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1.
JAMA Netw Open ; 2(9): e1910769, 2019 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31490536

RESUMO

Importance: Debate continues about the value of event adjudication in clinical trials and whether independent centralized assessments improve reliability and validity of study results in masked randomized trials compared with local, investigator-assessed end points. Objective: To assess the results of the adjudicated end point process in the Platelet-Oriented Inhibition in New TIA and Minor Ischemic Stroke (POINT) trial by comparing end points assessed by local site investigators with centrally adjudicated end points. Design, Setting, and Participants: This is an ad hoc secondary analysis of a randomized, double-blind clinical trial comparing safety and effectiveness of clopidogrel bisulphate plus aspirin vs placebo plus aspirin. Patients received either 600 mg of clopidogrel bisulphate on day 1, then 75 mg per day through day 90 plus 50 to 325 mg of aspirin per day, or the same range of dosages of placebo plus aspirin. Investigators reported all potential end points; independent masked adjudicators were randomly assigned to review using definitions specified in the study protocol. This was a multicenter study; 269 international sites in 10 countries enrolled from May 28, 2010, to December 19, 2017. The study enrolled 4881 patients 18 years or older with transient ischemic attack or minor acute ischemic stroke within 12 hours of symptom onset and followed for 90 days from randomization; last follow-up was completed in March 2018. Main Outcomes and Measures: Independent adjudicators external to the study and masked to study treatment assignment adjudicated 467 primary and secondary effectiveness outcomes and major and minor bleeding events, including the primary composite end point, which was the risk of a composite of major ischemic events at 90 days, defined as ischemic stroke, myocardial infarction, or death from an ischemic vascular event. The primary safety end point was major hemorrhage. All components of the primary and safety outcomes were adjudicated. Results: In this secondary analysis of an international randomized clinical trial, a total of 269 sites worldwide randomized 4881 patients (median age, 65.0 years; interquartile range, 55-74 years); 55.0% were male. The primary results have been published previously. The hazard ratios for clopidogrel plus aspirin vs placebo plus aspirin for the primary composite end point were 0.75 (95% CI, 0.59-0.95) for adjudicator-assessed events and 0.76 (95% CI, 0.60-0.95) for investigator-assessed events. Agreement between adjudicator and investigator assessments was 90.7%. The hazard ratios for clopidogrel plus aspirin vs placebo plus aspirin for the primary safety end point were 2.32 (95% CI, 1.10-4.87) for adjudicator-assessed events and 2.58 (95% CI, 1.19-5.58) for investigator-assessed events, with an agreement rate of 77.5%. Conclusions and Relevance: Independent end point adjudication did not substantially alter estimates of the primary treatment effectiveness in the POINT trial. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00991029.

2.
JAMA Neurol ; 2019 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31424481

RESUMO

Importance: Dual antiplatelet therapy with clopidogrel and aspirin is effective for secondary prevention after minor ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA). Uncertainties remained about the optimal duration of dual antiplatelet therapy for minor stroke or TIA. Objective: To obtain precise estimates of efficacy and risk of dual antiplatelet therapy after minor ischemic stroke or TIA. Design, Setting, and Participants: This analysis pooled individual patient-level data from 2 large-scale randomized clinical trials that evaluated clopidogrel-aspirin as a treatment to prevent stroke after a minor stroke or high-risk TIA. The Clopidogrel in High-Risk Patients With Acute Non-Disabling Cerebrovascular Events (CHANCE) trial enrolled patients at 114 sites in China from October 1, 2009, to July 30, 2012. The Platelet-Oriented Inhibition in New TIA and Minor Ischemic Stroke (POINT) trial enrolled patients at 269 international sites from May 28, 2010, to December 19, 2017. Both were followed up for 90 days. Data analysis occurred from November 2018 to May 2019. Interventions: In the 2 trials, patients with minor stroke or high-risk TIA were randomized to clopidogrel-aspirin or aspirin alone within 12 hours (POINT) or 24 hours (CHANCE) of symptom onset. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary efficacy outcome was a major ischemic event (ischemic stroke, myocardial infarction, or death from ischemic vascular causes). The primary safety outcome was major hemorrhage. Results: The study enrolled 5170 patients (CHANCE) and 4881 patients (POINT). Analysis included individual data from 10 051 patients (5016 in the clopidogrel-aspirin treatment group and 5035 in the control group) with a median age of 63.2 (interquartile range, 55.0-72.9) years; 6106 patients (60.8%) were male. Clopidogrel-aspirin treatment reduced the risk of major ischemic events at 90 days compared with aspirin alone (328 of 5016 [6.5%] vs 458 of 5035 [9.1%]; hazard ratio [HR], 0.70 [95% CI, 0.61-0.81]; P < .001), mainly within the first 21 days (263 of 5016 [5.2%] vs 391 of 5035 [7.8%]; HR, 0.66 [95% CI, 0.56-0.77]; P < .001), but not from day 22 to day 90. No evidence of heterogeneity of treatment outcome across trials or prespecified subgroups was observed. Major hemorrhages were more frequent in the clopidogrel-aspirin group, but the difference was nonsignificant. Conclusions and Relevance: In this analysis of the POINT and CHANCE trials, the benefit of dual antiplatelet therapy appeared to be confined to the first 21 days after minor ischemic stroke or high-risk TIA.

