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1.
Nanoscale ; 13(31): 13353-13367, 2021 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34477741

RESUMO

Despite the significance of surface absorbed proteins in determining the biological identity of nanoparticles (NPs) entering the human body, little is known about the surface corona and factors that shape their formation on dietary particles used as food additives. In this study, food grade NPs of silica and titania and their food additive counterparts (E551 and E171) were interacted with milk proteins or with skimmed milk and the levels of protein adsorption were quantified. Characteristics of proteins correlating with their level of adsorption to NPs were determined using partial least squares regression analysis. Results from individual protein-particle interactions revealed the significance of factors such as zeta potential, hydrophobicity and hydrodynamic size of particles, and protein characteristics such as the number of beta strands, isoelectric points, the number of amino acid units (Ile, Tyr, Ala, Gly, Pro, Asp, and Arg), and phosphorylation sites on their adsorption to particles. Similar regression analysis was performed to identify the characteristics of twenty abundant and enriched proteins (identified using LC-MS/MS analysis) for their association with the surface corona of milk-interacted particles. Contrary to individual protein-particle interactions, protein characteristics such as helices, turns, protein structures, disulfide bonds, the number of amino acid units (Cys, Met, Leu, and Trp), and Fe binding sites were significant for their association with the surface corona of milk interacted particles. This difference in factors identified from individual proteins and milk interacted particles suggested possible interactions of proteins with surface adsorbed biomolecules as revealed by scanning transmission X-ray microscopy and other biochemical assays.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas , Coroa de Proteína , Adsorção , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Cromatografia Líquida , Humanos , Proteoma , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
2.
Chemosphere ; 283: 131023, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34153922

RESUMO

Solid-state 13C Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) and synchrotron-based X-ray Absorption Near-Edge Structure (XANES) have applications for determining the relative proportions of organic C functional groups in materials. Spectral data obtained by NMR is typically processed using integration (INTEG) whereas XANES spectral data is typically processed using deconvolution (DECONV). The objective of this study was to examine the impact of spectral data collection and processing on the estimated relative proportions of organic C functional groups in biochars. Biochars showed large variations in aromatic C (45-97%), alkyl C (0-23%), O-alkyl C (1-41%), phenolic C (0-20%) and carboxylic C (0-20%). NMR had a better ability than XANES to differentiate % aromatic C across biochars, and the mean % aromatic C was always greater for NMR-INTEG and NMR-DECONV than for XANES-INTEG or XANES-DECONV. NMR-INTEG showed significant associations with NMR-DECONV and XANES-INTEG for % aromatic C and alkyl C, but there were no significant associations between NMR and XANES for % O-alkyl C, phenolic C and carboxylic C. As well, there was no association between NMR-INTEG and XANES-DECONV for any organic C functional group, and in some cases, spectral data collection and processing influenced the quantification of organic C functional groups in a given biochar to the extent that the differences observed were as large as differences observed between biochars when analyzed using the same spectral data collection and processing technique. We conclude that great caution must be taken when comparing studies that determined organic C functional groups in materials using NMR-INTEG versus XANES-DECONV.


Assuntos
Carbono , Carvão Vegetal , Coleta de Dados , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética
3.
Sci Total Environ ; 784: 147105, 2021 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33905938

