Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 98
Filtrar
1.
Front Pediatr ; 9: 648414, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34765573

RESUMO

Introduction: The prevalence of rare diseases is very important for health care research. According to the European Surveillance of Congenital Anomalies (EUROCAT) registers, the live prevalence for exstrophy and/or epispadias (grades 1-3) is reported with 1:23,255 (95% CI: 1:26,316; 1:20,000). A Europe-wide prevalence evaluation based on reports from excellence centers estimates a prevalence for exstrophies of 1:32,200 and for isolated epispadias of 1:96,800 in 2010. However, the frequency of exstrophy [International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems revision 10 (ICD-10): Q64.1] and epispadias (ICD-10: Q64.0) treated in different age groups in Germany remains unclear. Material and Method: Public health insurance data from 71 million people (approximately 87% of the population) were provided by the German Institute for Medical Documentation and Information (DIMDI) in accordance to the German Social Insurance Code for this research purpose. DIMDI analyzed the data source for the ICD diagnoses exstrophy and epispadias between 2009 and 2011. As provided data were robust over the years, averaged data are mentioned. Detailed subgroup analysis of small numbers was forbidden due to privacy protection. Results: Annually, 126 persons of all ages with epispadias and 244 with exstrophy are treated as inpatients. In the observed population, 34 infants (<1 year of age) with epispadias and 19 with exstrophy (58% male) are treated as outpatients each year. This corresponds to an estimated live prevalence of 1:11,000 (95% CI: 1:14,700; 1:8,400) for EEC (exstrophy-epispadias complex), more specifically a prevalence of 1:17,142 for epispadias and of 1:30,675 for exstrophy. The male-to-female ratio for exstrophy is 1.4:1 for infants and 1.6:1 for all minors. In children and adolescents, 349 epispadias and 393 exstrophies (up to the age of 17) are treated annually, whereas adults with exstrophy and even more with epispadias make comparatively less use of medical care. Conclusion: With the help of DIMDI data, the live prevalence of bladder exstrophy and epispadias in Germany could be estimated. The prevalence of epispadias was higher than in previous reports, in which milder epispadias phenotypes (grade 1 or 2) may not have been included. These analyses might enlighten knowledge about nationwide incidence and treatment numbers of rare diseases such as the EEC.

2.
Urologe A ; 60(10): 1291-1303, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34524493

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The conservative and surgical treatment of children is a fundamental pillar of the urological specialist training program and represents one of the core competencies within urological healthcare. The loss of this expertise has been a reoccurring topic within urologic occupational policy. The aim of this study is to analyse actual case numbers and to compare the distribution and dynamics of pediatric urologic surgeries between the specialist departments of urology and pediatric surgery in Germany. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We defined the surgical treatments of maldecensus testis, hypospadias, and vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) as index interventions. Using the tool reimbursement.INFO (RI Innovation GmbH, Hürth, Germany) we analysed publicly available quality report data of German hospitals between 2006 and 2019. RESULTS: While orchidopexy was more commonly performed in the field of urology, the correction of hypospadias and the surgical treatment of VUR showed higher case numbers in the field of pediatric surgery. Proportionally, there was no relevant shift between urologic and pediatric surgical clinics for orchidopexy and surgical VUR therapy during the study period. For hypospadias corrections, the proportion of surgeries performed in pediatric surgical units is increasing (p < 0.0001). In pediatric surgery 84-93% of the analyzed procedures are performed in high-volume units, while this proportion is 56-73% in urology. In particular, a high proportion of VUR therapy in urology is performed as an occasional procedure (30% very low volume). CONCLUSIONS: The quality report data enable the compilation of case numbers and the analysis of the distribution between urology and pediatric surgery in Germany. Merely the correction of hypospadias has shown a relevant shift towards pediatric surgery. The causes and possible consequences for professional policy of this preliminary investigation are complex and require further analysis.


