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1.
J Med Genet ; 2021 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33811135

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rare protein-truncating variants (PTVs) in partner and localiser of BRCA2 (PALB2) confer increased risk to breast cancer, but relatively few studies have reported the prevalence in South-East Asian populations. Here, we describe the prevalence of rare variants in PALB2 in a population-based study of 7840 breast cancer cases and 7928 healthy Chinese, Malay and Indian women from Malaysia and Singapore, and describe the functional impact of germline missense variants identified in this population. METHODS: Mutation testing was performed on germline DNA (n=15 768) using targeted sequencing panels. The functional impact of missense variants was tested in mouse embryonic stem cell based functional assays. RESULTS: PTVs in PALB2 were found in 0.73% of breast cancer patients and 0.14% of healthy individuals (OR=5.44; 95% CI 2.85 to 10.39, p<0.0001). In contrast, rare missense variants in PALB2 were not associated with increased risk of breast cancer. Whereas PTVs were associated with later stage of presentation and higher-grade tumours, no significant association was observed with missense variants in PALB2. However, two novel rare missense variants (p.L1027R and p.G1043V) produced unstable proteins and resulted in a decrease in homologous recombination-mediated repair of DNA double-strand breaks. CONCLUSION: Despite genetic and lifestyle differences between Asian and other populations, the population prevalence of PALB2 PTVs and associated relative risk of breast cancer, are similar to those reported in European populations.

2.
Int J Epidemiol ; 2021 Mar 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33755131

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rigorous evaluation of the calibration and discrimination of breast-cancer risk-prediction models in prospective cohorts is critical for applications under clinical guidelines. We comprehensively evaluated an integrated model incorporating classical risk factors and a 313-variant polygenic risk score (PRS) to predict breast-cancer risk. METHODS: Fifteen prospective cohorts from six countries with 239 340 women (7646 incident breast-cancer cases) of European ancestry aged 19-75 years were included. Calibration of 5-year risk was assessed by comparing expected and observed proportions of cases overall and within risk categories. Risk stratification for women of European ancestry aged 50-70 years in those countries was evaluated by the proportion of women and future cases crossing clinically relevant risk thresholds. RESULTS: Among women <50 years old, the median (range) expected-to-observed ratio for the integrated model across 15 cohorts was 0.9 (0.7-1.0) overall and 0.9 (0.7-1.4) at the highest-risk decile; among women ≥50 years old, these were 1.0 (0.7-1.3) and 1.2 (0.7-1.6), respectively. The proportion of women identified above a 3% 5-year risk threshold (used for recommending risk-reducing medications in the USA) ranged from 7.0% in Germany (∼841 000 of 12 million) to 17.7% in the USA (∼5.3 of 30 million). At this threshold, 14.7% of US women were reclassified by adding the PRS to classical risk factors, with identification of 12.2% of additional future cases. CONCLUSION: Integrating a 313-variant PRS with classical risk factors can improve the identification of European-ancestry women at elevated risk who could benefit from targeted risk-reducing strategies under current clinical guidelines.

3.
Nature ; 591(7849): 211-219, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33692554

RESUMO

Polygenic risk scores (PRSs), which often aggregate results from genome-wide association studies, can bridge the gap between initial discovery efforts and clinical applications for the estimation of disease risk using genetics. However, there is notable heterogeneity in the application and reporting of these risk scores, which hinders the translation of PRSs into clinical care. Here, in a collaboration between the Clinical Genome Resource (ClinGen) Complex Disease Working Group and the Polygenic Score (PGS) Catalog, we present the Polygenic Risk Score Reporting Standards (PRS-RS), in which we update the Genetic Risk Prediction Studies (GRIPS) Statement to reflect the present state of the field. Drawing on the input of experts in epidemiology, statistics, disease-specific applications, implementation and policy, this comprehensive reporting framework defines the minimal information that is needed to interpret and evaluate PRSs, especially with respect to downstream clinical applications. Items span detailed descriptions of study populations, statistical methods for the development and validation of PRSs and considerations for the potential limitations of these scores. In addition, we emphasize the need for data availability and transparency, and we encourage researchers to deposit and share PRSs through the PGS Catalog to facilitate reproducibility and comparative benchmarking. By providing these criteria in a structured format that builds on existing standards and ontologies, the use of this framework in publishing PRSs will facilitate translation into clinical care and progress towards defining best practice.

