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1.
JAMA Cardiol ; 2021 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34787643

RESUMO

Importance: Ventricular tachycardia (VT) is associated with high mortality in patients with cardiac sarcoidosis (CS), and medical management of CS-associated VT is limited by high failure rates. The role of catheter ablation has been investigated in small, single-center studies. Objective: To investigate outcomes associated with VT ablation in patients with CS. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study from the Cardiac Sarcoidosis Consortium registry (2003-2019) included 16 tertiary referral centers in the US, Europe, and Asia. A total of 158 consecutive patients with CS and VT were included (33% female; mean [SD] age, 52 [11] years; 53% with ejection fraction [EF] <50%). Exposures: Catheter ablation of CS-associated VT and, as appropriate, medical treatment. Main Outcomes and Measures: Immediate and short-term outcomes included procedural success, elimination of VT storm, and reduction in defibrillator shocks. The primary long-term outcome was the composite of VT recurrence, heart transplant (HT), or death. Results: Complete procedural success (no inducible VT postablation) was achieved in 85 patients (54%). Sixty-five patients (41%) had preablation VT storm that did not recur postablation in 53 (82%). Defibrillator shocks were significantly reduced from a median (IQR) of 2 (1-5) to 0 (0-0) in the 30 days before and after ablation (P < .001). During median (IQR) follow-up of 2.5 (1.1-4.9) years, 73 patients (46%) experienced VT recurrence and 81 (51%) experienced the composite primary outcome. One- and 2-year rates of survival free of VT recurrence, HT, or death were 60% and 52%, respectively. EF less than 50% and myocardial inflammation on preprocedural 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography were significantly associated with adverse prognosis in multivariable analysis for the primary outcome (HR, 2.24; 95% CI, 1.37-3.64; P = .001 and HR, 2.93; 95% CI, 1.31-6.55; P = .009, respectively). History of hypertension was associated with a favorable long-term outcome (adjusted HR, 0.51; 95% CI, 0.28-0.92; P = .02). Conclusions and Relevance: In this observational study of selected patients with CS and VT, catheter ablation was associated with reductions in defibrillator shocks and recurrent VT storm. Preablation LV dysfunction and myocardial inflammation were associated with adverse long-term prognosis. These data support the role of catheter ablation in conjunction with medical therapy in the management of CS-associated VT.

2.
J Patient Exp ; 8: 23743735211049662, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34692993

RESUMO

Healthcare providers are expected to deliver care improvement solutions that not only provide high quality patient care, but also improve outcomes, reduce costs, ensure safety, and increase patient satisfaction. Human-centered design methodologies, such as design thinking, allow providers to collaboratively ideate solutions with patients and family members. We describe a pilot workshop designed to teach providers the stages of design thinking while working on improving patient-provider communication. Twenty-four providers (physicians, nurses, technical staff, and administrative staff) from multiple cardiovascular units attended the workshop with five former patients and family members from those units. The workshop educated on and guided teams of providers patients and family members through the stages of design thinking (empathy, define, ideate, prototype, test). Pre- and post-event assessments indicated an increase in knowledge of the design thinking methodology and participants' ability to apply it to a clinical problem. We also present recommendations for designing a successful design thinking workshop.

