPERO number, CRD42018087289), we searched PubMed and Embase to identify relevant studies. We included human studies that reported associations of at least one measure of maternal infection during pregnancy with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) or all childhood leukemias in the offspring. One reviewer extracted the data first using a standardized form, and the second reviewer independently checked the data for accuracy. Two reviewers used the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale to assess the quality of included studies. We conducted random effects meta-analyses to pool the ORs of specific type of infection on ALL and childhood leukemia. RESULTS: This review included 20 studies (ALL, n = 15; childhood leukemia, n = 14) reported in 32 articles. Most (>65%) included studies reported a positive association between infection variables and ALL or childhood leukemia. Among specific types of infection, we found that influenza during pregnancy was associated with higher risk of ALL (pooled OR, 3.64; 95% CI, 1.34-9.90) and childhood leukemia (pooled OR, 1.77; 95% CI, 1.01-3.11). Varicella (pooled OR, 10.19; 95% CI, 1.98-52.39) and rubella (pooled OR, 2.79; 95% CI, 1.16-6.71) infections were also associated with higher childhood leukemia risk. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that maternal infection during pregnancy may be associated with a higher risk of childhood leukemia.

15.
Prev Med ; 130: 105861, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31654729

RESUMO

Much of what is known about childhood clusters of cardiovascular disease behavioural risk factors (RFs) comes from cross-sectional studies, providing little insight into the long-term health impacts of different behavioural cluster profiles. This study aimed to establish the longitudinal relationship between cluster patterns of childhood behavioural RFs and adult cardio-metabolic RFs. Data were from an Australian prospective cohort study of 1265 participants measured in 1985 (ages 9-15 yrs), and in 2004-06 (ages 26-36 yrs). At baseline, children self-reported smoking status, alcohol consumption, physical activity (PA), dietary behaviour and psychological well-being. At follow-up, participants completed questionnaires and attended study clinics where the following component indicators of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) score were measured: waist circumference, blood pressure, fasting blood glucose and lipids. TwoStep cluster analyses were carried out to identify clusters in childhood. Linear regression was used to examine the longitudinal associations between cluster patterns of childhood behavioural RFs and adult cardio-metabolic RFs. Four childhood cluster patterns of behavioural RFs labelled 'most healthy', 'high PA', 'most unhealthy', and 'breakfast skippers' were identified. The unhealthier childhood clusters predicted a significantly higher adult MetS score ('most unhealthy': ß = 0.10, 95%CI = 0.01, 0.19) and adult waist circumference ('most unhealthy': ß = 2.29, 95%CI = 0.90, 6.67; 'breakfast skippers': ß = 2.15, 95%CI = 0.30, 4.00). These associations were independent of adult behavioural RFs and socio-economic position. These findings emphasise the impact of multiple childhood behavioural RFs on important adult health outcomes and may be useful for the development of early intervention strategies, where identification of children at higher risk of poorer adult cardio-metabolic health is vital.

16.
Semin Arthritis Rheum ; 50(2): 192-197, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31699372

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe the associations of glucose homeostasis and metabolic syndrome (MetS) measures with knee cartilage defects and cartilage volume in young adults. METHODS: Fasting blood biochemistry, waist circumference and blood pressure measures were collected 4-5 years prior to knee magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans. Blood measures included levels of glucose, insulin, triglyceride and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). Homeostatic model assessment 2-insulin resistance (HOMA2-IR), HOMA2-beta cell function (HOMA2-ß), HOMA2-insulin sensitivity (HOMA-S) and MetS were calculated or defined. Knee cartilage defects and cartilage volume were measured from MRI scans. Data were analysed using log binomial or linear regressions. RESULTS: Among 328 participants (47.3% were females, aged 26-36 years at baseline), 40 (12.7%) had hyperglycaemia and 21 (6.7%) had MetS. Glucose homeostasis measures (except fasting glucose) were associated with tibiofemoral cartilage defects (fasting insulin: relative risk (RR) 1.05, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.01 to 1.08; HOMA2-IR: 1.44, 1.08 to 1.92; HOMA2-ß: 2.59, 1.33 to 5.07; HOMA2-S: 0.36, 0.18 to 0.72), but not patellar cartilage defects. There were no associations between glucose homeostasis measures and knee cartilage volume. High waist circumference (RR 2.32, 95% CI 1.18 to 4.54) and low HDL-C (RR 1.99, 95% CI 1.08 to 3.69) were associated with tibiofemoral cartilage defects, but no other associations were observed between MetS or its components and cartilage defects or volume. CONCLUSION: Insulin resistance, high waist circumference and low HDL-C were associated with higher risk of tibiofemoral cartilage defects, suggesting glucose homeostasis and some MetS components may affect early cartilage damage in young adults.