RESUMO

Mine tailings exposed to water and oxygen generate acid mine drainage (AMD) when the neutralizing minerals are insufficient to buffer the acid produced by sulfide oxidation. Mineral reactivity, such as sulfide oxidation and carbonate dissolution, leads to several changes within mine tailings in terms of their physical, mineralogical, and geochemical properties, which may lead to the release of metal(oid)s (e.g., As, Cu, Zn, Fe, S) into the environment. Fresh and oxidized tailings were sampled at two vertical profiles in a tailings storage facility (TSF). The TSF contains tailings from gold ore processing at a mine that has been closed for more than 25 years. Oxidized tailings have formed by in-situ oxidation of fresh tailings over more than 20 years. The collected samples were analyzed for: i) chemical composition by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES), X-ray fluorescence (XRF), and total S/C; and ii) mineralogical composition by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Mineral Liberation Analyzer (MLA), Mossbauer spectroscopy, and Fe L-edge X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy (XANES). Mineralogically, the fresh tailings included more than 22 wt% carbonates and more than 10 wt% sulfides. In contrast, the oxidized tailings were composed mainly of secondary minerals such as iron oxy-hydroxides and gypsum. Geochemically, the fresh tailings exhibited a circumneutral behavior during weathering cell experiments and contaminants such as As were negligibly released (<0.3 mg/L). The latter is explained by formation of secondary iron oxy-hydroxides, which are known for the capacity to uptake several contaminants from the leachate. Long term oxidation of fresh tailings will lead to highly oxidized tailings similar to those collected in situ. The oxidized tailings exhibited an acidic behavior despite sulfide depletion due to latent acidity. The geochemical behavior was strongly controlled by the reactivity of secondary minerals (e.g., dissolution of gypsum and iron oxy-hydroxides). Quantitatively, the oxidized tailings released 163 mg/kg Fe, around 12,000 mg/kg S, and around 6 mg/kg Zn.

4.
Geochim Cosmochim Acta ; 276: 170-185, 2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32362680

RESUMO

Vegetation fires are known to have broad geochemical effects on carbon (C) cycles in the Earth system, yet limited information is available for nitrogen (N). In this study, we evaluated how charring organic matter (OM) to pyrogenic OM (PyOM) altered the N molecular structure and affected subsequent C and N mineralization. Nitrogen near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) of uncharred OM, PyOM, PyOM toluene extract, and PyOM after toluene extraction were used to predict PyOM-C and -N mineralization potentials. PyOM was produced from three different plants (e.g. Maize-Zea mays L.; Ryegrass-Lollium perenne L.; and Willow-Salix viminalix L.) each with varying initial N contents at three pyrolysis temperatures (350, 500 and 700 °C). Mineralization of C and N was measured from incubations of uncharred OM and PyOM in a sand matrix for 256 days at 30 °C. As pyrolysis temperature increased from 350 to 700 °C, aromatic C[bond, double bond]N in 6-membered rings (putative) increased threefold. Aromatic C[bond, double bond]N in 6-membered oxygenated ring increased sevenfold, and quaternary aromatic N doubled. Initial uncharred OM-N content was positively correlated with the proportion of heterocyclic aromatic N in PyOM (R2 = 0.44; P < 0.0001; n = 42). A 55% increase of aromatic N heterocycles at high OM-N content, when compared to low OM-N content, suggests that higher concentrations of N favor the incorporation of N atoms into aromatic structures by overcoming the energy barrier associated with the electronic and atomic configuration of the C structure. A ten-fold increase of aromatic C[bond, double bond]N in 6-membered rings (putative) in PyOM (as proportion of all PyOM-N) decreased C mineralization by 87%, whereas total N contents and C:N ratios of PyOM had no effects on C mineralization of PyOM-C for both pyrolysis temperatures (for PyOM-350 °C, R2 = 0.15; P < 0.27; for PyOM-700 °C, R2 = 0.22; P < 0.21). Oxidized aromatic N in PyOM toluene extracts correlated with higher C mineralization, whereas aromatic N in 6-membered heterocycles correlated with reduced C mineralization (R2 = 0.56; P = 0.001; n = 100). Similarly, aromatic N in 6-membered heterocycles in PyOM remaining after toluene extraction reduced PyOM-C mineralization (R2 = 0.49; P = 0.0006; n = 100). PyOM-C mineralization increased when N atoms were located at the edge of the C network in the form of oxidized N functionalities or when more N was found in PyOM toluene extracts and was more accessible to microbial oxidation. These results confirm the hypothesis that C persistence of fire-derived OM is significantly affected by its molecular N structure and the presented quantitative structure-activity relationship can be utilized for predictive modeling purposes.

