Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 56
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Base de dados
Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 106(2): 619-633, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34985568

RESUMO

The study has proved the stimulating effects of different strategies of treatments with elicitors on the production of glucosinolates (GSLs), flavonoids, polyphenols, saccharides, and photosynthetic pigments in watercress (Nasturtium officinale) microshoot cultures. The study also assessed antioxidant and anti-melanin activities. The following elicitors were tested: ethephon (ETH), methyl jasmonate (MeJA), sodium salicylate (NaSA), and yeast extract (YeE) and were added on day 10 of the growth period. Cultures not treated with the elicitor were used as control. The total GSL content estimations and UHPLC-DAD-MS/MS analyses showed that elicitation influenced the qualitative and quantitative profiles of GSLs. MeJA stimulated the production of gluconasturtiin (68.34 mg/100 g dried weight (DW)) and glucobrassicin (65.95 mg/100 g DW). The elicitation also increased flavonoid accumulation (max. 1131.33 mg/100 g DW, for 100 µM NaSA, collection after 24 h). The elicitors did not boost the total polyphenol content. NaSA at 100 µM increased the production of total chlorophyll a and b (5.7 times after 24 h of treatment), and 50 µM NaSA caused a 6.5 times higher production of carotenoids after 8 days of treatment. The antioxidant potential (assessed with the CUPRAC FRAP and DPPH assays) increased most after 24 h of treatment with 100 µM MeJA. The assessment of anti-melanin activities showed that the microshoot extracts were able to cause inhibition of tyrosinase (max. 27.84% for 1250 µg/mL). KEY POINTS: • Elicitation stimulated of the metabolite production in N. officinale microshoots. • High production of pro-health glucosinolates and polyphenols was obtained. • N. officinale microshoots have got tyrosinase inhibition potential. • The antioxidant potential of N. officinale microshoots was evaluated.

2.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 548, 2022 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35017602

RESUMO

A critical step in the production of doubled haploids is a conversion of the haploid embryos into plants. Our study aimed to recognize the reasons for the low germination rate of Avena sativa haploid embryos obtained by distant crossing with maize. Oat cultivars of 'Krezus' and 'Akt' were investigated regarding embryo anatomy, the endogenous phytohormone profiles, and antioxidant capacity. The zygotic embryos of oat were used as a reference. It was found that twenty-one days old haploid embryos were smaller and had a less advanced structure than zygotic ones. Morphology and anatomy modifications of haploid embryos were accompanied by extremely low levels of endogenous auxins. Higher levels of cytokinins, as well as tenfold higher cytokinin to auxin ratio in haploid than in zygotic embryos, may suggest an earlier stage of development of these former. Individual gibberellins reached higher values in 'Akt' haploid embryos than in the respective zygotic ones, while the differences in both types of 'Krezus' embryos were not noticed. Additionally to the hormonal regulation of haploid embryogenesis, the poor germination of oat haploid embryos can be a result of the overproduction of reactive oxygen species, and therefore higher levels of low molecular weight antioxidants and stress hormones.

3.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 257, 2022 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34997114

RESUMO

Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and high-pressure sodium lamps (HPS) are among the most commonly used light sources for plant cultivation. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of two controlled-environment production systems differing in light sources on growth, photosynthetic activity, and secondary metabolism of common buckwheat. We hypothesized that LED light with the majority of red and blue waves would increase physiological and biochemical parameters compared to sunlight supplemented with HPS lamps. The experiment was performed in a phytotronic chamber (LEDs) and in a greenhouse (solar radiation supplemented with HPS lamps as a control). The effects were analyzed at the flowering phase with biometric measurements, leaf chlorophyll index, the kinetics of chlorophyll a fluorescence, content of soluble carbohydrates and phenolics in the leaves. Applied LED light decreased the biomass but stimulated the production of phenolics compared to control plants. In control plants, a positive correlation between flavonoid content and energy dissipation from photosystem II (DIo/CSm) was found, while in plants under LEDs total pool of phenolic content correlated with this parameter and the quantum yield of electron transport (φ Ro and ψ Ro) was lower than that of the control, probably affecting buckwheat biomass.