Assuntos
Hipospadia , Urologia , Criança , Atenção à Saúde , Alemanha , Humanos , Hipospadia/epidemiologia , Hipospadia/cirurgia , Masculino , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Urológicos
3.
Urol Int ; 105(11-12): 993-1001, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34237743

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Children worldwide often do not drink enough. However, sufficient fluids are essential for physical and cognitive health. A regular and adequate supply of fluids also supports bladder maturation in the context of acquiring urinary continence. We investigated whether training preschool children and their caretakers improves drinking and micturition habits. METHODS: This field study in a pre-post design was conducted in 6 kindergartens in the district of Garmisch-Partenkirchen from October 2018 to February 2019. An intervention group (IG) received a 3-day training on drinking and micturition habits and was compared to a control group (CG) without any training. Caretakers (IG + CG) were instructed about drinking and voiding management, too. Behavioral changes were identified by questionnaires. To analyze the long-term effect, group interviews were performed with the IG 3 months after training. The training was evaluated on different levels. RESULTS: After training, the estimated total daily fluid intake in the IG (1,160 mL) significantly exceeded that of CG (830 mL) (p = 0.015). In the IG, fluid intake until 12:00 a.m. increased (p = 0.001), children took more time for voiding (p = 0.029), and urgency decreased (p = 0.008). Children (IG + CG) used leg support to enable pelvic floor relaxation more often both at home (p = 0.026) and in kindergarten (p = 0.047). Nocturnal enuresis was reduced by approximately 46% in the IG (p = 0.485). Group interviews in the IG showed a considerable learning effect. CONCLUSION: The present study could demonstrate an increased intake of fluids and significant changes in micturition behavior in the IG. So far, this is the first educational project in Germany addressing drinking and voiding management. Our results suggest that a training of preschool children and their caretakers is feasible and effective. Further nationwide research will be needed to confirm our results and assess the need for prevention in these areas.

4.
J Neurol ; 2021 Jun 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34104990

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The etiology of transient global amnesia (TGA) is still a matter of debate. Based, among others, on the observation of a close temporal relation between certain events and subsequent TGA episodes, recent proposals discuss the relevance of stress-associated processes impacting on hippocampal functioning. Circadian, infra- and ultradian rhythmicity has been found to play a relevant role in the multifactorial pathomechanisms of various disorders but has not been thoroughly studied in TGA. METHODS: Data of patients with a final diagnosis of TGA were collected in Mannheim, Germany (06/1999-01/2018, n = 404), and in the Kansai district, Japan (04/2006-03/2018, n = 261). Chronological patterns of TGA occurrence were determined. RESULTS: Significant circadian rhythmicity of TGA occurrence with bimodal peaks (mid-morning, late afternoon) was found for the entire population (p = 0.002) and for either sub-cohort (Mannheim: p = 0.003, Kansai: p = 0.007). This finding was confirmed for either sex (women: p = 0.004, men: p = 0.004) and different age groups (< 65 years: p = 0.0009, ≥ 65 years: p = 0.003). There was no variation according to day of the week, month or season, but the proportion of patients with a weekday episode was significantly higher in the Mannheim cohort (p = 0.002). DISCUSSION: We identified a robust circadian rhythm in TGA occurrence which remarkably applied to either of the two study sites located on different continents and which was independent of sex and age. In light of abundant evidence of circadian rhythmicity of both, components of the human stress response system and memory, chronobiological analyses may provide an opportunity to further uncover the mechanisms underlying TGA.

5.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 30(9): 105949, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34186287

RESUMO

Post stroke infection occurs in 15-20% of acute stroke patients and is associated with a poor longterm outcome. In a prospective study on 113 acute ischemic stroke patients with diabetes mellitus 15.9% suffered nosocomial infection. We found chronic hyperglycemia measured by skin autofluorescence in arbitrary units to be an independent predictor of a nosocomial infection post stroke (OR = 3.24 [CI 95%: 1.13; 9.26], p = 0.029). Skin autofluorescence represents the glycemic memory beyond HbA1c. Potential mechanisms leading from increased skin autofluorescence to vulnerability for infectious complications include more severe strokes due to preexisting vasculopathy and exacerbated post stroke immunosuppression.