5.
ACS Sustain Chem Eng ; 8(18): 7121-7131, 2020 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32421071

RESUMO

The amine-rich surfaces of pyrolyzed human solid waste (py-HSW) can be "primed" or "regenerated" with carbon dioxide (CO2) to enhance their adsorption of ammonia (NH3) for use as a soil amendment. To better understand the mechanism by which CO2 exposure facilitates NH3 adsorption to py-HSW, we artificially enriched a model sorbent, pyrolyzed, oxidized wood (py-ox wood) with amine functional groups through exposure to NH3. We then exposed these N-enriched materials to CO2 and then resorbed NH3. The high heat of CO2 adsorption (Q st) on py-HSW, 49 kJ mol-1, at low surface coverage, 0.4 mmol CO2 g-1, showed that the naturally occurring N compounds in py-HSW have a high affinity for CO2. The Q st of CO2 on py-ox wood also increased after exposure to NH3, reaching 50 kJ mol-1 at 0.7 mmol CO2 g-1, demonstrating that the incorporation of N-rich functional groups by NH3 adsorption is favorable for CO2 uptake. Adsorption kinetics of py-ox wood revealed continued, albeit diminishing NH3 uptake after each CO2 treatment, averaging 5.9 mmol NH3 g-1 for the first NH3 exposure event and 3.5 and 2.9 mmol NH3 g-1 for the second and third; the electrophilic character of CO2 serves as a Lewis acid, enhancing surface affinity for NH3 uptake. Furthermore, penetration of 15NH3 and 13CO2 measured by NanoSIMS reached over 7 µm deep into both materials, explaining the large NH3 capture. We expected similar NH3 uptake in py-HSW sorbed with CO2 and py-ox wood because both materials, py-HSW and py-ox wood sorbed with NH3, had similar N contents and similarly high CO2 uptake. Yet NH3 sorption in py-HSW was unexpectedly low, apparently from potassium (K) bicarbonate precipitation, reducing interactions between NH3 and sorbed CO2; 2-fold greater surface K in py-HSW was detected after exposure to CO2 and NH3 than before gas exposure. We show that amine-rich pyrolyzed waste materials have high CO2 affinity, which facilitates NH3 uptake. However, high ash contents as found in py-HSW hinder this mechanism.

6.
Front Microbiol ; 11: 267, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32174897

RESUMO

Manufactured Zn oxide nanoparticle (ZnO-NP) are extensively used world-wide in personal care and industrial products and are important contaminants of aquatic environments. To understand the overall impact of ZnO-NP contamination on aquatic ecosystems, investigation of their toxicity on aquatic biofilms is of particular consequence, given biofilms are known sinks for NP contaminants. In order to assess alterations in the functional activity of river microbial biofilm communities as a result of environmentally-relevant ZnO-NP exposure, biofilms were exposed to ionic zinc salt or ZnOPs that were uncoated (hydrophilic), coated with silane (hydrophobic) or stearic acid (lipophilic), at a total concentration of 188 µg l-1 Zn. ICP-MS analyses of biofilms indicated ZnO-NP concentrated in the biofilms, with hydrophilic, hydrophobic, and lipophilic treatments reaching 0.310, 0.250, and 0.220 µg Zn cm-2 of biofilm, respectively, while scanning transmission X-ray microspectroscopy (STXM) analyses of biofilms confirmed that Zn was extensively- and differentially-sorbed to biofilm material. Microbial community composition, based on taxonomic affiliation of mRNA sequences and enumeration of protozoa and micrometazoa, was not affected by these treatments, and the total transcriptional response of biofilms to all experimental exposures was not indicative of a global toxic-response, as cellular processes involved in general cell maintenance and housekeeping were abundantly transcribed. Transcripts related to major biological processes, including photosynthesis, energy metabolism, nitrogen metabolism, lipid metabolism, membrane transport, antibiotic resistance and xenobiotic degradation, were differentially expressed in Zn-exposures relative to controls. Notably, transcripts involved in nitrogen fixation and photosynthesis were decreased in abundance in response to Zn-exposure, while transcripts related to lipid degradation and motility-chemotaxis were increased, suggesting a potential role of Zn in biofilm dissolution. ZnO-NP and ionic Zn exposures elicited generally overlapping transcriptional responses, however hydrophilic and hydrophobic ZnO-NPs induced a more distinct effect than that of lipophilic ZnO-NPs, which had an effect similar to that of low ionic Zn exposure. While the physical coating of ZnO-NP may not induce specific toxicity observable at a community level, alteration of ecologically important processes of photosynthesis and nitrogen cycling are an important potential consequence of exposure to ionic Zn and Zn oxides.