3.
Circulation ; 140(8): 658-664, 2019 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31238700

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In patients with acute minor ischemic stroke or high-risk transient ischemic attack enrolled in the POINT trial (Platelet-Oriented Inhibition in New TIA and Minor Ischemic Stroke [POINT] Trial), the combination of clopidogrel and aspirin for 90 days reduced major ischemic events but increased major hemorrhage in comparison to aspirin alone. METHODS: In a secondary analysis of POINT (N=4881), we assessed the time course for benefit and risk from the combination of clopidogrel and aspirin. The primary efficacy outcome was a composite of ischemic stroke, myocardial infarction, or ischemic vascular death. The primary safety outcome was major hemorrhage. Risks and benefits were estimated for delayed times of treatment initiation using left-truncated models. RESULTS: Through 90 days, the rate of major ischemic events was initially high then decreased markedly, whereas the rate of major hemorrhage remained low but relatively constant throughout. With the use of a model-based approach, the optimal change point for major ischemic events was 21 days (0-21 days hazard ratio 0.65 for clopidogrel-aspirin versus aspirin; 95% CI, 0.50-0.85; P=0.0015, in comparison to 22-90 days hazard ratio, 1.38; 95% CI, 0.81-2.35; P=0.24). Models showed benefits of clopidogrel-aspirin for treatment delayed as long as 3 days after symptom onset. CONCLUSIONS: The benefit of clopidogrel-aspirin occurs predominantly within the first 21 days, and outweighs the low, but ongoing risk of major hemorrhage. When considered with the results of the CHANCE trial (Clopidogrel in High-Risk Patients With Non-disabling Cerebrovascular Events), a similar trial treating with clopidogrel-aspirin for 21 days and showing no increase in major hemorrhage, these results suggest that limiting clopidogrel-aspirin use to 21 days may maximize benefit and reduce risk after high-risk transient ischemic attack or minor ischemic stroke. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00991029.

4.
Lancet Neurol ; 18(6): 539-548, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31122494

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although dual antiplatelet therapy with aspirin and clopidogrel reduces early recurrence of ischaemic stroke, with long-term use this type of therapy is no longer effective and the risk of bleeding increases. Given that cilostazol prevents stroke recurrence without increasing the incidence of serious bleeding compared with aspirin, we aimed to establish whether dual antiplatelet therapy involving cilostazol is safe and appropriate for long-term use. METHODS: In a multicentre, open-label, randomised controlled trial across 292 hospitals in Japan, patients with high-risk non-cardioembolic ischaemic stroke identified on MRI were randomly assigned to two groups in a 1:1 ratio to receive monotherapy with either oral aspirin (81 or 100 mg, once per day) or clopidogrel (50 or 75 mg, once per day) alone, or a combination of cilostazol (100 mg, twice per day) with aspirin or clopidogrel. Randomisation was done centrally (using block randomisation with a block size of six per each participating hospital) through a web-based registration system and was done by EPS Corporation. The patients were required to have at least 50% stenosis of a major intracranial or extracranial artery or two or more of the vascular risk factors. Trial medication was continued for half a year or longer, for a maximum of 3·5 years. The primary efficacy outcome was the rate of first recurrence of symptomatic ischaemic stroke. Safety outcomes were severe or life-threatening bleeding; any adverse events; serious adverse events; and any bleeding events. Efficacy analyses were done in the intention-to-treat population and safety analyses were done in the as-treated population. This trial was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (number NCT01995370) and UMIN Clinical Trials Registry (number 000012180). FINDINGS: Participants were recruited from Dec 13, 2013, to March 31, 2017. 932 patients assigned to the dual therapy group and 947 patients assigned to the monotherapy group were included in the intention-to-treat analysis. The trial was stopped after the enrolment of 1884 patients of an anticipated 4000 patients because of the delay in recruitment. Ischaemic stroke recurred in 29 (3%) of 932 patients (annualised rate 2·2%) on dual therapy including cilostazol and 64 (7%) of 947 patients (annualised rate 4·5%) on monotherapy during a median 1·4 years follow-up (hazard ratio [HR] 0·49, 95% CI 0·31-0·76, p=0·0010). Severe or life-threatening bleeding occurred in eight patients (annualised rate 0·6%) on dual therapy and 13 patients (annualised rate 0·9%) on monotherapy (HR 0·66, 95% CI 0·27-1·60, p=0·35). Occurrence of any type of adverse event was similar between the groups (255 [28%] of 910 patients in the dual therapy group vs 219 [24%] of 921 patients in the monotherapy group); as was occurrence of serious adverse events (87 [10%] vs 142 [15%]) and bleeding events (38 [4%] vs 33 [4%]). Gastrointestinal bleeding, which affected nine (<1%) of 910 patients in the monotherapy group and nine (<1%) of 921 patients in the dual therapy group, was the most common type of bleeding. INTERPRETATION: The combination of cilostazol with aspirin or clopidogrel had a reduced incidence of ischaemic stroke recurrence and a similar risk of severe or life-threatening bleeding compared with treatment with aspirin or clopidogrel alone in patients at high risk for recurrent ischaemic stroke. FUNDING: Otsuka Pharmaceutical.