3.
Int J Cardiol ; 340: 96-104, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34450192

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The REDUCE-IT (Reduction of Cardiovascular Events with Icosapent Ethyl-Intervention Trial) trial demonstrated that high-dose icosapent-ethyl reduced the risk of ischemic events in statin-treated patients with elevated triglycerides (TG) and either atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) or diabetes plus at least one risk factor. METHODS AND RESULTS: Using data from REACH (Reduction of Atherothrombosis for Continued Health), a large international registry of outpatients with or at risk of ASCVD, we evaluated the proportion of patients potentially eligible for enrolment in REDUCE-IT and compared their outcomes to those excluded because of low TG. Among 62,464 patients with either ASCVD or diabetes enrolled in the REACH Registry, 1036/8418 (12.3%) patients in primary prevention and 6049/54046 (11.2%) patients in secondary prevention (11.3% overall) would have been eligible for inclusion in REDUCE-IT. Compared with patients excluded for low TG level, adjusted risk of the primary composite outcome of cardiovascular death, non-fatal myocardial infarction (MI), non-fatal stroke, unstable angina, or coronary revascularization was higher in the REDUCE-IT eligible group (HR:1.06, 95%CI:1.00-1.13, p = 0.04). In addition, unstable angina, non-fatal MI, percutaneous coronary intervention and coronary artery bypass grafting were also more frequent in the REDUCE-IT eligible group (HR:1.17, 95%CI:1.07-1.27, p < 0.001; HR:1.25, 95%CI:1.07-1.45, p < 0.001; HR:1.42, 95%CI:1.27-1.57, p < 0.001; HR:1.43, 95%CI:1.19-1.71, p < 0.001, respectively), whereas the adjusted risk of non-fatal stroke was lower (HR:0.64, 95%CI:0.54-0.75, p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: In this large international registry of patients with or at high-risk of ASCVD, 11.3% met the REDUCE-IT trial selection criteria. REDUCE-IT eligible patients were found to be at higher risk of cardiac atherothrombotic events, but at lower risk of stroke than trial-ineligible patients with lower TG.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Hipertrigliceridemia , Infarto do Miocárdio , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Ácido Eicosapentaenoico/análogos & derivados , Humanos , Hipertrigliceridemia/diagnóstico , Hipertrigliceridemia/tratamento farmacológico , Hipertrigliceridemia/epidemiologia , Sistema de Registros , Fatores de Risco
4.
Am J Hum Genet ; 108(9): 1578-1589, 2021 09 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34265237

RESUMO

Thoracic aortic aneurysm (TAA) is characterized by dilation of the aortic root or ascending/descending aorta. TAA is a heritable disease that can be potentially life threatening. While 10%-20% of TAA cases are caused by rare, pathogenic variants in single genes, the origin of the majority of TAA cases remains unknown. A previous study implicated common variants in FBN1 with TAA disease risk. Here, we report a genome-wide scan of 1,351 TAA-affected individuals and 18,295 control individuals from the Cardiovascular Health Improvement Project and Michigan Genomics Initiative at the University of Michigan. We identified a genome-wide significant association with TAA for variants within the third intron of TCF7L2 following replication with meta-analysis of four additional independent cohorts. Common variants in this locus are the strongest known genetic risk factor for type 2 diabetes. Although evidence indicates the presence of different causal variants for TAA and type 2 diabetes at this locus, we observed an opposite direction of effect. The genetic association for TAA colocalizes with an aortic eQTL of TCF7L2, suggesting a functional relationship. These analyses predict an association of higher expression of TCF7L2 with TAA disease risk. In vitro, we show that upregulation of TCF7L2 is associated with BCL2 repression promoting vascular smooth muscle cell apoptosis, a key driver of TAA disease.


Assuntos
Aneurisma da Aorta Torácica/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Proteína 2 Semelhante ao Fator 7 de Transcrição/genética , Aorta/metabolismo , Aorta/patologia , Aneurisma da Aorta Torácica/metabolismo , Aneurisma da Aorta Torácica/patologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Caspase 3/genética , Caspase 3/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/patologia , Células Endoteliais/patologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Genoma Humano , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Íntrons , Michigan , Músculo Liso Vascular/metabolismo , Músculo Liso Vascular/patologia , Mutação , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/metabolismo , Proteína 2 Semelhante ao Fator 7 de Transcrição/metabolismo , Proteína X Associada a bcl-2/genética , Proteína X Associada a bcl-2/metabolismo
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34146671