4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(21)2021 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34768798

RESUMO

To determine the role of α- and γ-tocopherol (TC), this study compared the response to salt stress (200 mM NaCl) in wild type (WT) Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. And its two mutants: (1) totally TC-deficient vte1; (2) vte4 accumulating γ-TC instead of α-TC; and (3) tmt transgenic line overaccumulating α-TC. Raman spectra revealed that salt-exposed α-TC accumulating plants were more flexible in regulating chlorophyll, carotenoid and polysaccharide levels than TC deficient mutants, while the plants overaccumulating γ-TC had the lowest levels of these biocompounds. Tocopherol composition and NaCl concentration affected xanthophyll cycle by changing the rate of violaxanthin de-epoxidation and zeaxanthin formation. NaCl treated plants with altered TC composition accumulated less oligosaccharides than WT plants. α-TC deficient plants increased their oligosaccharide levels and reduced maltose amount, while excessive accumulation of α-TC corresponded with enhanced amounts of maltose. Salt-stressed TC-deficient mutants and tmt transgenic line exhibited greater proline levels than WT plants, lower chlorogenic acid levels, and lower activity of catalase and peroxidases. α-TC accumulating plants produced more methylated proline- and glycine- betaines, and showed greater activity of superoxide dismutase than γ-TC deficient plants. Under salt stress, α-TC demonstrated a stronger regulatory effect on carbon- and nitrogen-related metabolites reorganization and modulation of antioxidant patterns than γ-TC. This suggested different links of α- and γ-TCs with various metabolic pathways via various functions and metabolic loops.

5.
Biology (Basel) ; 10(10)2021 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34681135

RESUMO

An energy-saving light emitting diode (LED) system allows for adjustment of light quality, which affects plant development and metabolic processes in in vitro cultures. The study investigated the content of endogenous carbohydrates and the condition of the photosynthetic apparatus of Gerbera jamesonii Bolus ex Hook. f. Our aim was to analyze the effects of different LED light qualities-100% red light (R LED), 100% blue (B LED), a mixture of red and blue (7:3) (RB LED), and a fluorescent lamp as a control (Fl)-during the multiplication of axillary shoots. After 40 days, the culture measurements were performed using a non-invasive pulse amplitude modulation (PAM) fluorimeter. Sugar content was assessed with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Two forms of free monosaccharides (glucose and fructose), two sugar alcohol derivatives (inositol and glycerol), and seven forms of free oligosaccharides were identified. Of those, glucose content was the highest. LEDs did not disturb the sugar metabolism in multiplied shoots. Their monosaccharides were three times more abundant than oligosaccharides; the same results were found in plants grown under control light. R light depleted the performance of the photosynthetic apparatus and caused its permanent damage. The RB LED spectrum ensured the most efficient non-photochemical quenching of the photosystem II (PS II) excitation state and high shoot quality.

6.
Molecules ; 26(17)2021 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34500820

RESUMO

Raman spectroscopy is a useful method in biological, biomedical, food, and agricultural studies, allowing the simultaneous examination of various chemical compounds and evaluation of molecular changes occurring in tested objects. The purpose of our research was to explain how the elimination of ω-fractions from the wheat gliadin complex influences the secondary structures of the remaining αßγ-gliadins. To this aim, we analyzed the endosperm of wheat kernels as well as gliadin proteins extracted from two winter wheat genotypes: wasko.gl+ (control genotype containing the full set of gliadins) and wasko.gl- (modified genotype lacking all ω-gliadins). Based on the decomposition of the amide I band, we observed a moderate increase in ß-forms (sheets and turns) at the expense of α-helical and random coil structures for gliadins isolated from the flour of the wasko.gl- line. Since ω-gliadins contain no cysteine residues, they do not participate in the formation of the disulfide bridges that stabilize the protein structure. However, they can interact with other proteins via weak, low-energetic hydrogen bonds. We conclude that the elimination of ω-fractions from the gliadin complex causes minor modifications in secondary structures of the remaining gliadin proteins. In our opinion, these small, structural changes of proteins may lead to alterations in gliadin allergenicity.