5.
Int J Stroke ; : 1747493019851282, 2019 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31092152

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adjudication of endpoints is a standard procedure in cardiovascular clinical trials. However, several studies indicate that the benefit of adjudication in estimating treatment effect may be limited. AIMS: This post hoc analysis of SOCRATES (NCT01994720) compared the treatment effects and investigated the agreement of clinical event assessment by site investigators and independent adjudicators. METHODS: SOCRATES compared ticagrelor and aspirin in 13,199 patients with acute minor stroke or high-risk transient ischemic attack. The primary endpoint was stroke, myocardial infarction, or death. Stroke was the major component of the primary endpoint and a secondary endpoint. The endpoints were adjudicated by a blinded independent committee. We compared the treatment effect on the primary endpoint and stroke alone based on the investigators' and adjudicators' assessments, and investigated the agreement rate on the stroke endpoint and major hemorrhages. RESULTS: The hazard ratios (95% confidence interval) for ticagrelor versus aspirin therapy for the primary endpoint were 0.89 (0.78-1.01) when calculated on adjudicator-assessed events and 0.88 (0.78-1.00) for investigator-assessed events. The hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) for stroke were 0.86 (0.75-0.99) based on the adjudicators' diagnoses and 0.85 (0.75-0.97) based on the investigators' diagnoses. The overall agreement between adjudicator- and investigator-diagnosed stroke was 91%, and for major hemorrhages was 88%. CONCLUSIONS: In SOCRATES, there was no clinically meaningful difference in the estimated treatment effect, on either the primary endpoint or stroke, by using investigator- or adjudicator-assessed events. Double-blind treatment outcome studies with stroke endpoints may not benefit from adjudication. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01994720.

6.
N Engl J Med ; 380(20): 1906-1917, 2019 05 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31091372

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cryptogenic strokes constitute 20 to 30% of ischemic strokes, and most cryptogenic strokes are considered to be embolic and of undetermined source. An earlier randomized trial showed that rivaroxaban is no more effective than aspirin in preventing recurrent stroke after a presumed embolic stroke from an undetermined source. Whether dabigatran would be effective in preventing recurrent strokes after this type of stroke was unclear. METHODS: We conducted a multicenter, randomized, double-blind trial of dabigatran at a dose of 150 mg or 110 mg twice daily as compared with aspirin at a dose of 100 mg once daily in patients who had had an embolic stroke of undetermined source. The primary outcome was recurrent stroke. The primary safety outcome was major bleeding. RESULTS: A total of 5390 patients were enrolled at 564 sites and were randomly assigned to receive dabigatran (2695 patients) or aspirin (2695 patients). During a median follow-up of 19 months, recurrent strokes occurred in 177 patients (6.6%) in the dabigatran group (4.1% per year) and in 207 patients (7.7%) in the aspirin group (4.8% per year) (hazard ratio, 0.85; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.69 to 1.03; P = 0.10). Ischemic strokes occurred in 172 patients (4.0% per year) and 203 patients (4.7% per year), respectively (hazard ratio, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.68 to 1.03). Major bleeding occurred in 77 patients (1.7% per year) in the dabigatran group and in 64 patients (1.4% per year) in the aspirin group (hazard ratio, 1.19; 95% CI, 0.85 to 1.66). Clinically relevant nonmajor bleeding occurred in 70 patients (1.6% per year) and 41 patients (0.9% per year), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with a recent history of embolic stroke of undetermined source, dabigatran was not superior to aspirin in preventing recurrent stroke. The incidence of major bleeding was not greater in the dabigatran group than in the aspirin group, but there were more clinically relevant nonmajor bleeding events in the dabigatran group. (Funded by Boehringer Ingelheim; RE-SPECT ESUS ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02239120.).


Assuntos
Antitrombinas/administração & dosagem , Dabigatrana/administração & dosagem , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle , Idoso , Antitrombinas/efeitos adversos , Aspirina/administração & dosagem , Aspirina/efeitos adversos , Dabigatrana/efeitos adversos , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Humanos , Incidência , Embolia Intracraniana/tratamento farmacológico , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/administração & dosagem , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/efeitos adversos , Recidiva , Prevenção Secundária , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/mortalidade
7.
JAMA Neurol ; 76(7): 774-782, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31034032

RESUMO

Importance: Results show the short-term risk of hemorrhage in treating patients with acute transient ischemic attack (TIA) or minor acute ischemic stroke (AIS) with clopidogrel plus aspirin or aspirin alone. Objective: To characterize the frequency and kinds of major hemorrhages in the Platelet-Oriented Inhibition in New TIA and Minor Ischemic Stroke (POINT) trial. Design, Setting, and Participants: This secondary analysis of the POINT randomized, double-blind clinical trial conducted in 10 countries in North America, Europe, and Australasia included patients with high-risk TIA or minor AIS who were randomized within 12 hours of symptom onset and followed up for 90 days. The total enrollment, which occurred from May 28, 2010, through December 17, 2017, was 4881 and constituted the intention-to-treat group; 4819 (98.7%) were included in the as-treated analysis group. The primary safety analyses were as-treated, classifying patients based on study drug actually received. Intention-to-treat analyses were performed as secondary analyses. Data were analyzed in April 2018. Interventions: Patients were assigned to receive clopidogrel (600 mg loading dose on day 1 followed by 75 mg daily for days 2-90) or placebo; all patients also received open-label aspirin, 50 to 325 mg/d. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary safety outcome was all major hemorrhages. Other safety outcomes included minor hemorrhages. Results: A total of 269 sites worldwide randomized 4881 patients (median age, 65.0 years [interquartile range, 55-74 years]; 2195 women [45.0%]); the primary results have been published previously. In the as-treated analyses, major hemorrhage occurred in 21 patients (0.9%) receiving clopidogrel plus aspirin and 6 (0.2%) in the aspirin alone group (hazard ratio, 3.57; 95% CI, 1.44-8.85; P = .003; number needed to harm, 159). There were 4 fatal hemorrhages (0.1%; 3 in the clopidogrel plus aspirin group and 1 in the aspirin alone group); 3 of the 4 were intracranial. There were 7 intracranial hemorrhages (0.1%); 5 were in the clopidogrel plus aspirin group and 2 in the aspirin plus placebo group. The most common location of major hemorrhages was in the gastrointestinal tract. Conclusions and Relevance: The risk for major hemorrhages in patients receiving either clopidogrel plus aspirin or aspirin alone after TIA or minor AIS was low. Nevertheless, treatment with clopidogrel plus aspirin increased the risk of major hemorrhages over aspirin alone from 0.2% to 0.9%. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00991029.