RESUMO

Our aim was to analyze outcomes of patients aged 70 years or above presenting with type A acute aortic dissection (TAAAD) and cerebrovascular accident (CVA). A retrospective analysis of the International Registry of Acute Aortic Dissection (IRAD) was conducted. Patients aged 70 years or above (n = 1449) were stratified according to presence or absence of CVA before surgery (CVA: n = 110, 7.6%). In-hospital outcomes and mortality up to 5 years were analyzed. Additionally, in-hospital outcomes of patients who received medical management were described. No patient presenting with CVA over the age of 87 years underwent surgery. The rates of in-hospital mortality and post-operative CVA were significantly higher in patients presenting with CVA (in-hospital mortality: 32.7% vs 21.7%, P = 0.008; post-operative CVA: 23.4% vs 8.3%, P < 0.001). Presence of CVA was independently associated with significantly increased in-hospital mortality (odds ratio 2.99, 95% confidence interval 1.35 - 6.60, P = 0.007). In survivors of the hospital stay, presenting CVA had no independent influence on mortality up to 5 years (hazard ratio 1.52, 95% confidence interval 0.99 - 2.31, P = 0.54). In medically managed patients, exceedingly high rates of in-hospital mortality (71.4%) and CVA (90.9%) were noted. Patients presenting with TAAAD and CVA at ≥ 70 years of age are at significantly increased risk of in-hospital mortality, although long-term mortality is not affected in hospital survivors. Medical management is associated with poor outcomes. We believe that surgical management should be offered after critical assessment of comorbidities.

8.
Ann Thorac Surg ; 2021 May 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34090668

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Worse outcomes have been reported for women with type A acute aortic dissection (TAAD). We sought to determine sex-specific operative approaches and outcomes for TAAD in the current era. METHODS: The Interventional Cohort (IVC) of the International Registry of Acute Aortic Dissection (IRAD) database was queried to explore sex differences in presentation, operative approach, and outcomes. Multivariable logistic regression was performed to identify adjusted outcomes in relation to sex. RESULTS: Women constituted approximately one-third (34.3%) of the 2823 patients and were significantly older than men (65.4 vs 58.6 years, P < .001). Women were more likely to present with intramural hematoma, periaortic hematoma, or complete or partial false lumen thrombosis (all P < .05) and more commonly had hypotension or coma (P = .001). Men underwent a greater proportion of Bentall, complete arch, and elephant trunk procedures (all P < .01). In-hospital mortality during the study period was higher in women (16.7% vs 13.8%, P = .039). After adjustment, female sex trended towards higher in-hospital mortality overall (odds ratio, 1.40; P = .053) but not in the last decade of enrollment (odds ratio, 0.93; P = .807). Five-year mortality and reintervention rates were not significantly different between the sexes. CONCLUSIONS: In-hospital mortality remains higher among women with TAAD but demonstrates improvement in the last decade. Significant differences in presentation were noted in women, including older age, distinct imaging findings, and greater evidence of malperfusion. Although no distinctions in 5-year mortality or reintervention were observed, a tailored surgical approach should be considered to reduce sex disparities in early mortality rates for TAAD.

9.
Eur J Prev Cardiol ; 2021 Mar 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33693736

RESUMO

AIMS: Recent evidence supports the occurrence of multiple hormonal and metabolic deficiency syndrome (MHDS) in chronic heart failure (CHF). However, no large observational study has unequivocally demonstrated its impact on CHF progression and outcome. The T.O.S.CA. (Trattamento Ormonale nello Scompenso CArdiaco; Hormone Treatment in Heart Failure) Registry has been specifically designed to test the hypothesis that MHDS affects morbidity and mortality in CHF patients. METHODS AND RESULTS: The T.O.S.CA. Registry is a prospective, multicentre, observational study involving 19 Italian centres. Thyroid hormones, insulin-like growth factor-1, total testosterone, dehydropianoandrosterone sulfate, insulin resistance, and the presence of diabetes were evaluated. A MHDS was defined as the presence of ≥2 hormone deficiencies (HDs). Primary endpoint was a composite of all-cause mortality and cardiovascular hospitalizations. Four hundred and eighty heart failure patients with ejection fraction ≤45% were enrolled. MHDS or diabetes was diagnosed in 372 patients (77.5%). A total of 271 events (97 deaths and 174 cardiovascular hospitalizations) were recorded, 41% in NO-MHDS and 62% in MHDS (P < 0.001). Median follow-up was of 36 months. MHDS was independently associated with the occurrence of the primary endpoint [hazard ratio 95% (confidence interval), 1.93 (1.37-2.73), P < 0.001] and identified a group of patients with a higher mortality [2.2 (1.28-3.83), P = 0.01], with a graded relation between HDs and cumulative events (P < 0.01). CONCLUSION: MHDS is common in CHF and independently associated with increased all-cause mortality and cardiovascular hospitalization, representing a promising therapeutic target. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT023358017.