4.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 2021 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33769540

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Polygenic risk scores (PRS) have been demonstrated to identify women of European, Asian and Latino ancestry at elevated risk of developing breast cancer (BC). We evaluated the performance of existing PRSs trained in European ancestry populations among women of African ancestry. METHODS: We assembled genotype data for women of African ancestry, including 9,241 cases and 10,193 controls. We evaluated associations of 179- and 313-variant PRSs with overall and subtype-specific BC risk. PRS discriminatory accuracy was assessed using area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). We also evaluated a recalibrated PRS, replacing the index variant with variants in each region that better captured risk in women of African ancestry, and estimated lifetime absolute risk of BC in African Americans by PRS category. RESULTS: For overall BC, the odds ratios per standard deviation of PRS313 was 1.27 (95%CI = 1.23 to 1.31), with an AUC of 0.571 (95%CI = 0.562 to 0.579). Compared to women with average risk (40th-60th PRS percentile), women in the top decile of PRS313 had a 1.54-fold increased risk (95% CI = 1.38 to 1.72). By age 85 years, the absolute risk of overall BC was 19.6% for African American women in the top 1% of PRS313 and 6.7% for those in the lowest 1%. The recalibrated PRS did not improve BC risk prediction. CONCLUSION: The PRSs stratify BC risk in women of African ancestry, with attenuated performance compared to that reported in European, Asian and Latina populations. Future work is needed to improve BC risk stratification for women of African ancestry.

5.
Am J Obstet Gynecol ; 2021 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33493488

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ovarian cancer risk in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers has been shown to decrease with longer duration of oral contraceptive use. Although the effects of using oral contraceptives in the general population are well established (approximately 50% risk reduction in ovarian cancer), the estimated risk reduction in mutation carriers is much less precise because of potential bias and small sample sizes. In addition, only a few studies on oral contraceptive use have examined the associations of duration of use, time since last use, starting age, and calendar year of start with risk of ovarian cancer. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate in more detail the associations of various characteristics of oral contraceptive use and risk of ovarian cancer, to provide healthcare providers and carriers with better risk estimates. STUDY DESIGN: In this international retrospective study, ovarian cancer risk associations were assessed using oral contraceptives data on 3989 BRCA1 and 2445 BRCA2 mutation carriers. Age-dependent-weighted Cox regression analyses were stratified by study and birth cohort and included breast cancer diagnosis as a covariate. To minimize survival bias, analyses were left truncated at 5 years before baseline questionnaire. Separate analyses were conducted for each aspect of oral contraceptive use and in a multivariate analysis, including all these aspects. In addition, the analysis of duration of oral contraceptive use was stratified by recency of use. RESULTS: Oral contraceptives were less often used by mutation carriers who were diagnosed with ovarian cancer (ever use: 58.6% for BRCA1 and 53.5% BRCA2) than by unaffected carriers (ever use: 88.9% for BRCA1 and 80.7% for BRCA2). The median duration of use was 7 years for both BRCA1 and BRCA2 carriers who developed ovarian cancer and 9 and 8 years for unaffected BRCA1 and BRCA2 carriers with ovarian cancer, respectively. For BRCA1 mutation carriers, univariate analyses have shown that both a longer duration of oral contraceptive use and more recent oral contraceptive use were associated with a reduction in the risk of ovarian cancer. However, in multivariate analyses, including duration of use, age at first use, and time since last use, duration of oral contraceptive use proved to be the prominent protective factor (compared with <5 years: 5-9 years [hazard ratio, 0.67; 95% confidence interval, 0.40-1.12]; >10 years [hazard ratio, 0.37; 95% confidence interval, 0.19-0.73]; Ptrend=.008). The inverse association between duration of use and ovarian cancer risk persisted for more than 15 years (duration of ≥10 years; BRCA1 <15 years since last use [hazard ratio, 0.24; 95% confidence interval, 0.14-0.43]; BRCA1 >15 years since last use [hazard ratio, 0.56; 95% confidence interval, 0.18-0.59]). Univariate results for BRCA2 mutation carriers were similar but were inconclusive because of limited sample size. CONCLUSION: For BRCA1 mutation carriers, longer duration of oral contraceptive use is associated with a greater reduction in ovarian cancer risk, and the protection is long term.