8.
Stroke ; 50(3): 675-682, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30776996

RESUMO

Background and Purpose- Recurrent ischemia risk is high in the acute period after cerebral ischemic events. Effects of antiplatelet agents may vary by time to loading dose (TLD). We explored the risk of recurrent events and safety and efficacy of ticagrelor versus aspirin in relation to TLD. Methods- We randomized 13 199 patients with noncardioembolic, nonsevere ischemic stroke, or high-risk transient ischemic attack to 90-day ticagrelor or aspirin treatment within 24 hours of symptom onset. For this analysis, 13 126 patients were categorized by TLD as <12 hours or ≥12 hours from start of index event. The primary end point was the composite of stroke, myocardial infarction, or death within 90 days. Major bleeding was the primary safety end point. Results- TLD was <12 hours in 4403 (33.5%) and ≥12 hours in 8723 (66.5%). The Kaplan-Meier% for the primary end point for all patients with TLD<12 hours was 7.5% versus 6.9% in TLD≥12 hours. Among patients with TLD<12 hours, the primary end point occurred in 147/2196 (6.8%) randomized to ticagrelor and in 184/2207 (8.3%) randomized to aspirin (hazard ratio, 0.79; 95% CI, 0.64-0.98; P=0.036). Among patients with TLD≥12 hours, the primary end point occurred in 6.7% patients randomized to ticagrelor versus 7.0% to aspirin (hazard ratio, 0.95; 95% CI, 0.81-1.12; P=0.55). There was no significant treatment-by-TLD interaction. Major bleeding rates were comparable on ticagrelor and aspirin, regardless of TLD. Conclusions- The event rate for the primary end point was higher in patients treated early (<12 hours) versus later (≥12 hours). In this exploratory analysis, a larger numerical difference in the primary end point was observed among patients on ticagrelor than on aspirin when TLD was <12 hours compared with ≥12 hours, although the interaction terms for treatment-by-TLD were not significant. For major bleeding, no relation to TLD was observed. Clinical Trial Registration- URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov . Unique identifier: NCT01994720.

9.
Int J Stroke ; 14(3): 220-222, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30722755

RESUMO

Stroke symptoms can be unsettling, even when symptoms resolve, but focusing on stroke prevention can be empowering provided that effective interventions for appropriate patient populations are available. Current options include interventions for symptomatic carotid artery stenosis, anticoagulation for atrial fibrillation, high-dose statins, new oral anticoagulants, new developments in atrial fibrillation detection, and new therapeutics are in development. For antiplatelet therapy, aspirin monotherapy is effective but dual antiplatelet therapy with the combination of aspirin and clopidogrel increases hemorrhage risks over the long term that outweigh potential benefits. In the short term though, both the Clopidogrel in High-Risk Patients with Acute Nondisabling Cerebrovascular Events (CHANCE) and Platelet-Oriented Inhibition in New TIA and Minor Ischemic Stroke (POINT) trials have shown a benefit of short-term dual-antiplatelet therapy, though the increased major hemorrhage risk seen in POINT could justify applying dual-antiplatelet therapy to just the first 21 days. Furthermore, since clopidogrel is a prodrug that must be metabolized to have antiplatelet activity, it is not surprising that the treatment effect in CHANCE was limited to patients who were not carriers of loss-of-function alleles for clopidogrel metabolism. Ticagrelor, an antiplatelet agent which failed to meet its primary endpoint as monotherapy compared to aspirin in the Acute Stroke or Transient Ischaemic Attack Treated with Aspirin or Ticagrelor and Patient Outcomes (SOCRATES) trial, is currently being tested as combination therapy with aspirin compared to aspirin alone in Acute Stroke or Transient Ischaemic Attack Treated With Ticagrelor and ASA for Prevention of Stroke and Death (THALES). These developments along with improvements to the infrastructure to perform rapid evaluations and to apply intensive secondary stroke prevention interventions hold continued promise for the future.