Assuntos
Gliadina/química , Triticum/química , Genótipo , Gliadina/genética , Ligação de Hidrogênio , Conformação Proteica em alfa-Hélice , Conformação Proteica em Folha beta , Análise Espectral Raman
7.
Molecules ; 26(15)2021 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361814

RESUMO

The study demonstrated the effects of precursor feeding on the production of glucosinolates (GSLs), flavonoids, polyphenols, saccharides, and photosynthetic pigments in Nasturtium officinale microshoot cultures grown in Plantform bioreactors. It also evaluated the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of extracts. L-phenylalanine (Phe) and L-tryptophan (Trp) as precursors were tested at 0.05, 0.1, 0.5, 1.0, and 3.0 mM. They were added at the beginning (day 0) or on day 10 of the culture. Microshoots were harvested after 20 days. Microshoots treated with 3.0 mM Phe (day 0) had the highest total GSL content (269.20 mg/100 g DW). The qualitative and quantitative profiles of the GSLs (UHPLC-DAD-MS/MS) were influenced by precursor feeding. Phe at 3.0 mM stimulated the best production of 4-methoxyglucobrassicin (149.99 mg/100 g DW) and gluconasturtiin (36.17 mg/100 g DW). Total flavonoids increased to a maximum of 1364.38 mg/100 g DW with 3.0 mM Phe (day 0), and polyphenols to a maximum of 1062.76 mg/100 g DW with 3.0 mM Trp (day 0). The precursors also increased the amounts of p-coumaric and ferulic acids, and rutoside, and generally increased the production of active photosynthetic pigments. Antioxidant potential increased the most with 0.1 mM Phe (day 0) (CUPRAC, FRAP), and with 0.5 mM Trp (day 10) (DPPH). The extracts of microshoots treated with 3.0 mM Phe (day 0) showed the most promising bacteriostatic activity against microaerobic Gram-positive acne strains (MIC 250-500 µg/mL, 20-21 mm inhibition zones). No extract was cytotoxic to normal human fibroblasts over the tested concentration range (up to 250 µg/mL).


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/química , Nasturtium/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Brotos de Planta/química , Anti-Infecciosos/química , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Biomassa , Reatores Biológicos , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Meios de Cultura , Humanos , Nasturtium/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Brotos de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Schisandra/química , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(14)2021 Jul 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34299055

RESUMO

Fusarium culmorum is a worldwide, soil-borne plant pathogen. It causes diseases of cereals, reduces their yield, and fills the grain with toxins. The main direction of modern breeding is to select wheat genotypes the most resistant to Fusarium diseases. This study uses seedlings and plants at the anthesis stage to analyze total soluble carbohydrates, total and cell-wall bound phenolics, chlorophyll content, antioxidant activity, hydrogen peroxide content, mycotoxin accumulation, visual symptoms of the disease, and Fusarium head blight index (FHBi). These results determine the resistance of three durum wheat accessions. We identify physiological or biochemical markers of durum wheat resistance to F. culmorum. Our results confirm correlations between FHBi and mycotoxin accumulation in the grain, which results in grain yield decrease. The degree of spike infection (FHBi) may indicate accumulation mainly of deoxynivalenol and nivalenol in the grain. High catalase activity in the infected leaves could be considered a biochemical marker of durum sensitivity to this fungus. These findings allowed us to formulate a strategy for rapid evaluation of the disease severity and the selection of plants with higher level, or resistance to F. culmorum infection.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Fusarium/fisiologia , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Plântula/fisiologia , Tricotecenos/metabolismo , Triticum/fisiologia , Genótipo , Plântula/microbiologia , Triticum/classificação , Triticum/genética , Triticum/microbiologia
9.
Cells ; 10(6)2021 06 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34199921

RESUMO

Somatic embryogenesis is the formation of a plant embryo from a cell other than the product of gametic fusion. The need to recognize the determinants of somatic cell fate has prompted investigations on how endogenous factors of donor tissues can determine the pattern of somatic embryo origin. The undertaking of this study was enabled by the newly developed experimental system of somatic embryogenesis of the tree fern Cyathea delgadii Sternb., in which the embryos are produced in hormone-free medium. The contents of 89 endogenous compounds (such as sugars, auxins, cytokinins, gibberellins, stress-related hormones, phenolic acids, polyamines, and amino acids) and cytomorphological features were compared between two types of explants giving rise to somatic embryos of unicellular or multicellular origin. We found that a large content of maltose, 1-kestose, abscisic acid, biologically active gibberellins, and phenolic acids was characteristic for single-cell somatic embryo formation pattern. In contrast, high levels of starch, callose, kinetin riboside, arginine, and ethylene promoted their multicellular origin. Networks for visualization of the relations between studied compounds were constructed based on the data obtained from analyses of a Pearson correlation coefficient heatmap. Our findings present for the first time detailed features of donor tissue that can play an important role in the somatic-to-embryogenic transition and the somatic embryo origin.