Assuntos
Glicemia/metabolismo , Infecção Hospitalar/etiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Produtos Finais de Glicação Avançada/metabolismo , Pele/metabolismo , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/complicações , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Infecção Hospitalar/diagnóstico , Infecção Hospitalar/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico , Feminino , Hemoglobina A Glicada/metabolismo , Humanos , Medições Luminescentes , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/metabolismo
6.
J Neuropsychol ; 2021 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34021536

RESUMO

As a clinical model of hippocampal dysfunction, transient global amnesia (TGA) causes reversible memory disturbance. While episodic memory deficits in TGA patients have been extensively described, data regarding semantic memory involvement are sparse and contradictory. We report impaired semantic fluency performance in 16 patients with hippocampal lesions on MRI during acute TGA compared to their performance one day later and to that of 20 healthy subjects. Our findings support the involvement of the hippocampus in semantic retrieval.

7.
J Neuroimaging ; 31(3): 471-474, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33793026

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Internuclear ophthalmoplegia is a dysfunction of conjugate eye movements, caused by lesions affecting the medial longitudinal fasciculus (MLF). Multiple sclerosis (MS) and ischemic stroke represent the most common pathophysiologies. While magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) allows for localizing lesions affecting the MLF, comprehensive comparative studies exploring potential different spatial characteristics of lesions affecting the MLF are missing until now. METHODS: We retrospectively investigated MRI examinations of 82 patients (40 patients with MS and 42 patients with ischemic stroke). For lesion localization, the brainstem was segmented into (1) ponto-medullary junction, (2) mid pons, (3) upper pons, and (4) mesencephalon. RESULTS: Corresponding lesions affecting the MLF were observed in 29/40 (72.5%) MS and 38/42 (90.5%) stroke patients. Compared to stroke patients, MS patients had significantly more lesions in multiple locations (P < .001). Stroke patients showed more lesions at the level of the mesencephalon (P < .001), while lesions at the level of the ponto-medullary junction, mid, and upper pons did not statistically differ between the groups. CONCLUSION: Our results demonstrate that multiple lesions affecting the MLF make inflammatory-demyelination due to MS more likely, while lesion localization at the level of the mesencephalon favors ischemia.


Assuntos
Isquemia Encefálica/patologia , AVC Isquêmico/patologia , Esclerose Múltipla/patologia , Transtornos da Motilidade Ocular/diagnóstico por imagem , Transtornos da Motilidade Ocular/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Isquemia Encefálica/diagnóstico por imagem , Tronco Encefálico/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , AVC Isquêmico/diagnóstico por imagem , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Masculino , Mesencéfalo/patologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Esclerose Múltipla/diagnóstico por imagem , Ponte/patologia , Estudos Retrospectivos
8.
J Neurol Sci ; 425: 117464, 2021 06 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33892277

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Physically or emotionally charged events have consistently been reported as precipitating an episode of transient global amnesia (TGA). In conjunction with evidence of hippocampal involvement from neuroimaging, this has promoted the hypothesis that TGA is a stress-related disorder. METHODS: In this retrospective observational study, medical records of 389 patients with TGA were analysed regarding documented precipitating events, which were classified according to previously suggested criteria. Moreover, comorbidities and results of magnetic resonance imaging were collected. FINDINGS: In our cohort of TGA patients, 231 were female (59.4%). A precipitating factor was identified in 266 patients (68.4%). Of these, 136 patients (51.1%) reported physical triggers, the most common being physical exertion (64.0%). Another 122 patients (45.9%) presented with an emotional trigger, most frequently classified as an interpersonal conflict (42.7%). In 8 cases (2.1%), TGA was preceded by a medical procedure. Emotional triggers were more often experienced by women (37.2% vs 22.8%, p = 0.003), while physical stressors were more often present in men (30.7% vs 41.1%, p = 0.035). Women had a significantly higher number of hippocampal MRI lesions than men (mean 1.13 vs 0.92; p = 0.042). CONCLUSION: Our data suggest a female predominance in TGA occurrence and a sex-related difference in susceptibility to certain triggering events in TGA patients. In light of recent research on sex-specific differences in vulnerability to stress, these findings support the hypothesis that this might be a significant contributing factor in the pathogenesis of TGA.