10.
Expert Opin Pharmacother ; 19(14): 1597-1602, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30152249

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: In patients with atrial fibrillation (AF), oral anticoagulation with vitamin K antagonists (VKA) (warfarin, phenprocoumon) is effective both for primary and secondary stroke prevention with a 60-70% relative reduction in stroke risk compared with placebo. Mortality is reduced by 26%. VKA have a number of well-documented shortcomings which were overcome by non-vitamin-K oral anticoagulants (NOACs). Areas covered: Results of randomized trials for four NOACs (apixaban, dabigatran, edoxaban, rivaroxaban) have been published (ARISTOTLE, RE-LY, ENGAGE, ROCKET-AF). In this review, the authors discuss the results in subgroups of patients with prior transient ischemic attacks or ischemic stroke. In aggregate, the NOACs are superior to warfarin for secondary prevention and result in a 50% reduction in intracerebral hemorrhage. Apixaban was superior to aspirin in the AVERROES trial and had a similar rate of major bleeding complications. Expert opinion: NOACs add to the therapeutic options for secondary stroke prevention in patients with AF and offer advantages over warfarin including a favorable bleeding profile and convenience of use. Aspirin should no longer be used for secondary stroke prevention in patients with AF.

11.
Stroke ; 49(7): 1678-1685, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29915123

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: SOCRATES (Acute Stroke or Transient Ischemic Attack Treated With Aspirin or Ticagrelor and Patient Outcomes), comparing ticagrelor with aspirin in patients with acute cerebral ischemia, found a nonsignificant 11% relative risk reduction for stroke, myocardial infarction, or death (P=0.07). Aspirin intake before randomization could enhance the effect of ticagrelor by conferring dual antiplatelet effect during a high-risk period for subsequent stroke. Therefore, we explored the efficacy and safety of ticagrelor versus aspirin in the patients who received any aspirin the week before randomization. METHODS: A prespecified subgroup analysis in SOCRATES (n=13 199), randomizing patients with acute ischemic stroke (National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score of ≤5) or transient ischemic attack (ABCD2 score of ≥4) to 90-day treatment with ticagrelor or aspirin. Patients in the prior-aspirin group had received any aspirin within the week before randomization. Primary end point was time to stroke, myocardial infarction, or death. Safety end point was PLATO (Study of Platelet Inhibition and Patient Outcomes) major bleeding. RESULTS: The 4232 patients in the prior-aspirin group were older, had more vascular risk factors, and vascular disease than the other patients. In the prior-aspirin group, the primary end point occurred in 138/2130 (6.5%) of patients on ticagrelor and in 177/2102 (8.3%) on aspirin (hazard ratio, 0.76; 95% confidence interval, 0.61-0.95; P=0.02); in patients with no prior-aspirin usage an event occurred in 304/4459 (6.9%) and 320/4508 (7.1%) on ticagrelor and aspirin, respectively (hazard ratio, 0.96; 95% confidence interval, 0.82-1.12; P=0.59). The treatment-by-prior-aspirin interaction was not statistically significant (P=0.10). In the prior-aspirin group, major bleeding occurred in 0.7% and 0.4% of patients on ticagrelor and aspirin, respectively (hazard ratio, 1.58; 95% confidence interval, 0.68-3.65; P=0.28). CONCLUSIONS: In this secondary analysis from SOCRATES, fewer primary end points occurred on ticagrelor treatment than on aspirin in patients receiving aspirin before randomization, but there was no significant treatment-by-prior-aspirin interaction. A new study will investigate the benefit-risk of combining ticagrelor and aspirin in patients with acute cerebral ischemia (URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT03354429). CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01994720.

12.
N Engl J Med ; 379(3): 215-225, 2018 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29766750

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Combination antiplatelet therapy with clopidogrel and aspirin may reduce the rate of recurrent stroke during the first 3 months after a minor ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA). A trial of combination antiplatelet therapy in a Chinese population has shown a reduction in the risk of recurrent stroke. We tested this combination in an international population. METHODS: In a randomized trial, we assigned patients with minor ischemic stroke or high-risk TIA to receive either clopidogrel at a loading dose of 600 mg on day 1, followed by 75 mg per day, plus aspirin (at a dose of 50 to 325 mg per day) or the same range of doses of aspirin alone. The dose of aspirin in each group was selected by the site investigator. The primary efficacy outcome in a time-to-event analysis was the risk of a composite of major ischemic events, which was defined as ischemic stroke, myocardial infarction, or death from an ischemic vascular event, at 90 days. RESULTS: A total of 4881 patients were enrolled at 269 international sites. The trial was halted after 84% of the anticipated number of patients had been enrolled because the data and safety monitoring board had determined that the combination of clopidogrel and aspirin was associated with both a lower risk of major ischemic events and a higher risk of major hemorrhage than aspirin alone at 90 days. Major ischemic events occurred in 121 of 2432 patients (5.0%) receiving clopidogrel plus aspirin and in 160 of 2449 patients (6.5%) receiving aspirin plus placebo (hazard ratio, 0.75; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.59 to 0.95; P=0.02), with most events occurring during the first week after the initial event. Major hemorrhage occurred in 23 patients (0.9%) receiving clopidogrel plus aspirin and in 10 patients (0.4%) receiving aspirin plus placebo (hazard ratio, 2.32; 95% CI, 1.10 to 4.87; P=0.02). CONCLUSIONS: In patients with minor ischemic stroke or high-risk TIA, those who received a combination of clopidogrel and aspirin had a lower risk of major ischemic events but a higher risk of major hemorrhage at 90 days than those who received aspirin alone. (Funded by the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke; POINT ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00991029 .).