Assuntos
Citocininas/farmacologia , Gleiquênias/metabolismo , Técnicas de Embriogênese Somática de Plantas , Gleiquênias/citologia
10.
Plant J ; 108(1): 93-119, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34288188

RESUMO

The objective of this research was to investigate the differences between glaucous and non-glaucous near-isogenic lines (NILs) of winter rye (Secale cereale L.) in terms of epicuticular wax layer properties (weight, composition, and crystal morphology), selected physiological and biochemical responses, yield components, above-ground biomass, and plant height under soil drought stress. An important aspect of this analysis was to examine the correlation between the above characteristics. Two different NIL pairs were tested, each consisting of a typical glaucous line and a non-glaucous line with a recessive mutation. The drought experiment was conducted twice (2015-2016). Our study showed that wax accumulation during drought was not correlated with higher leaf hydration and glaucousness. Environmental factors had a large impact on the response of the lines to drought in individual years, both in terms of physiological and biochemical reactions, and the composition of epicuticular leaf wax. The analysed pairs displayed significantly different responses to drought. Demonstration of the correlation between the components of rye leaf wax and the physiological and biochemical parameters of rye NILs is a significant achievement of this work. Interestingly, the study showed a correlation between the wax components and the content of photosynthetic pigments and tocopherols, whose biosynthesis, similarly to the biosynthesis of wax precursors, is mainly located in chloroplasts. This suggests a relationship between wax biosynthesis and plant response to various environmental conditions and drought stress.

11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(13)2021 Jun 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34206693

RESUMO

Plant overwintering may be affected in the future by climate change. Low-temperature waterlogging, associated with a predicted increase in rainfall during autumn and winter, can affect freezing tolerance, which is the main component of winter hardiness. The aim of this study was to elucidate the mechanism of change in freezing tolerance caused by low-temperature waterlogging in Lolium perenne, a cool-season grass that is well adapted to a cold climate. The work included: (i) a freezing tolerance test (plant regrowth after freezing); (ii) analysis of plant phytohormones production (abscisic acid [ABA] content and ethylene emission); (iii) measurement of leaf water content and stomatal conductance; (iv) carbohydrate analysis; and (v) analysis of Aco1, ABF2, and FT1 transcript accumulation. Freezing tolerance may be improved as a result of cold waterlogging. The mechanism of this change is reliant on multifaceted actions of phytohormones and carbohydrates, whereas ethylene may counteract ABA signaling. The regulation of senescence processes triggered by concerted action of phytohormones and glucose signaling may be an essential component of this mechanism.


Assuntos
Ácido Abscísico/metabolismo , Aclimatação , Etilenos/metabolismo , Congelamento , Estresse Fisiológico , Açúcares/metabolismo , Água , Transporte Biológico , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Vegetais , Proteínas de Plantas/genética
12.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(6)2021 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33803750

RESUMO

The mode of action of 1-naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA) to induce conspicuous local stem swelling in the area of its application to the growing internode in intact Bryophyllum calycinum was studied based on the aspects of histological observation and comprehensive analyses of plant hormones. Histological analyses revealed that NPA induced an increase in cell size and numerous cell divisions in the cortex and pith, respectively, compared to untreated stem. In the area of NPA application, vascular tissues had significantly wider cambial zones consisting of 5-6 cell layers, whereas phloem and xylem seemed not to be affected. This indicates that stem swelling in the area of NPA application is caused by stimulation of cell division and cell enlargement mainly in the cambial zone, cortex, and pith. Comprehensive analyses of plant hormones revealed that NPA substantially increased endogenous levels of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) in the swelling area. NPA also increased endogenous levels of cytokinins, jasmonic acid, and its precursor, 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid, but did not increase abscisic acid and gibberellin levels. It was shown, using radiolabeled 14C-IAA, that NPA applied to the middle of internode segments had little effect on polar auxin transport, while 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid substantially inhibited it. These results strongly suggest that NPA induces changes in endogenous levels of plant hormones, such as IAA, cytokinins, and jasmonic acid, and their hormonal crosstalk results in a conspicuous local stem swelling. The possible different mode of action of NPA from other polar auxin transport inhibitors in succulent plants is extensively discussed.