6.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 30(4): 623-642, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33500318

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It is not known whether modifiable lifestyle factors that predict survival after invasive breast cancer differ by subtype. METHODS: We analyzed data for 121,435 women diagnosed with breast cancer from 67 studies in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium with 16,890 deaths (8,554 breast cancer specific) over 10 years. Cox regression was used to estimate associations between risk factors and 10-year all-cause mortality and breast cancer-specific mortality overall, by estrogen receptor (ER) status, and by intrinsic-like subtype. RESULTS: There was no evidence of heterogeneous associations between risk factors and mortality by subtype (P adj > 0.30). The strongest associations were between all-cause mortality and BMI ≥30 versus 18.5-25 kg/m2 [HR (95% confidence interval (CI), 1.19 (1.06-1.34)]; current versus never smoking [1.37 (1.27-1.47)], high versus low physical activity [0.43 (0.21-0.86)], age ≥30 years versus <20 years at first pregnancy [0.79 (0.72-0.86)]; >0-<5 years versus ≥10 years since last full-term birth [1.31 (1.11-1.55)]; ever versus never use of oral contraceptives [0.91 (0.87-0.96)]; ever versus never use of menopausal hormone therapy, including current estrogen-progestin therapy [0.61 (0.54-0.69)]. Similar associations with breast cancer mortality were weaker; for example, 1.11 (1.02-1.21) for current versus never smoking. CONCLUSIONS: We confirm associations between modifiable lifestyle factors and 10-year all-cause mortality. There was no strong evidence that associations differed by ER status or intrinsic-like subtype. IMPACT: Given the large dataset and lack of evidence that associations between modifiable risk factors and 10-year mortality differed by subtype, these associations could be cautiously used in prognostication models to inform patient-centered care.

7.
Int J Cancer ; 148(2): 307-319, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32851660

RESUMO

Blood lipids have been associated with the development of a range of cancers, including breast, lung and colorectal cancer. For endometrial cancer, observational studies have reported inconsistent associations between blood lipids and cancer risk. To reduce biases from unmeasured confounding, we performed a bidirectional, two-sample Mendelian randomization analysis to investigate the relationship between levels of three blood lipids (low-density lipoprotein [LDL] and high-density lipoprotein [HDL] cholesterol, and triglycerides) and endometrial cancer risk. Genetic variants associated with each of these blood lipid levels (P < 5 × 10-8 ) were identified as instrumental variables, and assessed using genome-wide association study data from the Endometrial Cancer Association Consortium (12 906 cases and 108 979 controls) and the Global Lipids Genetic Consortium (n = 188 578). Mendelian randomization analyses found genetically raised LDL cholesterol levels to be associated with lower risks of endometrial cancer of all histologies combined, and of endometrioid and non-endometrioid subtypes. Conversely, higher genetically predicted HDL cholesterol levels were associated with increased risk of non-endometrioid endometrial cancer. After accounting for the potential confounding role of obesity (as measured by genetic variants associated with body mass index), the association between genetically predicted increased LDL cholesterol levels and lower endometrial cancer risk remained significant, especially for non-endometrioid endometrial cancer. There was no evidence to support a role for triglycerides in endometrial cancer development. Our study supports a role for LDL and HDL cholesterol in the development of non-endometrioid endometrial cancer. Further studies are required to understand the mechanisms underlying these findings.

8.
Hum Mutat ; 42(2): 200-212, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33314489

RESUMO

The discovery of high-risk breast cancer susceptibility genes, such as Breast cancer associated gene 1 (BRCA1) and Breast cancer associated gene 2 (BRCA2) has led to accurate identification of individuals for risk management and targeted therapy. The rapid decline in sequencing costs has tremendously increased the number of individuals who are undergoing genetic testing world-wide. However, given the significant differences in population-specific variants, interpreting the results of these tests can be challenging especially for novel genetic variants in understudied populations. Here we report the characterization of novel variants in the Malaysian and Singaporean population that consist of different ethnic groups (Malays, Chinese, Indian, and other indigenous groups). We have evaluated the functional significance of 14 BRCA2 variants of uncertain clinical significance by using multiple in silico prediction tools and examined their frequency in a cohort of 7840 breast cancer cases and 7928 healthy controls. In addition, we have used a mouse embryonic stem cell (mESC)-based functional assay to assess the impact of these variants on BRCA2 function. We found these variants to be functionally indistinguishable from wild-type BRCA2. These variants could fully rescue the lethality of Brca2-null mESCs and exhibited no sensitivity to six different DNA damaging agents including a poly ADP ribose polymerase inhibitor. Our findings strongly suggest that all 14 evaluated variants are functionally neutral. Our findings should be valuable in risk assessment of individuals carrying these variants.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33335023