7.
Environ Technol ; : 1-12, 2020 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31985357

RESUMO

Using Canadian (CMZ), Bear River (BRZ), and St. Cloud (SCZ) zeolites, this study investigates the application of natural and pre-treated zeolites for Na+ removal from salinised groundwater. Natural BRZ achieved better Na+ removal for initial concentrations of 250-10,000 mg Na+/L and had the highest maximum adsorption capacity (14.3 ± 0.4 mg/g) compared to natural CMZ (5.8 ± 0.5 mg/g) and SCZ (5.6 ± 0.7 mg/g). Natural BRZ exhibited a higher cation exchange capacity (CEC), mineralogical purity, and natural abundance of exchangeable calcium. The natural abundance of Na+ on CMZ and SCZ may have reduced Na+ adsorption. H-form BRZ and H-form CMZ were also prepared through conventional acidic pre-treatment. Acid treatment improved zeolite properties for adsorption (surface area and CEC). Synchrotron-based X-ray scanning transmission microscopy (STXM) indicated that Na+ adsorption sites in the H-form zeolites were associated with the mineral framework. However, sorption effluents were highly acidic (pH ∼2) and Al3+ leached significantly due to the dealumination induced by acid treatment. Alternatively, hard water softening was cyclically integrated with sodium adsorption as a zeolite treatment to generate Ca/Mg-form CMZ. This integration suggested the feasibility of combining CMZ cycles for water softening and sodium reduction for an extended CMZ lifecycle. Natural CMZ was first used to treat hard water, which enriched the CMZ with Ca2+ and Mg2+ and increased its subsequent Na+ removal rate by over 77%, without producing acidic effluents. The Canadian zeolite adsorbed more sodium when water softening was integrated with sodium removal, which is a repeatable dual-treatment.

8.
J Synchrotron Radiat ; 27(Pt 1): 100-109, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31868742

RESUMO

Aluminium (Al) K- and L-edge X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) has been used to examine Al speciation in minerals but it remains unclear whether it is suitable for in situ analyses of Al speciation within plants. The XANES analyses for nine standard compounds and root tissues from soybean (Glycine max), buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum), and Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) were conducted in situ. It was found that K-edge XANES is suitable for differentiating between tetrahedral coordination (peak of 1566 eV) and octahedral coordination (peak of 1568 to 1571 eV) Al, but not suitable for separating Al binding to some of the common physiologically relevant compounds in plant tissues. The Al L-edge XANES, which is more sensitive to changes in the chemical environment, was then examined. However, the poorer detection limit for analyses prevented differentiation of the Al forms in the plant tissues because of their comparatively low Al concentration. Where forms of Al differ markedly, K-edge analyses are likely to be of value for the examination of Al speciation in plant tissues. However, the apparent inability of Al K-edge XANES to differentiate between some of the physiologically relevant forms of Al may potentially limit its application within plant tissues, as does the poorer sensitivity at the L-edge.


Assuntos
Compostos de Alumínio/análise , Raízes de Plantas/química , Espectroscopia por Absorção de Raios X/métodos , Compostos de Alumínio/toxicidade , Arabidopsis/química , Arabidopsis/efeitos dos fármacos , Cristalização , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Fagopyrum/química , Fagopyrum/efeitos dos fármacos , Pectinas/química , Raízes de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plântula/química , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Soja/química , Soja/efeitos dos fármacos , Especificidade da Espécie , Síncrotrons
9.
Environ Pollut ; 256: 113515, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31706760