Assuntos
Amnésia Global Transitória , Amnésia Global Transitória/diagnóstico por imagem , Amnésia Global Transitória/epidemiologia , Amnésia Global Transitória/etiologia , Emoções , Feminino , Hipocampo , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos
9.
Eur J Neurol ; 28(7): 2392-2395, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33864730

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: There has been an increasing interest in chronic active multiple sclerosis (MS) lesions as a new magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) marker of disease progression. Chronic active lesions are characterized by progressive tissue matrix damage, axonal loss and chronic inflammation. Sodium (23 Na) MRI provides a biochemical marker of cell integrity and tissue viability in a quantitative manner. The aim of this study was to investigate with 23 Na MRI tissue abnormalities in chronic active lesions as indicators of tissue destruction. METHODS: To identify chronic active lesions, two 3D magnetization-prepared rapid acquisition gradient-echo datasets obtained 12 months apart were processed using the voxel-guided morphometry algorithm. Cross-sectional 23 Na MRI was performed during the 12-month follow-up period. Total sodium concentration was calculated in chronic active lesions compared to shrinking, chronic stable and acute contrast-enhancing lesions. RESULTS: Overall, 70 MS lesions (21 chronic active, 10 shrinking, 29 chronic stable lesions, 10 acute contrast-enhancing lesions) in 12 patients were included. Total sodium concentration in chronic active lesions (49.57 ± 8.47 mM) was significantly higher than in shrinking (42.16 ± 3.9 mM; p = 0.03) and chronic stable lesions (39.92 ± 4.82 mM; p < 0.001). Chronic active lesions showed similar sodium values compared to acute contrast-enhancing lesions (48.06 ± 6.65 mM; p = 0.97). No differences between shrinking and chronic stable lesions were observed (p = 0.89). CONCLUSION: High sodium values in chronic active MS lesions may be an indicator of ongoing inflammation and tissue damage.


Assuntos
Esclerose Múltipla , Sódio , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Estudos Transversais , Progressão da Doença , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Esclerose Múltipla/diagnóstico por imagem
10.
Mult Scler Relat Disord ; 49: 102752, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33486402

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In multiple sclerosis (MS), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) frequently shows ill-defined areas with intermediate signal intensity between the normal appearing white matter (NAWM) and focal T2-hyperintense lesions, termed "diffusely appearing white matter" (DAWM). Even though several advanced MRI techniques have shown the potential to detect and quantify subtle commonly not visible microscopic tissue changes, to date only a few advanced MRI studies investigated DAWM changes in a quantitative manner. The aim of this study was to detect and quantify tissue abnormalities in the DAWM in comparison to focal lesions and the NAWM in MS patients by sodium (23Na) MRI. METHODS: 23Na and conventional MRI were performed in 25 MS patients with DAWM (DAWM+) and in 25 sex- and age matched MS patients without DAWM (DAWM-), as well as in ten healthy controls (HC). Mean total sodium concentrations (TSC) were quantified in the DAWM, NAWM, normal appearing grey matter (NAGM) and in focal MS lesions. RESULTS: In MS DAWM+and DAWM-, TSC values were increased in the NAGM (DAWM+: 44.61 ± 4.09 mM; DAWM-: 45.37 ± 3.8 mM) and in the NAWM (DAWM+: 39.85 ± 3.89 mM; DAWM-: 39.82 ± 4.25 mM) compared to normal grey and white matter in HC (GM 40.87 ± 3.25 mM, WM 35.9 ± 1.81 mM; p < 0.05 for all comparisons). Interestingly, the DAWM showed similar sodium concentrations (39.32 ± 4.59 mM) to the NAWM (39.85 ± 3.89 mM), whereas TSC values in T1 hypointense (46.53 ± 7.87 mM) and T1 isointense (41.99 ± 6.10 mM) lesions were significantly higher than in the DAWM (p < 0.001 and 0.017 respectively). CONCLUSION: 23Na MRI is confirmed as a sensitive marker of even subtle tissue abnormalities. DAWM sodium levels are increased and comparable to the abnormalities in NAWM, suggesting pathological changes less severe than in focal lesions comparable to what is expected in the NAWM.