Assuntos
Kalanchoe/citologia , Ftalimidas/farmacologia , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/farmacologia , Caules de Planta/fisiologia , Transporte Biológico/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácidos Indolacéticos/farmacologia , Kalanchoe/anatomia & histologia , Caules de Planta/efeitos dos fármacos
13.
Plants (Basel) ; 10(3)2021 Feb 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33673698

RESUMO

Comparative estimations of the antioxidant activity of methanolic extracts from biomasses of different types of in vitro cultures of Cistus × incanus, Verbena officinalis, Scutellaria lateriflora, and S. baicalensis and also from plant raw materials were performed. The antioxidant measurements were based on the modern assays-cupric ion reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC) and quick, easy, new, cheap, and reproducible CUPRAC (QUENCHER-CUPRAC). The total extractable antioxidants (CUPRAC assay) ranged from 10.4 to 49.7 mmol (100 g)-1 of dry weight (DW) expressed as Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), and the global antioxidant response (QUENCHER-CUPRAC assay) ranged from 16.0 to 79.1 mmol (100 g)-1 DW for in vitro cultures, whereas for plant raw materials the total extractable antioxidants ranged from 20.9 to 69.5 mmol (100 g)-1 DW, and the global antioxidant response ranged from 67.2 to 97.8 mmol (100 g)-1 DW. Finally, the in vitro cultures could be regarded as an antioxidant-rich alternative resource for the pharmaceutical, health food and cosmetics industries.

14.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 4135, 2021 02 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33603085

RESUMO

The present study investigated the response of non-metallicolous (NM) and metallicolous (M) Alyssum montanum shoots cultured in vitro on a medium supplemented simultaneously with heavy metals (HMs) to identify mechanisms involved in alleviating metal-induced damage. Plant status in respect to photosynthetic apparatus efficiency was determined and linked with changes in biochemical composition of shoots, namely phenolic acids' and stress-related phytohormones. Results showed the considerable inter-ecotype differences in (1) the photosynthetic pigments' amount, (2) the functioning of membrane electron transporters as well as (3) the linear and alternative electron transport pathways, whose lower values were reported in NM than in M HM-treated culture. Photosynthetic apparatus protection in M specimens was assured by the activation of cinnamic acid synthesis (by phenylalanine ammonia lyase) and its further transformations to benzoic acid derivatives with high ability to counteract oxidative stress, that was accompanied by the overexpression of jasmonic acid stimulating antioxidant machinery. In turn, detrimental HM effects on NM shoots could result from the diminution of most phenolics' accumulation, and only the content of coumarate (produced by bifunctional phenylalanine/tyrosine ammonia lyase) and rosmarinic acid increased. All these together with an enhanced concentration of abscisic acid might suggest that NM strategy to cope with HMs is based mostly on a restriction of metal movement with transpiration flow and their limited distribution in leaves. Summarizing, our findings for the first time point out the physiological and metabolic adaptation of pseudometallophyte A. montanum to adverse conditions.

15.
Planta ; 253(2): 52, 2021 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33507406

RESUMO

MAIN CONCLUSION: The dormancy release in Avena fatua caryopses was associated with a reduction in the ABA content in embryos, coleorhiza and radicle. The coleorhiza proved more sensitive to KAR1 and less sensitive to ABA than the radicle. The inability of dormant caryopses and ABA-treated non-dormant caryopses to complete germination is related to inhibition and delayed of cell-cycle activation, respectively. As freshly harvested Avena fatua caryopses are dormant at 20 °C, they cannot complete germination; the radicle is not able to emerge. Both karrikin 1 (KAR1) and dry after-ripening release dormancy, enabling the emergence of, first, the coleorhiza and later the radicle. The after-ripening removes caryopse sensitivity to KAR1 and decreases the sensitivity to abscisic acid (ABA). The coleorhiza was found to be more sensitive to KAR1, and less sensitive to ABA, than radicles. Effects of KAR1 and after-ripening were associated with a reduction of the embryo's ABA content during caryopsis germination. KAR1 was found to decrease the ABA content in the coleorhiza and radicles. Germination of after-ripened caryopses was associated with the progress of cell-cycle activation before coleorhiza emergence. Inhibition of the germination completion due to dormancy or treating the non-dormant caryopses with ABA was associated with a total and partial inhibition of cell-cycle activation, respectively.