RESUMO

Cerium oxide (CeO2) nanoparticles are used as in-fuel catalysts and in manufacturing processes, creating a potential for release to aquatic environments. Exposures at 1 and 10 µg/L CeO2-nanoparticles were made to assess effects during the development of river biofilm communities. Scanning transmission x-ray microscopy (STXM) indicated extensive sorption of nanoparticles to the community and co-localization with lipid moieties. Following 8 weeks of development, polycarbonate coupons were removed from the reactors and used for molecular analyses, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis (DGGE-16S rRNA) and 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing. Microscopic imaging of the biofilm communities (bacterial, photosynthetic biomass, exopolymer composition, thickness, protozoan numbers), as well as carbon substrate utilization fingerprinting was performed. There was a trend toward reduced photosynthetic biomass, but no significant effects of CeO2 exposure were found on photosynthetic and bacterial biomass or biofilm thickness. Sole carbon source utilization analyses indicated increased utilization of 10 carbon sources in the carbohydrate, carboxylic acid and amino acids categories related to CeO2 exposures; however, predominantly, no significant effects (p < 0.05) were detected. Measures of microbial diversity, lectin binding affinities of exopolymeric substances and results of DGGE analyses, indicated significant changes to community composition (p < 0.05) with CeO2 exposure. Increased binding of the lectin Canavalia ensiformis was observed, consistent with changes in bacterial-associated polymers. Whereas, no significant changes were observed in binding to residues associated with algal and cyanobacterial exopolymers. 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing of community DNA indicated changes in diversity and shifts in community composition; however, these did not trend with increasing CeO2 exposure. Counting of protozoans in the biofilm communities indicated no significant effects on this trophic level. Thus, based on biomass and functional measures, CeO2 nanoparticles did not appear to have significant effects; however, there was evidence of selection pressure resulting in significant changes in microbial community composition.


Assuntos
Biofilmes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Cério/toxicidade , Nanopartículas/toxicidade , Rios/microbiologia , Biomassa , Cianobactérias/metabolismo , Monitoramento Ambiental , RNA Ribossômico 16S
10.
PeerJ ; 7: e7875, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31637130

RESUMO

Preserved labile tissues (e.g., skin, muscle) in the fossil record of terrestrial vertebrates are increasingly becoming recognized as an important source of biological and taphonomic information. Here, we combine a variety of synchrotron radiation techniques with scanning electron and optical microscopy to elucidate the structure of 72 million-year-old squamous (scaly) skin from a hadrosaurid dinosaur from the Late Cretaceous of Alberta, Canada. Scanning electron and optical microscopy independently reveal that the three-dimensionally preserved scales are associated with a band of carbon-rich layers up to a total thickness of ∼75 microns, which is topographically and morphologically congruent with the stratum corneum in modern reptiles. Compositionally, this band deviates from that of the surrounding sedimentary matrix; Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and soft X-ray spectromicroscopy analyses indicate that carbon appears predominantly as carbonyl in the skin. The regions corresponding to the integumentary layers are distinctively enriched in iron compared to the sedimentary matrix and appear with kaolinite-rich laminae. These hosting carbonyl-rich layers are apparently composed of subcircular bodies resembling preserved cell structures. Each of these structures is encapsulated by calcite/vaterite, with iron predominantly concentrated at its center. The presence of iron, calcite/vaterite and kaolinite may, independently or collectively, have played important roles in the preservation of the layered structures.

11.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 1913, 2019 04 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31015441

RESUMO

Synergistic catalysis occurring in an enzyme pocket shows enhanced performance through supramolecular recognition and flexibility. This study presents an aerogel capable of similar function by fabricating a gel catalyst with hierarchical porosity. Here, the as-prepared Co-MMPG, a Co(II) metal-metalloporphyrin gel, maintains enough conformational flexibility and features a binding pocket formed from the co-facial arrangement of the porphyrin rings, as elucidated through the combined studies of solid-state NMR and X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES). The cooperativity between two Co(II) sites within the defined nanospace pocket facilitates the binding of different substrates with a favourable geometry thereby rendering Co-MMPG with excellent performance in the context of synergistic catalysis, especially for the kinetic control stereoselective reactions. Our work thus contributes a different enzyme-mimic design strategy to develop a highly efficient heterogeneous catalyst with high chemo/stereo selectivity.

12.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 664, 2019 02 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30737387

RESUMO

Fire-derived organic matter, often referred to as pyrogenic organic matter (PyOM), is present in the Earth's soil, sediment, atmosphere, and water. We investigated interactions of PyOM with ammonia (NH3) gas, which makes up much of the Earth's reactive nitrogen (N) pool. Here we show that PyOM's NH3 retention capacity under ambient conditions can exceed 180 mg N g-1 PyOM-carbon, resulting in a material with a higher N content than any unprocessed plant material and most animal manures. As PyOM is weathered, NH3 retention increases sixfold, with more than half of the N retained through chemisorption rather than physisorption. Near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy reveal that a variety of covalent bonds form between NH3-N and PyOM, more than 10% of which contained heterocyclic structures. We estimate that through these mechanisms soil PyOM stocks could retain more than 600-fold annual NH3 emissions from agriculture, exerting an important control on global N cycling.