Assuntos
Aspirina/administração & dosagem , Ataque Isquêmico Transitório/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/administração & dosagem , Prevenção Secundária , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/tratamento farmacológico , Ticlopidina/análogos & derivados , Idoso , Aspirina/efeitos adversos , Isquemia Encefálica/prevenção & controle , Clopidogrel , Método Duplo-Cego , Quimioterapia Combinada/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Humanos , Isquemia/mortalidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/prevenção & controle , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/efeitos adversos , Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle , Ticlopidina/administração & dosagem , Ticlopidina/efeitos adversos
13.
Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Pharmacother ; 4(2): 75-81, 2018 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29385429

RESUMO

Aims: We investigated baseline characteristics, antithrombotic use, and clinical outcomes of patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) and a thrombo-embolic event in the Apixaban for Reduction in Stroke and Other Thromboembolic Events in Atrial Fibrillation (ARISTOTLE) study to better inform the care of these high-risk patients. Method and results: Thrombo-embolic events were defined as stroke (ischaemic or unknown cause) or systemic embolism (SE). Clinical outcomes were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. All-cause mortality and International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis (ISTH) major bleeding after events were analysed using a Cox proportional hazards model with time-dependent covariates. Of 18 201 patients in ARISTOTLE, 365 experienced a thrombo-embolic event [337 strokes (ischaemic or unknown cause), 28 SE]; 46 (12.6%) of which were fatal. In the 30 days before and after a thrombo-embolic event, 11% and 37% of patients, respectively, were not taking an oral anticoagulant. During follow-up (median 1.8 years), 22 patients (7.1%/year) had a recurrent stroke, 97 (30.1%/year) died, and 10 (6.7%/year) had major bleeding. Compared with patients without a thrombo-embolic event, the short- and long-term adjusted hazards of death in patients with a thrombo-embolic event were high [≤30 days: hazard ratio (HR) 54.3%, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 41.4-71.3; >30 days: HR 3.5, 95% CI 2.5-4.8; both P < 0.001]. The adjusted hazards of major bleeding were also high short-term (HR 10.37, 95% CI 3.87-27.78; P < 0.001) but not long-term (HR 1.7, 95% CI: 0.77-3.88; P = 0.18). Conclusions: Thrombo-embolic events were rare but associated with high short- and long-term morbidity and mortality. Substantial numbers of patients are not receiving oral anticoagulattherapy before and, despite this risk, after a first thrombo-embolic event. Clinical Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT00412984).

14.
Stroke ; 48(9): 2480-2487, 2017 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28720658

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Ticagrelor is an effective antiplatelet therapy among patients with atherosclerotic disease and, therefore, could be more effective than aspirin in preventing recurrent stroke and cardiovascular events among patients with embolic stroke of unknown source (ESUS), which includes patients with ipsilateral stenosis <50% and aortic arch atherosclerosis. METHODS: We randomized 13 199 patients with a noncardioembolic, nonsevere ischemic stroke or high-risk transient ischemic attack to ticagrelor (180 mg loading dose on day 1 followed by 90 mg twice daily for days 2-90) or aspirin (300 mg on day 1 followed by 100 mg daily for days 2-90) within 24 hours of symptom onset. In all patients, investigators informed on the presence of ipsilateral stenosis ≥50%, small deep infarct <15 mm, and on cardiac source of embolism detected after enrollment or rare causes, which allowed to construct an ESUS category in all other patients with documented brain infarction. The primary end point was the time to the occurrence of stroke, myocardial infarction, or death within 90 days. RESULTS: ESUS was identified in 4329 (32.8%) patients. There was no treatment-by-ESUS category interaction (P=0.83). Hazard ratio in ESUS patients was 0.87 (95% confidence interval, 0.68-1.10; P=0.24). However, hazard ratio was 0.51 (95% confidence interval, 0.29-0.90; P=0.02) in ESUS patients with ipsilateral stenosis <50% or aortic arch atherosclerosis (n=961) and 0.98 (95% confidence interval, 0.76-1.27; P=0.89) in the remaining ESUS patients (n=3368; P for heterogeneity =0.04). CONCLUSIONS: In this post hoc, exploratory analysis, we found no treatment-by-ESUS category interaction. ESUS subgroups have heterogeneous response to treatment (Funded by AstraZeneca). CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01994720.


Assuntos
Adenosina/análogos & derivados , Aspirina/uso terapêutico , Embolia Intracraniana/tratamento farmacológico , Ataque Isquêmico Transitório/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/uso terapêutico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/tratamento farmacológico , Adenosina/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Doenças da Aorta/epidemiologia , Aterosclerose/epidemiologia , Estenose das Carótidas/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Embolia Intracraniana/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mortalidade , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Recidiva , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Ticagrelor , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
Circulation ; 136(10): 907-916, 2017 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28655834