17.
Eur J Prev Cardiol ; 27(8): 840-849, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30857428

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Metabolomic analysis may help us to understand the association between alcohol consumption and cardio-metabolic health. We aimed to: (i) replicate a previous study of alcohol consumption and metabolic profiles, (ii) examine associations between types of alcoholic beverages and metabolites and (iii) include potential confounders not examined in previous studies. METHODS: Cross-sectional data of 1785 participants (age 26-36 years, 52% women) from the 2004-2006 Childhood Determinants of Adult Health study were used. Consumption of beer, wine and spirits was assessed by questionnaires. Metabolites were measured by a high-throughput nuclear magnetic resonance platform and multivariable linear regression examined their association with alcohol consumption (combined total and types) adjusted for covariates including socio-demographics, health behaviours and mental health. RESULTS: Alcohol consumption was associated with 23 out of 37 lipids, 12 out of 16 fatty acids and six out of 20 low-molecular-weight metabolites independent of confounders with similar associations for combined total alcohol consumption and different types of alcohol. Many metabolites (lipoprotein lipids in high-density lipoprotein (HDL) subclasses, HDL cholesterol, apolipoprotein A-1, phosphotriglycerides, total fatty acids, monounsaturated fatty acids, omega-3 fatty acids) had positive linear associations with alcohol consumption but some showed negative linear (low-density lipoprotein particle size, omega-6 fatty acids ratio to total fatty acids, citrate) or U-shaped (lipoprotein lipids in very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) subclasses, VLDL triglycerides) associations. CONCLUSIONS: Our results were similar to those of the only previous study. Associations with metabolites were similar for total and types of alcohol. Alcohol consumption in young adults is related to a diverse range of metabolomic signatures associated with benefits and harms to health.

18.
Int J Cancer ; 146(4): 943-952, 2020 02 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31054169

RESUMO

Parental occupational exposures to pesticides, animals and organic dust have been associated with an increased risk of childhood cancer based mostly on case-control studies. We prospectively evaluated parental occupational exposures and risk of childhood leukemia and central nervous system (CNS) tumors in the International Childhood Cancer Cohort Consortium. We pooled data on 329,658 participants from birth cohorts in five countries (Australia, Denmark, Israel, Norway and United Kingdom). Parental occupational exposures during pregnancy were estimated by linking International Standard Classification of Occupations-1988 job codes to the ALOHA+ job exposure matrix. Risk of childhood (<15 years) acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL; n = 129), acute myeloid leukemia (AML; n = 31) and CNS tumors (n = 158) was estimated using Cox proportional hazards models to generate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Paternal exposures to pesticides and animals were associated with increased risk of childhood AML (herbicides HR = 3.22, 95% CI = 0.97-10.68; insecticides HR = 2.86, 95% CI = 0.99-8.23; animals HR = 3.89, 95% CI = 1.18-12.90), but not ALL or CNS tumors. Paternal exposure to organic dust was positively associated with AML (HR = 2.38 95% CI = 1.12-5.07), inversely associated with ALL (HR = 0.55, 95% CI = 0.31-0.99) and not associated with CNS tumors. Low exposure prevalence precluded evaluation of maternal pesticide and animal exposures; we observed no significant associations with organic dust exposure. This first prospective analysis of pooled birth cohorts and parental occupational exposures provides evidence for paternal agricultural exposures as childhood AML risk factors. The different risks for childhood ALL associated with maternal and paternal organic dust exposures should be investigated further.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Sistema Nervoso Central/epidemiologia , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/epidemiologia , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Exposição Paterna/efeitos adversos , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/epidemiologia , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Animais , Animais Domésticos , Austrália/epidemiologia , Neoplasias do Sistema Nervoso Central/etiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Poeira , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Israel/epidemiologia , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/etiologia , Masculino , Noruega/epidemiologia , Praguicidas/toxicidade , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/etiologia , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/etiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Reino Unido/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
19.
J Sports Sci ; 38(1): 38-45, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31613185