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The CanRisk Tool (https://canrisk.org) is the next-generation web interface for the latest version of the BOADICEA (Breast and Ovarian Analysis of Disease Incidence and Carrier Estimation Algorithm) state-of-the-art risk model and a forthcoming ovarian cancer risk model. METHODS: The tool captures information on family history, rare pathogenic variants in cancer susceptibility genes, polygenic risk scores, lifestyle/hormonal/clinical features, and imaging risk factors to predict breast and ovarian cancer risks and estimate the probabilities of carrying pathogenic variants in certain genes. It was implemented using modern web frameworks, technologies, and web services to make it extensible and increase accessibility to researchers and third-party applications. The design of the graphical user interface was informed by feedback from health care professionals and a formal evaluation. RESULTS: This freely accessible tool was designed to be user friendly for clinicians and to boost acceptability in clinical settings. The tool incorporates a novel graphical pedigree builder to facilitate collection of the family history data required by risk calculations. CONCLUSIONS: The CanRisk Tool provides health care professionals and researchers with a user-friendly interface to carry out multifactorial breast and ovarian cancer risk predictions. It is the first freely accessible cancer risk prediction program to carry the CE marking. IMPACT: There have been over 3,100 account registrations, and 98,000 breast and ovarian cancer risk calculations have been run within the first 9 months of the CanRisk Tool launch.

10.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5116, 2020 10 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33037222

RESUMO

Mammographic density (MD) phenotypes are strongly associated with breast cancer risk and highly heritable. In this GWAS meta-analysis of 24,192 women, we identify 31 MD loci at P < 5 × 10-8, tripling the number known to 46. Seventeen identified MD loci also are associated with breast cancer risk in an independent meta-analysis (P < 0.05). Mendelian randomization analyses show that genetic estimates of dense area (DA), nondense area (NDA), and percent density (PD) are all significantly associated with breast cancer risk (P < 0.05). Pathway analyses reveal distinct biological processes involving DA, NDA and PD loci. These findings provide additional insights into the genetic basis of MD phenotypes and their associations with breast cancer risk.


Assuntos
Densidade da Mama , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Mamografia , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
11.
Genet Epidemiol ; 2020 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33020983

RESUMO

The intensities from genotyping array data can be used to detect copy number variants (CNVs) but a high level of noise in the data and overlap between different copy-number intensity distributions produces unreliable calls, particularly when only a few probes are covered by the CNV. We present a novel pipeline (CamCNV) with a series of steps to reduce noise and detect more reliably CNVs covering as few as three probes. The pipeline aims to detect rare CNVs (below 1% frequency) for association tests in large cohorts. The method uses the information from all samples to convert intensities to z-scores, thus adjusting for variance between probes. We tested the sensitivity of our pipeline by looking for known CNVs from the 1000 Genomes Project in our genotyping of 1000 Genomes samples. We also compared the CNV calls for 1661 pairs of genotyped replicate samples. At the chosen mean z-score cut-off, sensitivity to detect the 1000 Genomes CNVs was approximately 85% for deletions and 65% for duplications. From the replicates, we estimate the false discovery rate is controlled at ∼10% for deletions (falling to below 3% with more than five probes) and ∼28% for duplications. The pipeline demonstrates improved sensitivity when compared to calling with PennCNV, particularly for short deletions covering only a few probes. For each called CNV, the mean z-score is a useful metric for controlling the false discovery rate.

12.
Int J Cancer ; 2020 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32976626

RESUMO

Alcohol consumption is correlated positively with risk for breast cancer in observational studies, but observational studies are subject to reverse causation and confounding. The association with epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is unclear. We performed both observational Cox regression and two-sample Mendelian randomization (MR) analyses using data from various European cohort studies (observational) and publicly available cancer consortia (MR). These estimates were compared to World Cancer Research Fund (WCRF) findings. In our observational analyses, the multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HR) for a one standard drink/day increase was 1.06 (95% confidence interval [CI]; 1.04, 1.08) for breast cancer and 1.00 (0.92, 1.08) for EOC, both of which were consistent with previous WCRF findings. MR ORs per genetically predicted one standard drink/day increase estimated via 34 SNPs using MR-PRESSO were 1.00 (0.93, 1.08) for breast cancer and 0.95 (0.85, 1.06) for EOC. Stratification by EOC subtype or estrogen receptor status in breast cancers made no meaningful difference to the results. For breast cancer, the CIs for the genetically derived estimates include the point-estimate from observational studies so are not inconsistent with a small increase in risk. Our data provide additional evidence that alcohol intake is unlikely to have anything other than a very small effect on risk of EOC.