Assuntos
Ácido Abscísico , Avena , Germinação , Dormência de Plantas , Sementes
16.
Physiol Plant ; 171(1): 48-65, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32840866

RESUMO

Changes in the levels of polyamines are associated with fundamental physiological processes such as embryogenesis, induction of flowering, fruit development and ripening, senescence, and responses to environmental stresses, but the role of polyamines in sex differentiation and unisexual flower development has not been deeply studied. To extend the knowledge on the regulatory mechanisms of flowering in monoecious plant (producing unisexual flowers), we investigated the morphogenesis and free polyamine levels in Cucumis sativus during sex differentiation and unisexual flower development in vitro using histocytological and biochemical methods. As shown in our study, floral development in vitro was undisturbed and flowers of both sexes were produced. Sex differentiation relied on preventing the development of generative organs of the opposite sex, as we observed carpel repression in male flowers and stamen repression in female flowers. Pollen viability was negatively correlated with female flower development on the same node. Biochemical analysis revealed increased accumulation of aliphatic amines (tri, tetra-amines) in generative (flower buds and flowers) compare to vegetative (axillary buds and leaves) organs. Undifferentiated floral buds contained elevated levels of agmatine, cadaverine, spermidine and spermine. Sex differentiation was associated with significantly decreased levels of agmatine and cadaverine. Our results showed that female flowers contained higher levels of total polyamine than male flowers. The increased level of cadaverine was associated with macrogametogenesis and female flower maturation. Putrescine was important for male flower development. Such results support the hypothesis that aliphatic amines are involved in unisexual flower development.


Assuntos
Cucumis sativus , Cucumis sativus/genética , Cucumis sativus/metabolismo , Flores/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Poliaminas , Diferenciação Sexual
17.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(23)2020 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33255746

RESUMO

Despite abundant flowering throughout the season, common buckwheat develops a very low number of kernels probably due to competition for assimilates. We hypothesized that plants with a shorter flowering period may give a higher seed yield. To verify the hypothesis, we studied nutrient stress in vitro and in planta and analyzed different embryological and yield parameters, including hormone profile in the flowers. In vitro cultivated flowers on media with strongly reduced nutrient content demonstrated a drastic increase in degenerated embryo sacs. In in planta experiments, where 50% or 75% of flowers or all lateral ramifications were removed, the reduction of the flower competition by half turned out to be the most promising treatment for improving yield. This treatment increased the frequency of properly developed embryo sacs, the average number of mature seeds per plant, and their mass. Strong seed compensation under 50% inflorescence removal could result from increased production of salicylic and jasmonic acid that both favor more effective pollinator attraction. Plants in single-shoot cultivation finished their vegetation earlier, and they demonstrated greater single seed mass per plant than in control. This result suggests that plants of common buckwheat with shorter blooming period could deliver higher seed yield.


Assuntos
Fagopyrum/genética , Flores/genética , Reprodução/genética , Sementes/genética , Fagopyrum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Flores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Polinização/genética , Estações do Ano , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento
18.
Molecules ; 25(22)2020 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33187324