Assuntos
Esclerose Múltipla , Substância Branca , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Esclerose Múltipla/diagnóstico por imagem , Sódio , Substância Branca/diagnóstico por imagem
11.
J Neuroimaging ; 31(2): 394-400, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33270952

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: To investigate the temporal evolution of venous diameter in chronic active and nonenhancing shrinking multiple sclerosis (MS) lesions in a longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study including susceptibility-weighted images (SWI). METHODS: We compared the venous diameter in chronic active and nonenhancing shrinking lesions to the venous diameter in nonenhancing stable lesions on two 3 T MRI data sets obtained 12 months apart. Chronic active and nonenhancing shrinking lesions were identified by Voxel-Guided Morphometry. Coregistered, overlaid fluid-attenuated inversion recovery/SWI were analyzed for the presence of a central vein. Quantitative calculation of the venous diameter for each time point was performed on the reconstructed veins. RESULTS: Sixty-two relapsing-remitting MS patients (50 women; mean age: 36 ± 11 years; mean disease duration: 4 ± 7 years) were included in the study. Overall, we identified 222 chronic MS lesions (48 chronic active, 48 shrinking, 126 stable) with a corresponding intralesional central vein. On baseline MRI, the mean venous diameter did not statistically differ between all subgroups, whereas on follow-up MRI, the mean intralesional venous diameter was smaller in chronic active (0.92 ± 0.15 mm) and shrinking lesions (0.90 ± 0.19 mm) compared to stable lesions (1.10 ± 0.18 mm; P < .001). CONCLUSION: Our findings demonstrate venous narrowing in chronic active and nonenhancing shrinking MS lesions. The smaller diameter of intralesional veins during follow up in these lesions may reflect structural, degenerative, and metabolic changes due to chronic inflammation, (perivascular) fibrosis, collagenous thickening, and increased levels of oxygenated hemoglobin.


Assuntos
Esclerose Múltipla Recidivante-Remitente/diagnóstico por imagem , Esclerose Múltipla Recidivante-Remitente/patologia , Veias/patologia , Adulto , Doença Crônica , Feminino , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Veias/diagnóstico por imagem
12.
Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci ; 271(2): 377-379, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32519205

RESUMO

During the rapid rise of the COVID-19 pandemic, a reduction of the numbers of patients presenting to emergency departments has been observed. We present an early study from a German psychiatric hospital to assess the dynamics of mental health emergency service utilization rates during the COVID-19 pandemic. Our results show that the numbers of emergency presentations decreased, and a positive correlation between these numbers and mobility of the general public suggests an impact of extended measures of social distancing. This finding underscores the necessity of raising and sustaining awareness regarding the threat to mental health in the context of the pandemic.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviços de Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Pandemias , Feminino , Alemanha , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Distanciamento Físico , Quarentena/psicologia , Suíça
13.
Neurol Res Pract ; 2: 47, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33225224

RESUMO

Background and purpose: Investigating clinical characteristics of patients presenting with cerebrovascular events during the pandemic may provide valuable insight into further understanding the phenomenon of decreased stroke admissions during the COVID-19 pandemic. Method: Data of patients presenting with a cerebrovascular event to the emergency department during weeks 12-17/2020 were compared to data from the respective weeks in 2019. Results: A significant reduction in the number of admissions by 35.9% (p = 0.005) was observed during the COVID-19 epoch. In addition, significantly more patients arrived by ambulance during the COVID-19 epoch (2019: 75.7%, 2020: 94.2%; p = 0.001). Conclusion: Our data may have implications as to how campaigns raising awareness for serious medical conditions in the context of the pandemic should be framed.