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with minor acute ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack are at high risk for subsequent stroke, and more potent antiplatelet therapy in the acute setting is needed. However, the potential benefit of more intense antiplatelet therapy must be assessed in relation to the risk for major bleeding. The SOCRATES trial (Acute Stroke or Transient Ischemic Attack Treated With Aspirin or Ticagrelor and Patient Outcomes) was the first trial with ticagrelor in patients with acute ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack in which the efficacy and safety of ticagrelor were compared with those of aspirin. The main safety objective was assessment of PLATO (Platelet Inhibition and Patient Outcomes)-defined major bleeds on treatment, with special focus on intracranial hemorrhage (ICrH). METHODS: An independent adjudication committee blinded to study treatment classified bleeds according to the PLATO, TIMI (Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction), and GUSTO (Global Use of Strategies to Open Occluded Coronary Arteries) definitions. The definitions of ICrH and major bleeding excluded cerebral microbleeds and asymptomatic hemorrhagic transformations of cerebral infarctions so that the definitions better discriminated important events in the acute stroke population. RESULTS: A total of 13 130 of 13 199 randomized patients received at least 1 dose of study drug and were included in the safety analysis set. PLATO major bleeds occurred in 31 patients (0.5%) on ticagrelor and 38 patients (0.6%) on aspirin (hazard ratio, 0.83; 95% confidence interval, 0.52-1.34). The most common locations of major bleeds were intracranial and gastrointestinal. ICrH was reported in 12 patients (0.2%) on ticagrelor and 18 patients (0.3%) on aspirin. Thirteen of all 30 ICrHs (4 on ticagrelor and 9 on aspirin) were hemorrhagic strokes, and 4 (2 in each group) were symptomatic hemorrhagic transformations of brain infarctions. The ICrHs were spontaneous in 6 and 13, traumatic in 3 and 3, and procedural in 3 and 2 patients on ticagrelor and aspirin, respectively. In total, 9 fatal bleeds occurred on ticagrelor and 4 on aspirin. The composite of ICrH or fatal bleeding included 15 patients on ticagrelor and 18 on aspirin. Independently of bleeding classification, PLATO, TIMI, or GUSTO, the relative difference between treatments for major/severe bleeds was similar. Nonmajor bleeds were more common on ticagrelor. CONCLUSIONS: Antiplatelet therapy with ticagrelor in patients with acute ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack showed a bleeding profile similar to that of aspirin for major bleeds. There were few ICrHs. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01994720.


Assuntos
Adenosina/análogos & derivados , Aspirina/efeitos adversos , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Ataque Isquêmico Transitório/complicações , Antagonistas do Receptor Purinérgico P2Y/efeitos adversos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/complicações , Adenosina/administração & dosagem , Adenosina/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Aspirina/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Humanos , Ataque Isquêmico Transitório/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Antagonistas do Receptor Purinérgico P2Y/administração & dosagem , Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/tratamento farmacológico , Ticagrelor , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
Blood ; 129(22): 2980-2987, 2017 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28356246

RESUMO

We investigated the frequency and characteristics of intracranial hemorrhage (ICH), the factors associated with the risk of ICH, and outcomes post-ICH overall and by randomized treatment. We identified patients with ICH from the overall trial population enrolled in the Apixaban for Reduction in Stroke and Other Thromboembolic Events in Atrial Fibrillation trial who received ≥1 dose of the study drug (n = 18 140). ICH was adjudicated by a central committee. Cox regression models were used to identify factors associated with ICH. ICH occurred in 174 patients; most ICH events were spontaneous (71.7%) versus traumatic (28.3%). Apixaban resulted in significantly less ICH (0.33% per year), regardless of type and location, than warfarin (0.80% per year). Independent factors associated with increased risk of ICH were enrollment in Asia or Latin America, older age, prior stroke/transient ischemic attack, and aspirin use at baseline. Among warfarin-treated patients, the median (25th, 75th percentiles) time from most recent international normalized ratio (INR) to ICH was 13 days (6, 21 days). Median INR prior to ICH was 2.6 (2.1, 3.0); 78.5% of patients had a pre-ICH INR <3.0. After ICH, the modified Rankin scale score at discharge was ≥4 in 55.7% of patients, and the overall mortality rate at 30 days was 43.3% with no difference between apixaban- and warfarin-treated patients. ICH occurred at a rate of 0.80% per year with warfarin regardless of INR control and at a rate of 0.33% per year with apixaban and was associated with high short-term morbidity and mortality. This highlights the clinical relevance of reducing ICH by using apixaban rather than warfarin and avoiding concomitant aspirin, especially in patients of older age. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT00412984.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Fibrilação Atrial/tratamento farmacológico , Hemorragias Intracranianas/etiologia , Hemorragias Intracranianas/prevenção & controle , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Aspirina/efeitos adversos , Aspirina/uso terapêutico , Fibrilação Atrial/sangue , Fibrilação Atrial/complicações , Inibidores do Fator Xa/efeitos adversos , Inibidores do Fator Xa/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Coeficiente Internacional Normatizado , Hemorragias Intracranianas/mortalidade , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pirazóis/efeitos adversos , Pirazóis/uso terapêutico , Piridonas/efeitos adversos , Piridonas/uso terapêutico , Varfarina/efeitos adversos , Varfarina/uso terapêutico
17.
Lancet Neurol ; 16(4): 301-310, 2017 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28238711