RESUMO

To help inform strategies aimed at increasing muscular fitness levels, we examined factors associated with childhood muscular fitness (strength and power) that preceded the recently observed secular decline. Data were available from a nationally representative sample of Australian children aged 7-15 years in 1985 (n = 8469). Muscular fitness measures included strength (right and left grip, shoulder extension and flexion, and leg strength) and power (standing long jump distance). Anthropometric (adiposity, fat-free mass), cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), flexibility, speed capability, physical activity (individual and parental), dietary quality and intake (fruit, vegetable, protein) and sociodemographic (area-level socioeconomic status (SES), school type) data were available. Statistical analyses included sex-stratified linear regression. Of all examined factors, measures of adiposity, fat-free mass, CRF, flexibility and speed capability were associated with muscular fitness at levels that met Cohen's threshold for important effects (r-squared = 0.02 to 0.28). These findings highlight the multifactorial relationship between muscular fitness and its determinants. Collectively, these factors were powerful in explaining muscular strength (females: r-squared = 0.32; males: r-squared = 0.41) and muscular power (females: r-squared = 0.36; males: r-squared = 0.42). These findings highlight modifiable and environmental factors that could be targeted to increase childhood muscular fitness.


Assuntos
Força Muscular/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Aptidão Física/fisiologia , Adiposidade/fisiologia , Adolescente , Austrália , Índice de Massa Corporal , Aptidão Cardiorrespiratória/fisiologia , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Dieta , Meio Ambiente , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fenótipo , Classe Social
20.
Pediatr Allergy Immunol ; 31(1): 38-46, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31566807

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: High folate status in pregnancy has been implicated in the increased prevalence of allergic disease, but there are no published data relating directly measured folate status in pregnancy to challenge-proven food allergy among offspring. The study aim was to examine the association between red blood cell (RBC) folate status in trimester three of pregnancy and allergic disease among offspring. METHODS: Red blood cell folate levels were measured at 28-32 weeks' gestation in a prospective birth cohort (n = 1074). Food allergy outcomes were assessed in 1-year-old infants by skin prick testing and subsequent food challenge. Eczema was assessed by questionnaire and clinical review. High trimester three RBC folate was defined as greater than (>) 1360 nmol/L. Binomial regression was used to examine associations between trimester three RBC folate and allergic outcomes, adjusting for potential confounders. RESULTS: Red blood cell folate levels were measured in 88% (894/1064) of pregnant women. The mean concentration was 1695.6 nmol/L (standard deviation 415.4) with 82% (731/894) >1360 nmol/L. There was no evidence of either linear or non-linear relationships between trimester three RBC folate and allergic outcomes, nor evidence of associations between high RBC folate and food allergy (adjusted risk ratio (aRR) 2.89, 95% CI 0.90-9.35), food sensitization (aRR 1.72, 95% CI 0.85-3.49), or eczema (aRR 0.97, 95% CI 0.67-1.38). CONCLUSION: The majority of pregnant women in this study had high RBC folate levels. There was no evidence of associations between trimester three RBC folate and food allergy, food sensitization, or eczema among the offspring, although larger studies are required.

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