14.
Front Neurol ; 11: 584522, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33071955

RESUMO

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has seriously impacted healthcare systems worldwide. Admissions for various non-COVID-19 emergencies have significantly decreased. We sought to determine the impact of COVID-19 on admissions for intracranial hemorrhage to a German University Hospital emergency department. Methods: In a retrospective analysis of admissions to the emergency department of the University Hospital Mannheim from January to June 2020 and the corresponding time period in 2019, all patients admitted for either traumatic or non-traumatic intracranial hemorrhage were evaluated. Poisson regression was performed to analyze changes in admission rates as a function of year, epoch (COVID-19-epoch, March to April 2020 and corresponding months 2019; non-COVID-19-epoch, January to February and May to June 2019/2020) and the interaction of year and epoch (reflecting the impact of the pandemic and subsequent lockdown measures). Results: Overall, 320 patients were included in the study. During the COVID-19-epoch, admission rates for spontaneous intracranial hemorrhage decreased significantly by 42.1% (RR 0.579, p = 0.002, 95% confidence interval 0.410-0.818). Likewise, admission rates for traumatic intracranial hemorrhage decreased significantly by 53.7% [RR = 0.463, p < 0.001, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.358-0.599]. Conclusion: The decrease of spontaneous intracranial hemorrhages may be a consequence of underutilization of the healthcare system whereas decreasing rates of traumatic intracranial hemorrhage admissions may predominantly reflect a decrease in true incidence rates due to lockdown measures with restricted mobility. Raising patient awareness to seek emergency healthcare for acute neurological deficits during lockdown measures is important to ensure appropriate emergency care for patients with intracranial hemorrhage.

15.
Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat ; 16: 2221-2227, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33061392

RESUMO

Objective: To analyse the characteristics of patients with neurological complaints seeking evaluation in an interdisciplinary emergency department (ED) during the rise of the COVID-19 pandemic in Germany. Methods: In this retrospective study, data on the number of ED presentations due to neurological complaints in weeks 1-15/2020 were collected. In addition, hospital chart data of patients referred for neurological evaluation during weeks 12-15/2020 when the pandemic began impacting on public life in Germany were analysed regarding demographic information, chief complaints, modes of presentation and disposition and ED discharge diagnosis. Both data sets were compared to respective periods from 2017. Results: During the surge of COVID-19, we found a significant decrease of the total number of neurological ED patients by 47.6%. Comparing weeks 12-15 of 2017 and 2020, we found a decrease in the number of patients of <30 years (p<0.001) and an increase of those 70 years (p<0.001). A higher proportion of patients were admitted to escalated care (p=0.03), and fewer patients were discharged against medical advice (p<0.001). In addition, the ratio of less acute diagnoses (eg, benign headaches) declined significantly. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that the pandemic has contributed to a - potentially transient - reframing of laypeople's perception of urgency and necessity for emergency presentation. The establishment and promotion of health-care structures and services like telemedical consultations and the creation of safe ED environments will be essential to enable adequate delivery of care in potential future waves of the pandemic.

16.
Front Cell Dev Biol ; 8: 567, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32850778

RESUMO

Previous studies in developing Xenopus and zebrafish reported that the phosphate transporter slc20a1a is expressed in pronephric kidneys. The recent identification of SLC20A1 as a monoallelic candidate gene for cloacal exstrophy further suggests its involvement in the urinary tract and urorectal development. However, little is known of the functional role of SLC20A1 in urinary tract development. Here, we investigated this using morpholino oligonucleotide knockdown of the zebrafish ortholog slc20a1a. This caused kidney cysts and malformations of the cloaca. Moreover, in morphants we demonstrated dysfunctional voiding and hindgut opening defects mimicking imperforate anus in human cloacal exstrophy. Furthermore, we performed immunohistochemistry of an unaffected 6-week-old human embryo and detected SLC20A1 in the urinary tract and the abdominal midline, structures implicated in the pathogenesis of cloacal exstrophy. Additionally, we resequenced SLC20A1 in 690 individuals with bladder exstrophy-epispadias complex (BEEC) including 84 individuals with cloacal exstrophy. We identified two additional monoallelic de novo variants. One was identified in a case-parent trio with classic bladder exstrophy, and one additional novel de novo variant was detected in an affected mother who transmitted this variant to her affected son. To study the potential cellular impact of SLC20A1 variants, we expressed them in HEK293 cells. Here, phosphate transport was not compromised, suggesting that it is not a disease mechanism. However, there was a tendency for lower levels of cleaved caspase-3, perhaps implicating apoptosis pathways in the disease. Our results suggest SLC20A1 is involved in urinary tract and urorectal development and implicate SLC20A1 as a disease-gene for BEEC.