13.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 16810, 2018 11 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30429492

RESUMO

Direct evidence-based approaches are vital to evaluating newly proposed theories on the persistence of soil organic carbon and establishing the contributions of abiotic and biotic controls. Our primary goal was to directly identify the mechanisms of organic carbon stabilization in native-state, free soil microaggregates without disrupting the aggregate microstructure using scanning transmission x-ray microscopy coupled with near edge x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (STXM-NEXAFS). The influence of soil management practices on microaggregate associated-carbon was also assessed. Free, stable soil microaggregates were collected from a tropical agro-ecosystem in Cruz Alta, Brazil. The long-term experimental plots (>25 years) comparing two tillage systems: no-till and till with a complex crop rotation. Based on simultaneously collected multi-elemental associations and speciation, STXM-NEXAFS successfully provided submicron level information on organo-mineral associations. Simple organic carbon sources were found preserved within microaggregates; some still possessing original morphology, suggesting that their stabilization was not entirely governed by the substrate chemistry. Bulk analysis showed higher and younger organic carbon in microaggregates from no-till systems than tilled systems. These results provide direct submicron level evidence that the surrounding environment is involved in stabilizing organic carbon, thus favoring newly proposed concepts on the persistence of soil organic carbon.

14.
Chemosphere ; 209: 721-729, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29960199

RESUMO

This study focused on advancing the dual-adsorbent desalination technique that sequentially combines calcined layered double hydroxide (CLDH) and acid-treated zeolites (H-form zeolite) using groundwater spiked with potash mining effluent (brine). In sequential batch experiments, the CLDH adsorbent first reduced the high Cl- concentration (4600 mg/L) of saline groundwater by 96%, the Ca2+ by 90%, and the Mg2+ by 92%, while transiently raising the pH to 12.80. H-form zeolites preconditioned with Na+ then removed 92% of the Na+ (2010 mg/L), while neutralizing the adsorption effluent pH to 7.7 and lowering the sodium adsorption ratio (SAR; 139.6 to 6.6) and the hardness (574 to 48.4 mg/L). In comparison, an equivalent amount of unmodified zeolite removed only 51% of the Na+ and generated extremely hard water due to Ca2+ and Mg2+ release (1519 mg/L). Na+-conditioning the zeolites prior to acid treatment enhances native cation removal, forming H-form zeolites. Synchrotron-based X-ray scanning transmission microscopy (STXM) showed the occurrence of dealumination and visualized the sodium distribution associated with Si and Al sites in the H-form zeolites. Four consecutive desalination cycles were feasible for Na+ and K+ adsorption by regenerating the H-form zeolite. During regeneration, the Na+ desorbed while the K+ remained in the regenerated zeolites. Cumulative K+ loading in the regenerated zeolites increased from 4.8 to 21.2 mg/g, producing K-form zeolites. These K-form zeolites released K+ (2.15 mg/L for 24 h) in a leaching test and could potentially be considered as nutrient-supply media in other applications, thereby recycling the spent zeolites after multiple desalination treatments.


Assuntos
Água Subterrânea/química , Potássio/química , Purificação da Água/métodos , Zeolitas/química
15.
Nat Chem ; 10(2): 149-154, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29359759

RESUMO

The efficiency with which renewable fuels and feedstocks are synthesized from electrical sources is limited at present by the sluggish oxygen evolution reaction (OER) in pH-neutral media. We took the view that generating transition-metal sites with high valence at low applied bias should improve the activity of neutral OER catalysts. Here, using density functional theory, we find that the formation energy of desired Ni4+ sites is systematically modulated by incorporating judicious combinations of Co, Fe and non-metal P. We therefore synthesized NiCoFeP oxyhydroxides and probed their oxidation kinetics with in situ soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy (sXAS). In situ sXAS studies of neutral-pH OER catalysts indicate ready promotion of Ni4+ under low overpotential conditions. The NiCoFeP catalyst outperforms IrO2 and retains its performance following 100 h of operation. We showcase NiCoFeP in a membrane-free CO2 electroreduction system that achieves a 1.99 V cell voltage at 10 mA cm-2, reducing CO2 into CO and oxidizing H2O to O2 with a 64% electricity-to-chemical-fuel efficiency.