10.
BMC Med Genomics ; 14(1): 66, 2021 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33648514

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Disclosure of pathogenic variants to thoracic aortic dissection biobank participants was implemented. The impact and costs, including confirmatory genetic testing in a Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments (CLIA)-certified laboratory, were evaluated. METHODS: We exome sequenced 240 cases with thoracic aortic dissection and 258 controls, then examined 11 aortopathy genes. Pathogenic variants in 6 aortopathy genes (COL3A1, FBN1, LOX, PRKG1, SMAD3, and TGFBR2) were identified in 26 participants, representing 10.8% of the cohort (26/240). A second research sample was used to validate the initial findings. Mailed letters to participants disclosed that a potentially disease causing DNA alteration had been identified (neither the gene nor variant was disclosed). Participants were offered clinical genetic counseling and confirmatory genetic testing in a CLIA laboratory. RESULTS: Excluding 6 participants who were deceased or lost to follow-up, 20 participants received the disclosure letter, 10 of whom proceeded with genetic counseling, confirmatory genetic testing, and enrolled in a survey study. Participants reported satisfaction with the letter (4.2 ± 0.7) and genetic counseling (4.4 ± 0.4; [out of 5, respectively]). The psychosocial impact was characterized by low decisional regret (11.5 ± 11.6) and distress (16.0 ± 4.2, [out of 100, respectively]). The average cost for 26 participants was $400, including validation and sending letters. The average cost for those who received genetic counseling and CLIA laboratory confirmation was $605. CONCLUSIONS: Participants were satisfied with the return of clinically significant biobank genetic results and CLIA laboratory testing; however, the process required significant time and resources. These findings illustrate the trade-offs involved for researchers considering returning research genetic results.

11.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 77(5): 593-608, 2021 02 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33538258

RESUMO

Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are a key component of a heart-healthy diet. For patients without clinical atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, 2 or more servings of fatty fish per week is recommended to obtain adequate intake of omega-3 PUFAs. If this not possible, dietary supplementation with an appropriate fish oil may be reasonable. Supplementation with omega-3 PUFA capsules serves 2 distinct but overlapping roles: treatment of hypertriglyceridemia and prevention of cardiovascular events. Marine-derived omega-3 PUFAs reduce triglycerides and have pleiotropic effects including decreasing inflammation, improving plaque composition and stability, and altering cellular membranes. Clinical trial data have shown inconsistent results with omega-3 PUFAs improving cardiovascular outcomes. In this paper, the authors provide an overview of PUFAs and a summary of key clinical trial data. Recent trial data suggest the use of prescription eicosapentaenoic acid ethyl ester for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease event reduction in selected populations.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/administração & dosagem , Biomarcadores/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/sangue , Suplementos Nutricionais , Humanos , Triglicerídeos/sangue
12.
Am J Infect Control ; 49(6): 694-700, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33631305