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ticagrelor is an effective antiplatelet therapy for patients with coronary atherosclerotic disease and might be more effective than aspirin in preventing recurrent stroke and cardiovascular events in patients with acute cerebral ischaemia of atherosclerotic origin. Our aim was to test for a treatment-by-ipsilateral atherosclerotic stenosis interaction in a subgroup analysis of patients in the Acute Stroke or Transient Ischaemic Attack Treated with Aspirin or Ticagrelor and Patient Outcomes (SOCRATES) trial. METHODS: SOCRATES was a randomised, double-blind, controlled trial of ticagrelor versus aspirin in patients aged 40 years or older with a non-cardioembolic, non-severe acute ischaemic stroke, or high-risk transient ischaemic attack from 674 hospitals in 33 countries. We randomly allocated patients (1:1) to ticagrelor (180 mg loading dose on day 1 followed by 90 mg twice daily for days 2-90, given orally) or aspirin (300 mg on day 1 followed by 100 mg daily for days 2-90, given orally) within 24 h of symptom onset. Investigators classified all patients into atherosclerotic and non-atherosclerotic groups for the prespecified, exploratory analysis reported in this study. The primary endpoint was the time to occurrence of stroke, myocardial infarction, or death within 90 days. Efficacy analysis was by intention to treat. The SOCRATES trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01994720. FINDINGS: Between Jan 7, 2014, and Oct 29, 2015, we randomly allocated 13 199 patients (6589 [50%] to ticagrelor and 6610 [50%] to aspirin). Potentially symptomatic ipsilateral atherosclerotic stenosis was reported in 3081 (23%) of 13 199 patients. We found a treatment-by-atherosclerotic stenosis interaction (p=0·017). 103 (6·7%) of 1542 patients with ipsilateral stenosis in the ticagrelor group and 147 (9·6%) of 1539 patients with ipsilateral stenosis in the aspirin group had an occurrence of stroke, myocardial infarction, or death within 90 days (hazard ratio 0·68 [95% CI 0·53-0·88]; p=0·003). In 10 118 patients with no ipsilateral stenosis, 339 (6·7%) of 5047 patients in the ticagrelor group had an occurrence of stroke, myocardial infarction, or death within 90 days compared with 350 (6·9%) of 5071 in the aspirin group (0·97 [0·84-1·13]; p=0·72). There were no significant differences in the proportion of life-threatening bleeding or major or minor bleeding events in patients with ipsilateral stenosis in the ticagrelor group compared with the aspirin group. INTERPRETATION: In this prespecified exploratory analysis, ticagrelor was superior to aspirin at preventing stroke, myocardial infarction, or death at 90 days in patients with acute ischaemic stroke or transient ischaemic attack when associated with ipsilateral atherosclerotic stenosis. An understanding of stroke mechanisms and causes is important to deliver safe and efficacious treatments for early stroke prevention. FUNDING: AstraZeneca.


Assuntos
Adenosina/análogos & derivados , Aspirina/uso terapêutico , Fibrinolíticos/uso terapêutico , Ataque Isquêmico Transitório/tratamento farmacológico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/tratamento farmacológico , Resultado do Tratamento , Adenosina/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Idoso , Aterosclerose/complicações , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Cooperação Internacional , Ataque Isquêmico Transitório/etiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Ticagrelor
18.
Stroke ; 48(1): 167-173, 2017 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27899747

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: In the SOCRATES trial (Acute Stroke or Transient Ischemic Attack Treated With Aspirin or Ticagrelor and Patient Outcomes), ticagrelor was not superior to aspirin. Because of differences in patient demographics and stroke disease pattern in Asia, outcomes of ticagrelor versus aspirin were assessed among Asian patients in a prespecified exploratory analysis. METHODS: Baseline demographics, treatment effects, and safety of ticagrelor and aspirin were assessed among Asian patients. Differences in outcomes between groups were assessed using Cox proportional hazard model. RESULTS: A total of 3858 (29.2%) SOCRATES participants were recruited in Asia. Among the Asian patients, the primary end point event occurred in 186 (9.6%) of the 1933 patients treated with ticagrelor, versus 224 (11.6%) of the 1925 patients treated with aspirin (hazard ratio, 0.81; 95% confidence interval, 0.67-0.99). The exploratory P value for treatment-by-region interaction was 0.27. The primary end point event rate in the Asian subgroup was numerically higher than that in the non-Asian group (10.6% versus 5.7%; nominal P<0.01). Among the Asian patients, the rate of PLATO (Platelet Inhibition and Patient Outcomes)-defined major bleeding was similar in the ticagrelor group and the aspirin group (0.6% versus 0.8%; hazard ratio, 0.76; 95% confidence interval, 0.36-1.61). CONCLUSIONS: The event rates were numerically higher in the Asian patients. Among the Asian patients with acute stroke or transient ischemic attacks, there was a trend toward a lower hazard ratio in reducing risk of the primary end point of stroke, myocardial infarction, or death in the ticagrelor group. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01994720.


Assuntos
Adenosina/análogos & derivados , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Aspirina/uso terapêutico , Ataque Isquêmico Transitório/tratamento farmacológico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/tratamento farmacológico , Adenosina/efeitos adversos , Adenosina/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/efeitos adversos , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/uso terapêutico , Aspirina/efeitos adversos , Estudos de Coortes , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Humanos , Ataque Isquêmico Transitório/diagnóstico , Ataque Isquêmico Transitório/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Antagonistas do Receptor Purinérgico P2Y/efeitos adversos , Antagonistas do Receptor Purinérgico P2Y/uso terapêutico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Ticagrelor , Resultado do Tratamento
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