RESUMO

The main compounds in both extracts were gluconasturtiin, 4-methoxyglucobrassicin and rutoside, the amounts of which were, respectively, determined as 182.93, 58.86 and 23.24 mg/100 g dry weight (DW) in biomass extracts and 640.94, 23.47 and 7.20 mg/100 g DW in plant herb extracts. The antioxidant potential of all the studied extracts evaluated using CUPRAC (CUPric Reducing Antioxidant Activity), FRAP (Ferric Reducing Ability of Plasma), and DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) assays was comparable. The anti-inflammatory activity of the extracts was tested based on the inhibition of 15-lipoxygenase, cyclooxygenase-1, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and phospholipase A2. The results demonstrate significantly higher inhibition of COX-2 for in vitro cultured biomass compared with the herb extracts (75.4 and 41.1%, respectively). Moreover, all the studied extracts showed almost similar antibacterial and antifungal potential. Based on these findings, and due to the fact that the growth of in vitro microshoots is independent of environmental conditions and unaffected by environmental pollution, we propose that biomass that can be rapidly grown in RITA® bioreactors can serve as an alternative source of bioactive compounds with valuable biological properties.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Glucosinolatos/química , Nasturtium/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Biomassa , Reatores Biológicos , Compostos de Bifenilo/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Ciclo-Oxigenase 1/química , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/química , Flavonoides/química , Imersão , Nasturtium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Picratos/química , Brotos de Planta/química , Brotos de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento
19.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 156: 369-383, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33007531

RESUMO

Enhanced channeling carbon through pathways: shikimate/chorismate, benzenoid-phenylopropanoid or 2-C-methyl-D-erythritol 4-phosphate (MEP) provides a multitude of secondary metabolites and cell wall components and allows plants response to environmental stresses. Through the biosynthetic pathways, different secondary metabolites, like tocopherols (TCs), are bind to mutual dependencies and metabolic loops, that are not yet fully understood. We compared, in parallel, the influence of α- and γ-TCs on metabolites involved in osmoprotective/antioxidative response, and physico-chemical modification of plasma membrane and cell wall. We studied Arabidopsis thaliana Columbia ecotype (WT), mutant vte1 deficient in α- and γ-TCs, mutant vte4 over-accumulating γ-TC instead of α-TC, and transgenic line tmt over-accumulating α-TC; exposed to NaCl. The results indicate that salt stress activates ß-carboxylation processes in WT plants and in plants with altered TCs accumulation. In α-TC-deficient plants, NaCl causes ACC decrease, but does not change SA, whose concentration remains higher than in α-TC accumulating plants. α/γ-TCs contents influence carbohydrates, poliamines, phenolic (caffeic, ferrulic, cinnamic) acids accumulation patterns. Salinity results in increased detection of the LM5 galactan and LM19 homogalacturonan epitopes in α-TC accumulating plants, and the LM6 arabinan and MAC207 AGP epitopes in α-TC deficient mutants. Parallel, plants with altered TCs composition show decreased both the cell turgor and elastic modulus determined at the individual cell level. α-TC deficient plants reveal lower values of cell turgor and elastic modulus, but higher cell hydraulic conductivity than α-TC accumulating plants. Under salt stress, α-TC shows stronger regulatory effect than γ-TC through the impact on chloroplastic biosynthetic pathways and ROS/osmotic-modulating compounds.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis/fisiologia , Estresse Salino , Tocoferóis/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/genética , Cloroplastos/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/fisiologia
20.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 154: 745-750, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32768989

RESUMO

The study aimed to determine the phytohormone profile of sweet briar rose (Rosa rubiginosa L.) seedlings and privileged synthesis pathways of individual hormones including gibberellins, cytokinins and auxins in response to long-term soil drought. We detected eight gibberellins, nine auxins and fifteen cytokinins. Abscisic acid (ABA) was also detected as a sensitive indicator of water stress. Thirty days of soil drought induced significant increase of ABA content and species-specific quantitative changes of other phytohormones. We established preferred synthesis pathways for three gibberellins, six auxins and eight cytokinins. Both an increase and decrease in gibberellin and cytokinin levels may modulate sweet briar's response to soil water shortage. In the case of auxins, induction of effective adaptation mechanisms to extremely dry environments is mostly triggered by their rising levels. Under drought stress, sweet briar seedlings increased their gibberellin pool at the expense of reducing the pool of cytokinins and auxins. This may indicate a specific role of gibberellins in adaptation mechanisms to long-term soil water deficit developed by sweet briar.


Assuntos
Secas , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/biossíntese , Rosa/fisiologia , Ácido Abscísico , Citocininas , Giberelinas , Ácidos Indolacéticos , Plântula , Solo
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...