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: With a unique influenza season occurring in the midst of a pandemic, there is interest in assessing the role of the influenza vaccine in COVID-19 susceptibility and severity. METHODS: In this retrospective cohort study, patients receiving a laboratory test for COVID-19 were identified. The primary outcome was comparison of positive COVID-19 testing in those who received the influenza vaccine versus those who did not. Secondary end points in patients testing positive for COVID-19 included mortality, need for hospitalization, length of stay, need for intensive care, and mechanical ventilation. RESULTS: A total of 27,201 patients received laboratory testing for COVID-19. The odds of testing positive for COVID-19 was reduced in patients who received an influenza vaccine compared to those who did not (odds ratio 0.76, 95% CI 0.68-0.86; P < .001). Vaccinated patients testing positive for COVID-19 were less likely to require hospitalization (odds ratio, 0.58, 95% CI 0.46-0.73; P < .001), or mechanical ventilation (odds ratio, 0.45, 95% CI 0.27-0.78; P = .004) and had a shorter hospital length of stay (risk ratio, 0.76, 95% CI 0.65-0.89; P < .001). CONCLUSION: Influenza vaccination is associated with decreased positive COVID-19 testing and improved clinical outcomes and should be promoted to reduce the burden of COVID-19.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Vacinas contra Influenza , Influenza Humana , Teste para COVID-19 , Hospitalização , Humanos , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Coron Artery Dis ; 32(6): 481-488, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33471476

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We studied the utilization of home health care (HHC) among acute myocardial infarction (AMI) patients, impact of HHC on and predictors of 30-day readmission. METHODS: We queried the National Readmission Database (NRD) from 2012 to 2014identify patients with AMI discharged home with (HHC+) and without HHC (HHC-). Linkage provided in the data identified patients who had 30-day readmission, our primary end-point. The probability for each patient to receive HHC was calculated by a multivariable logistic regression. Average treatment of treated weights were derived from propensity scores. Weight-adjusted logistic regression was used to determine impact of HHC on readmission. RESULTS: A total of 406 237 patients with AMI were discharged home. Patients in the HHC+ cohort (38 215 patients, 9.4%) were older (mean age 77 vs. 60 years P < 0.001), more likely women (53 vs. 26%, P < 0.001), have heart failure (5 vs. 0.5%, P < 0.001), chronic kidney disease (26 vs. 6%, P < 0.001) and diabetes (35 vs. 26%, P < 0.001). Patients readmitted within 30-days were older with higher rates of diabetes (RR = 1.4, 95% CI: 1.37-1.48) and heart failure (RR = 5.8, 95% CI: 5.5-6.2). Unadjusted 30-day readmission rates were 21 and 8% for HHC+ and HHC- patients, respectively. After adjustment, readmission was lower with HHC (21 vs. 24%, RR = 0.89, 95% CI: 0.82-0.96; P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: In the United States, AMI patients receiving HHC are older and have more comorbidities; however, HHC was associated with a lower 30-day readmission rate.

14.
Ann Thorac Surg ; 112(6): 1893-1899, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33515541

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The optimal strategy for cerebral protection during repair of type A acute aortic dissection has yet to be determined. We sought to determine the impact of differing degrees of hypothermia in patients undergoing acute dissection repair. METHODS: All patients in the International Registry of Acute Aortic Dissection Interventional Cohort database who underwent type A acute aortic dissection repair between 2010 and 2018 were identified. Data for operative temperature were available for 1962 patients subsequently divided into 2 groups according to lowest temperature: moderate hypothermic circulatory arrest (MHCA) (20-28°C) versus deep hypothermic circulatory arrest (DHCA) (<20°C). We then propensity matched 362 pairs of patients and analyzed operative data and short-term outcomes. RESULTS: The median lowest temperature was 25.0°C in the matched MHCA group as compared with 18.0°C in the DHCA group. For the entire cohort of 1962 patients, in-hospital mortality was 14.2% (278 deaths) but was not significantly different between DHCA and MHCA. The perioperative stroke rate was comparable between groups, before and after propensity matching. Circulatory arrest times were significantly longer in the MHCA cohort, regardless of matching. Use of antegrade or retrograde cerebral perfusion was similar in matched groups. There were no differences in 30-day survival or in other major postoperative morbidity between the 2 matched cohorts. CONCLUSIONS: A surgical strategy of MHCA + antegrade cerebral perfusion is at least as safe as DHCA during repair of acute type A aortic dissection.