13.
NPJ Breast Cancer ; 6: 44, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32964118

RESUMO

Germline genetic variation has been suggested to influence the survival of breast cancer patients independently of tumor pathology. We have studied survival associations of genetic variants in two etiologically unique groups of breast cancer patients, the carriers of germline pathogenic variants in BRCA1 or BRCA2 genes. We found that rs57025206 was significantly associated with the overall survival, predicting higher mortality of BRCA1 carrier patients with estrogen receptor-negative breast cancer, with a hazard ratio 4.37 (95% confidence interval 3.03-6.30, P = 3.1 × 10-9). Multivariable analysis adjusted for tumor characteristics suggested that rs57025206 was an independent survival marker. In addition, our exploratory analyses suggest that the associations between genetic variants and breast cancer patient survival may depend on tumor biological subgroup and clinical patient characteristics.

14.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 2020 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32785646

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aetiology of male breast cancer (MBC) is poorly understood. In particular, the extent to which the genetic basis of MBC differs from female breast cancer (FBC) is unknown. A previous genome-wide association study (GWAS) of MBC identified two predisposition loci for the disease, both of which were also associated with risk of FBC. METHODS: We performed genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping of European ancestry MBC case subjects and controls, in three stages. Associations between directly genotyped and imputed SNPs with MBC were assessed using fixed-effects meta-analysis of 1,380 cases and 3,620 controls. Replication genotyping of 810 cases and 1,026 controls was used to validate variants with P-values < 1 x 10-06. Genetic correlation with FBC was evaluated using LD score regression, by comprehensively examining the associations of published FBC risk loci with risk of MBC and by assessing associations between a FBC polygenic risk score (PRS) and MBC. All statistical tests were two-sided. RESULTS: The GWAS identified three novel MBC susceptibility loci that attained genome-wide significance (P < 5 x 10-08). Genetic correlation analysis revealed a strong shared genetic basis with estrogen-receptor (ER) positive FBC. Males in the top quintile of genetic risk had a four-fold increased risk of breast cancer relative to those in the bottom quintile (odds ratio = 3.86, 95% confidence interval = 3.07 to 4.87, P = 2.08 x 10-30). CONCLUSIONS: These findings advance our understanding of the genetic basis of MBC, providing support for an overlapping genetic aetiology with FBC and identifying a four-fold high risk group of susceptible men.

15.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 2020 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32853342

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We assessed the clinical utility of a first-degree breast cancer family history (FH) and polygenic risk score (PRS) to inform screening decisions among women aged 30-50 years. METHOD: Two established breast cancer models evaluated digital mammography screening strategies in the 1985 US birth cohort by risk groups defined by family history and polygenic risk score (PRS) based on 313-single nucleotide polymorphism. Strategies varied in initiation age (30, 35, 40, 45, 50) and interval (annual, hybrid, biennial [B], triennial). The benefits, breast cancer deaths averted, life years gained (LYG) and harms, false-positive (FP) mammograms, overdiagnoses, were compared those seen with three established screening guidelines. RESULTS: Women with a breast cancer FH who initiate biennial screening at age 40 years (vs. 50) had a 36% (model range: 29%-40%) increase in LYG and 20% (model range: 16%-24%) more breast cancer deaths averted, but 21% (model range: 17%-23%) more overdiagnoses and 63% (model range: 62%-64%) more false positives. Screening tailored to PRS vs. biennial 50-74 screening had smaller positive effects on LYG (20%) and breast cancer deaths averted (11%) but also smaller increases in overdiagnoses (10%) and false positives (26%). Combined use of FH and PRS vs. B50-74 had the greatest increase in LYG (29%) and breast cancer deaths averted (18%). CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that breast cancer family history and polygenic risk could guide screening decisions before age 50 years among women at increased risk for breast cancer, but should consider expected increases in overdiagnoses and false positives.