16.
Proteomics ; 18(3-4)2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29280319

RESUMO

The emergence of multidrug resistance in bacteria has reached alarming levels. To solve this growing problem, discovery of novel cellular targets or pathways important for antimicrobial resistance is urgently needed. In this study, we explored how the alternative sigma factor, RpoE, protects Escherichia coli O157 against the toxic effects of the polycationic antimicrobial agent, chlorhexidine (CHX). Susceptibility of this organism to CHX was found to directly correlate to the growth rate, with the faster replicating wild-type being more susceptible to CHX than its more slowly replicating ΔrpoE O157 mutant. Once the wild-type and rpoE mutant strains had undergone growth arrest (entered the stationary growth phase), their resistance to CHX became entirely dependent on the functionality of RpoE. The RpoE regulon plays a critical role in maintaining the integrity of the asymmetric lipid bilayer of E. coli, thereby preventing the intracellular accumulation of CHX. Finally, using a single-cell, high-resolution, synchrotron-based approach, we discovered a subpopulation of the rpoE mutant strain with no detectable intracellular CHX, a predominant characteristic of the wild-type CHX-resistant population. This finding reveals a role of phenotypic heterogeneity in antimicrobial resistance.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos Locais/farmacologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Clorexidina/farmacologia , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Bicamadas Lipídicas/química , Regulon , Fator sigma/genética , Escherichia coli/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica , Bicamadas Lipídicas/metabolismo
17.
Front Plant Sci ; 8: 1377, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28824696

RESUMO

In wheat (Triticum aestivum), it is commonly assumed that Al is detoxified by the release of organic anions into the rhizosphere, but it is also possible that detoxification occurs within the apoplast and symplast of the root itself. Using Al-resistant (ET8) and Al-sensitive (ES8) near-isogenic lines of wheat, we utilized traditional and synchrotron-based approaches to provide in situ analyses of the distribution and speciation of Al within root tissues. Some Al appeared to be complexed external to the root, in agreement with the common assumption. However, root apical tissues of ET8 accumulated four to six times more Al than ES8 when exposed to Al concentrations that reduce root elongation rate by 50% (3.5 µM Al for ES8 and 50 µM for ET8). Furthermore, in situ analyses of ET8 root tissues indicated the likely presence of Al-malate and other forms of Al, predominantly within the apoplast. To our knowledge, this is the first time that X-ray absorption near edge structure analyses have been used to examine the speciation of Al within plant tissues. The information obtained in the present study is important in developing an understanding of the underlying physiological mode of action for improved root growth in systems with elevated soluble Al.

18.
Sci Total Environ ; 593-594: 99-108, 2017 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28342422

RESUMO

The impact of saline mining effluent has been a significant environmental concern. Natural and modified clay-mineral adsorbents have been receiving increasing attention for salinity reduction of brine-impacted water, especially for natural resource extraction sites and surrounding environments. In this study, a dual-adsorbent treatment based on the sequential application of calcined layered double hydroxide (CLDH) and acid-treated zeolite was developed, evaluated and characterized for the desalination of potash brine-impacted groundwater. Potash brine produced by conventional potash mining in Saskatchewan (Canada) contains a large amount of Na+, K+ and Cl-. The CLDH and acid-treated clinoptilolite zeolites were combined to sequentially remove Cl- and Na+. A series of batch adsorption experiments were conducted for synthetic saline water and potash brine-spiked groundwater using various combinations of adsorbents: natural zeolites (NZ) or acid-treated zeolites (AZ) with or without the CLDH pretreatment. The experiment revealed that the Na+ removal percentage was synergistically increased by the dechlorination pretreatment using CLDH, and further improved by AZ. The CLDH-AZ dual adsorbent achieved a Langmuir Na+ adsorption capacity of 24.4mg/g, a significant improvement over conventional approaches to zeolite-based desalination. Using the brine-impacted groundwater with a high sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) of 13.3±0.1, the CLDH-AZ dual adsorbent decreased the concentrations of Na+, K+, and Cl- by 87, 97, and 87%, respectively (below drinking water standards). It also exhibited the additional advantages of neutralizing the effluent pH and decreasing the hardness, SAR, and total dissolved sulfur concentration. This study addresses the removal mechanisms, which are associated with the structural memory effect, dealumination, protonic exchanges, and zeolite porosity changes. Synchrotron-based scanning transmission X-ray microscopy analyses provided visual evidence of sodium adsorption sites (SiONa and AlONa) associated with dealumination in the acid-treated zeolites. This study is the first report that demonstrates the synergy of the CLDH-AZ dual adsorbent treatment for potash brine-impacted water.