15.
J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg ; 161(5): 1713-1720.e1, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31959445

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The strategy for intervention remains controversial for patients presenting with type A aortic dissection (TAAAD) and cerebral malperfusion with neurologic deficit. METHODS: Surgically managed patients with TAAAD enrolled in the International Registry of Acute Aortic Dissection were evaluated to determine the incidence and prognosis of patients with cerebral malperfusion. RESULTS: A total of 2402 patients underwent surgical repair of TAAAD. Of these, 362 (15.1%) presented with cerebral malperfusion (CM) and neurologic deficits, and 2040 (84.9%) patients had no neurologic deficits at presentation. Patients with CM were more less likely to present with chest pain (66% vs 86.5%; P < .001) and back pain (35.9% vs 44.4%; P = .008). Patients with CM were more likely to present with syncope (48.4% vs 10.1%; P < .001), peripheral malperfusion (52.7% vs 38.0%; P < .001), and shock (16.2% vs 4.1%; P < .001). There was no difference in the incidence of Marfan syndrome (2.8% vs 3.0%; P = .870) or history of known aortic aneurysm (11.7% vs 13.9%; P = .296). Patients with CM were more likely to have a DeBakey I (63.8% vs 47.1%; P < .001) and a pericardial effusion (53.8% vs 40.6; P < .001) on presentation. There was no difference in total arch replacement (21.3% for CM vs 19.5% for no CM; P = .473). Patients with CM had an increased incidence of postoperative cerebrovascular accident (17.5% vs 7.2%; P < .001) and acute kidney injury (28.3% vs 18.1%; P < .001). In-hospital mortality was greater in patients with CM (25.7% vs 12.0%; P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: Fifteen percent of patients with TAAAD presented with CM and neurologic deficits. Despite the fact that this subset of the population was older and more likely to present with peripheral malperfusion, cardiac tamponade, and in shock, in-hospital survival was noted in nearly 75% of the patients. Surgeons may continue to offer lifesaving surgery for TAAAD to this critically ill cohort of patients with acceptable morbidity and mortality.

16.
J Adolesc Health ; 69(1): 127-133, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33280975

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Hypertension (HTN) is associated with increased cardiovascular risk and unhealthy lifestyles in adults. However, data on both physiological and lifestyle factors associated with abnormal blood pressure (BP) in adolescents, as well as the effectiveness of interventions in improving these factors among adolescents with abnormal BP, is scarce. METHODS: Students enrolled in a middle-school-based wellness program, Project Healthy Schools (PHS), between 2005-2016 were eligible. Three systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) BP measurements were taken pre-PHS and post-PHS; averages of the final two were analyzed. Students were grouped by baseline BP: abnormal BP (≥90th percentile for SBP and/or DBP, or ≥120/80 mmHg) or normal BP (<90th percentile for SBP and/or DBP, or <120/80 mmHg). Demographics, physiologic measures, and health behaviors were compared between groups pre- and post-PHS. RESULTS: Of 2,865 students, 812 (28.3%) had abnormal BP. Median SBP was 119 mmHg in abnormal BP students and 103 mmHg in normal BP students (p < .001). Females were less likely to have abnormal BP than males (48.4% vs. 51.6%, p < .01). Pre-PHS, abnormal BP students were more likely to be overweight (62.3% vs. 28.2%, p < .001) or obese (38.9% vs. 11.3%, p < .001) than normal BP students. Their total cholesterol, triglycerides, random glucose, resting, and recovery heart rates were also higher, and they had worse dietary and sedentary habits. Post-PHS, abnormal BP students demonstrated greater reduction in SBP (-4.0 vs. 2.8 mmHg, p < .001) and DBP (-3.3 vs. .8 mmHg, p < .001) than normal BP students. CONCLUSIONS: Abnormal BP was prevalent and associated with worse cardiometabolic health parameters and behaviors at baseline. Abnormal BP students demonstrated significant improvements in BP post-PHS, suggesting school-based programs may be effective as nonpharmacological lifestyle interventions in this population.