17.
JAMA Oncol ; 6(8): 1218-1230, 2020 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32614418

RESUMO

Importance: The limited data on cancer phenotypes in men with germline BRCA1 and BRCA2 pathogenic variants (PVs) have hampered the development of evidence-based recommendations for early cancer detection and risk reduction in this population. Objective: To compare the cancer spectrum and frequencies between male BRCA1 and BRCA2 PV carriers. Design, Setting, and Participants: Retrospective cohort study of 6902 men, including 3651 BRCA1 and 3251 BRCA2 PV carriers, older than 18 years recruited from cancer genetics clinics from 1966 to 2017 by 53 study groups in 33 countries worldwide collaborating through the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2 (CIMBA). Clinical data and pathologic characteristics were collected. Main Outcomes and Measures: BRCA1/2 status was the outcome in a logistic regression, and cancer diagnoses were the independent predictors. All odds ratios (ORs) were adjusted for age, country of origin, and calendar year of the first interview. Results: Among the 6902 men in the study (median [range] age, 51.6 [18-100] years), 1634 cancers were diagnosed in 1376 men (19.9%), the majority (922 of 1,376 [67%]) being BRCA2 PV carriers. Being affected by any cancer was associated with a higher probability of being a BRCA2, rather than a BRCA1, PV carrier (OR, 3.23; 95% CI, 2.81-3.70; P < .001), as well as developing 2 (OR, 7.97; 95% CI, 5.47-11.60; P < .001) and 3 (OR, 19.60; 95% CI, 4.64-82.89; P < .001) primary tumors. A higher frequency of breast (OR, 5.47; 95% CI, 4.06-7.37; P < .001) and prostate (OR, 1.39; 95% CI, 1.09-1.78; P = .008) cancers was associated with a higher probability of being a BRCA2 PV carrier. Among cancers other than breast and prostate, pancreatic cancer was associated with a higher probability (OR, 3.00; 95% CI, 1.55-5.81; P = .001) and colorectal cancer with a lower probability (OR, 0.47; 95% CI, 0.29-0.78; P = .003) of being a BRCA2 PV carrier. Conclusions and Relevance: Significant differences in the cancer spectrum were observed in male BRCA2, compared with BRCA1, PV carriers. These data may inform future recommendations for surveillance of BRCA1/2-associated cancers and guide future prospective studies for estimating cancer risks in men with BRCA1/2 PVs.

19.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3353, 2020 07 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32620889

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have led to the identification of hundreds of susceptibility loci across cancers, but the impact of further studies remains uncertain. Here we analyse summary-level data from GWAS of European ancestry across fourteen cancer sites to estimate the number of common susceptibility variants (polygenicity) and underlying effect-size distribution. All cancers show a high degree of polygenicity, involving at a minimum of thousands of loci. We project that sample sizes required to explain 80% of GWAS heritability vary from 60,000 cases for testicular to over 1,000,000 cases for lung cancer. The maximum relative risk achievable for subjects at the 99th risk percentile of underlying polygenic risk scores (PRS), compared to average risk, ranges from 12 for testicular to 2.5 for ovarian cancer. We show that PRS have potential for risk stratification for cancers of breast, colon and prostate, but less so for others because of modest heritability and lower incidence.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença , Modelos Genéticos , Herança Multifatorial , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Animais , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Neoplasias/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Medição de Risco/métodos , Fatores de Risco
20.
Eur Urol ; 78(4): 494-497, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32532514

RESUMO

A BRCA2 prostate cancer cluster region (PCCR) was recently proposed (c.7914 to 3') wherein pathogenic variants (PVs) are associated with higher prostate cancer (PCa) risk than PVs elsewhere in the BRCA2 gene. Using a prospective cohort study of 447 male BRCA2 PV carriers recruited in the UK and Ireland from 1998 to 2016, we estimated standardised incidence ratios (SIRs) compared with population incidences and assessed variation in risk by PV location. Carriers of PVs in the PCCR had a PCa SIR of 8.33 (95% confidence interval [CI] 4.46-15.6) and were at a higher risk of PCa than carriers of other BRCA2 PVs (SIR = 3.31, 95% CI 1.97-5.57; hazard ratio = 2.34, 95% CI 1.09-5.03). PCCR PV carriers had an estimated cumulative PCa risk of 44% (95% CI 23-72%) by the age of 75 yr and 78% (95% CI 54-94%) by the age of 85 yr. Our results corroborate the existence of a PCCR in BRCA2 in a prospective cohort. PATIENT SUMMARY: In this report, we investigated whether the risk of prostate cancer for men with a harmful mutation in the BRCA2 gene differs based on where in the gene the mutation is located. We found that men with mutations in one region of BRCA2 had a higher risk of prostate cancer than men with mutations elsewhere in the gene.

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