19.
Sci Total Environ ; 586: 753-769, 2017 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28202241

RESUMO

Exposure of coal waste rock to atmospheric oxygen can result in the oxidation of sulfide minerals and the release of sulfate (SO42-) and associated trace elements (e.g., Se, As, Cd, and Zn) to groundwaters and surface waters. Similarly, reduced iron minerals such as siderite, ankerite, and the sulfide, pyrite, present in the waste rock can also undergo oxidation, resulting in the formation of iron oxyhydroxides that can adsorb trace elements released from the oxidation of the sulfide minerals. Characterization and quantification of the distribution of sulfide and iron minerals, their oxidation products, as well as leaching rates are critical to assessing present-day and future impacts of SO42- and associated trace elements on receiving waters. Synchrotron-based X-ray absorption near edge spectroscopic analysis of coal waste rock samples from the Elk Valley, British Columbia showed Fe present as pyrite (mean 6.0%), siderite (mean 44.3%), goethite (mean 35.4%), and lepidocrocite (mean 14.3%) with S present as sulfide (mean 26.9%), organic S (mean 58.7%), and SO42- (mean 14.4%). Squeezed porewater samples from dump solids yielded mean concentrations of 0.28mg/L Fe and 1246mg/L SO42-. Geochemical modeling showed the porewaters in the dumps to be supersaturated with respect to Fe oxyhydroxides and undersaturated with respect to gypsum, consistent with solids analyses. Coupling Fe and S mineralogical data with long-term water quality and quantity measurements from the base of one dump suggest about 10% of the sulfides (which represent 2% of total S) in the dump were oxidized over the past 30years. The S from these oxidized sulfides was released to the receiving surface water as SO42- and the majority of the Fe precipitated as secondary Fe oxyhydroxides (only 3.0×10-5% of the Fe was released to the receiving waters over the past 30years). Although the data suggest that the leaching of SO42- from the waste rock dump could continue for about 300years, assuming no change in the rate of oxidation of sulfides, SO42- is currently not a concern in receiving surface waters as the concentration levels are below regulatory limits.

20.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 114(4): 711-716, 2017 01 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28069941

RESUMO

Uranium is an important carbon-free fuel source and environmental contaminant that accumulates in the tetravalent state, U(IV), in anoxic sediments, such as ore deposits, marine basins, and contaminated aquifers. However, little is known about the speciation of U(IV) in low-temperature geochemical environments, inhibiting the development of a conceptual model of U behavior. Until recently, U(IV) was assumed to exist predominantly as the sparingly soluble mineral uraninite (UO2+x) in anoxic sediments; however, studies now show that this is not often the case. Yet a model of U(IV) speciation in the absence of mineral formation under field-relevant conditions has not yet been developed. Uranium(IV) speciation controls its reactivity, particularly its susceptibility to oxidative mobilization, impacting its distribution and toxicity. Here we show adsorption to organic carbon and organic carbon-coated clays dominate U(IV) speciation in an organic-rich natural substrate under field-relevant conditions. Whereas previous research assumed that U(IV) speciation is dictated by the mode of reduction (i.e., whether reduction is mediated by microbes or by inorganic reductants), our results demonstrate that mineral formation can be diminished in favor of adsorption, regardless of reduction pathway. Projections of U transport and bioavailability, and thus its threat to human and ecosystem health, must consider U(IV) adsorption to organic matter within the sediment environment.

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