Assuntos
Hipertensão , Adolescente , Pressão Sanguínea , Feminino , Promoção da Saúde , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Michigan , Instituições Acadêmicas
17.
Nat Rev Cardiol ; 18(5): 331-348, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33353985

RESUMO

The aorta is the 'greatest artery', through which oxygenated blood is delivered from the left ventricle to end organs with each cardiac cycle (200 million litres of blood transported in an average lifetime). The aorta can be affected by a wide spectrum of acute factors (such as cocaine use, weight lifting and trauma) and chronic acquired and/or genetic conditions (such as systemic arterial hypertension and phaeochromocytoma), which variously lead to increased aortic wall stress. The medial layer of the aorta can also be subject to abnormalities (such as Marfan syndrome, bicuspid aortic valve, inflammatory vasculitis, atherosclerosis and infections). Despite important advances in diagnostic and therapeutic interventions, data derived from registries and population-based studies highlight that the burden of aortic diseases remains high. Therefore, specific resources need to be allocated to design and implement preventive strategies (healthy lifestyles, modifications to cardiovascular risk factors, and educational and screening programmes) at individual and community levels. In this Review, we discuss the epidemiology, management and outcomes of the most common aortic diseases, namely, aortic aneurysms and acute aortic syndromes.


Assuntos
Aneurisma Dissecante , Aorta , Doenças da Aorta , Doença Aguda , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Aneurisma Dissecante/diagnóstico , Aneurisma Dissecante/epidemiologia , Aneurisma Dissecante/etiologia , Aneurisma Dissecante/terapia , Aorta/diagnóstico por imagem , Aorta/lesões , Aorta/fisiopatologia , Aneurisma Aórtico/diagnóstico , Aneurisma Aórtico/epidemiologia , Aneurisma Aórtico/etiologia , Aneurisma Aórtico/terapia , Doenças da Aorta/diagnóstico , Doenças da Aorta/epidemiologia , Doenças da Aorta/etiologia , Doenças da Aorta/terapia , Doença Crônica , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Síndrome , Lesões do Sistema Vascular/diagnóstico , Lesões do Sistema Vascular/epidemiologia , Lesões do Sistema Vascular/etiologia , Lesões do Sistema Vascular/terapia
18.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 76(25): 2982-3021, 2020 12 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33309175

RESUMO

Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), principally ischemic heart disease (IHD) and stroke, are the leading cause of global mortality and a major contributor to disability. This paper reviews the magnitude of total CVD burden, including 13 underlying causes of cardiovascular death and 9 related risk factors, using estimates from the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) Study 2019. GBD, an ongoing multinational collaboration to provide comparable and consistent estimates of population health over time, used all available population-level data sources on incidence, prevalence, case fatality, mortality, and health risks to produce estimates for 204 countries and territories from 1990 to 2019. Prevalent cases of total CVD nearly doubled from 271 million (95% uncertainty interval [UI]: 257 to 285 million) in 1990 to 523 million (95% UI: 497 to 550 million) in 2019, and the number of CVD deaths steadily increased from 12.1 million (95% UI:11.4 to 12.6 million) in 1990, reaching 18.6 million (95% UI: 17.1 to 19.7 million) in 2019. The global trends for disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) and years of life lost also increased significantly, and years lived with disability doubled from 17.7 million (95% UI: 12.9 to 22.5 million) to 34.4 million (95% UI:24.9 to 43.6 million) over that period. The total number of DALYs due to IHD has risen steadily since 1990, reaching 182 million (95% UI: 170 to 194 million) DALYs, 9.14 million (95% UI: 8.40 to 9.74 million) deaths in the year 2019, and 197 million (95% UI: 178 to 220 million) prevalent cases of IHD in 2019. The total number of DALYs due to stroke has risen steadily since 1990, reaching 143 million (95% UI: 133 to 153 million) DALYs, 6.55 million (95% UI: 6.00 to 7.02 million) deaths in the year 2019, and 101 million (95% UI: 93.2 to 111 million) prevalent cases of stroke in 2019. Cardiovascular diseases remain the leading cause of disease burden in the world. CVD burden continues its decades-long rise for almost all countries outside high-income countries, and alarmingly, the age-standardized rate of CVD has begun to rise in some locations where it was previously declining in high-income countries. There is an urgent need to focus on implementing existing cost-effective policies and interventions if the world is to meet the targets for Sustainable Development Goal 3 and achieve a 30% reduction in premature mortality due to noncommunicable diseases.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Carga Global da Doença , Saúde Global , Saúde Global/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde Global/tendências , Política de Saúde , Fatores de Risco de Doenças Cardíacas , Humanos , Saúde Pública
19.
Methodist Debakey Cardiovasc J ; 16(3): 232-240, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33133360

RESUMO

In an effort to curb excessive health care spending and incentivize high-quality care, many payers have implemented value-based payment reforms designed to pay for the quality rather than the quantity of health care services. Medicare, the largest payer in the United States, has implemented numerous value-based payment policies over the past decade, many of which affect cardiovascular care. In this review, we discuss some of these major nationwide value-based payment reforms as they relate to cardiovascular care and what we may expect in the future from cardiovascular value-based policies.


Assuntos
Cardiologia/economia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/economia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/terapia , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , Reforma dos Serviços de Saúde/economia , Medicare/economia , Avaliação de Processos e Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde/economia , Seguro de Saúde Baseado em Valor/economia , Aquisição Baseada em Valor/economia , Organizações de Assistência Responsáveis/economia , Cardiologia/legislação & jurisprudência , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência , Reforma dos Serviços de Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência , Política de Saúde , Humanos , Medicare/legislação & jurisprudência , Pacotes de Assistência ao Paciente/economia , Formulação de Políticas , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos , Aquisição Baseada em Valor/legislação & jurisprudência
20.
J Card Surg ; 35(12): 3467-3473, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32939836

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Type A acute aortic dissection (TAAAD) represents a surgical emergency requiring intervention regardless of time of day. Whether such a "evening effect" exists regarding outcomes for TAAAD has not been previously studied using a large registry data. METHODS: Patients with TAAAD were identified from the International Registry of Acute Aortic Dissections (1996-2019). Outcomes were compared between patients undergoing operative repair during the daytime (D), defined as 8 am-5 pm, versus the evening (N), defined as 5 pm-8 am. RESULTS: Four thousand one-hundrd and ninety-seven surgically treated patients with TAAAD were identified, with 1824 patients undergoing daytime surgery (43.5%) and 2373 patients undergoing evening surgery (56.5%). Daytime patients were more likely to have undergone prior cardiac surgery (13.2% vs. 9.5%; p < .001) and have had a prior aortic dissection (4.8% vs. 3.4%; p = .04). Evening patients were more likely to have been transferred from a referring hospital (70.8% vs. 75.0%; p = .003). Daytime patients were more likely to undergo aortic valve sparing root procedures (23.3% vs. 19.2%; p = .035); however, total arch replacement was performed with equal frequency (19.4% vs. 18.8%; p = .751). In-hospital mortality (D: 17.3% vs. N. 16.2%; p = .325) was similar between both groups. Subgroup analysis examining the effect of weekend presentation revealed no significant mortality difference. CONCLUSIONS: A majority of TAAAD patients underwent surgical repair at night. There were higher rates of postoperative tamponade in evening patients; however, mortality was similar. The expertise of cardiac-dedicated operative and critical care teams regardless of time of day as well as training paradigms may explain similar mortality outcomes in this high risk population.


Assuntos
Aneurisma Dissecante , Aneurisma da Aorta Torácica , Implante de Prótese Vascular , Doença Aguda , Aneurisma Dissecante/cirurgia , Aorta/cirurgia , Aneurisma da Aorta Torácica/cirurgia , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/cirurgia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento
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