17.
J Neuroimaging ; 30(6): 766-768, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32857891

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The swallow tail sign describes the physiological appearance of nigrosome-1 within the substantia nigra on high-resolution transverse susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI). Previous studies demonstrated its absence in Parkinson's disease due to increasing iron content. In multiple sclerosis (MS), increased iron accumulation can be found in the brain tissue including the substantia nigra. METHODS: We investigated the swallow tail sign on high-resolution SWI MRI in 46 MS and 23 age- and sex-matched controls. RESULTS: MS patients demonstrated significantly more often an abnormal swallow tail sign (28/46; 60%) compared to controls (4/23; 17%; P = .001). In MS patients, we found no correlation between an abnormal swallow tail sign and age, disease duration or Expanded Disability Status Scale scores. CONCLUSION: The finding of an abnormal swallow tail sign in MS patients may provide an additional imaging marker even in early MS development.


Assuntos
Esclerose Múltipla/diagnóstico por imagem , Substância Negra/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
18.
Mult Scler Relat Disord ; 45: 102409, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32711298

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recently there has been an increasing interest in the "central vein sign" (CVS) in multiple sclerosis (MS) lesions. Infratentorial brain regions represent typical predilection sites for MS lesion development and are part of the current McDonald criteria to demonstrate dissemination in space, but only a few studies investigated the presence of the CVS in infratentorial MS lesions. The aim of this study was to investigate the CVS in infratentorial MS lesions. METHODS: 3T MRI data sets from 119 patients with relapsing MS were analysed. Chronic lesions were identified on T2-weighted images. Co-registered T2 / susceptibility-weighted images (SWI) were analysed for the presence of the CVS. RESULTS: A total of 527 lesions were analysed. A CVS was present in the majority of infratentorial lesions (62/88, 70%). There was no difference in the frequencies of the CVS of infratentorial lesions compared to paraventricular lesions (67/81, 83%; p = 0.06) or subcortical (150/209; 72%; p = 0.82) lesions. Infratentorial lesions showed a CVS more often than juxtacortical lesions (16/34; 47%; p = 0.02), while periventricular lesions showed a CVS more often than infratentorial lesions (97/115; 84%, p = 0.02). CONCLUSION: CVS is a frequent finding in infratentorial MS lesions that may increase the diagnostic value in MS.


Assuntos
Esclerose Múltipla , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Esclerose Múltipla/diagnóstico por imagem , Recidiva , Veias
19.
Stroke ; 51(7): 2224-2227, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32516064

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: This study aims to assess the number of patients with acute ischemic cerebrovascular events seeking in-patient medical emergency care since the implementation of social distancing measures in the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. METHODS: In this retrospective multicenter study, data on the number of hospital admissions due to acute ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack and numbers of reperfusion therapies performed in weeks 1 to 15 of 2020 and 2019 were collected in 4 German academic stroke centers. Poisson regression was used to test for a change in admission rates before and after the implementation of extensive social distancing measures in week 12 of 2020. The analysis of anonymized regional mobility data allowed for correlations between changes in public mobility as measured by the number and length of trips taken and hospital admission for stroke/transient ischemic attack. RESULTS: Only little variation of admission rates was observed before and after week 11 in 2019 and between the weeks 1 and 11 of 2019 and 2020. However, reflecting the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic, a significant decrease in the number of admissions for transient ischemic attack was observed (-85%, -46%, -42%) in 3 of 4 centers, while in 2 of 4 centers, stroke admission rates decreased significantly by 40% and 46% after week 12 in 2020. A relevant effect on reperfusion therapies was found for 1 center only (thrombolysis, -60%; thrombectomy, -61%). Positive correlations between number of ischemic events and mobility measures in the corresponding cities were identified for 3 of 4 centers. CONCLUSIONS: These data demonstrate and quantify decreasing hospital admissions due to ischemic cerebrovascular events and suggest that this may be a consequence of social distancing measures, in particular because hospital resources for acute stroke care were not limited during this period. Hence, raising public awareness is necessary to avoid serious healthcare and economic consequences of undiagnosed and untreated strokes and transient ischemic attacks.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Isquemia Encefálica/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Doença Aguda , Idoso , Isquemia Encefálica/terapia , COVID-19 , Área Programática de Saúde , Feminino , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Hospitais Especializados/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Ataque Isquêmico Transitório/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Admissão do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Utilização de Procedimentos e Técnicas , Reperfusão/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2 , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/terapia
20.
Neurology ; 95(2): e206-e212, 2020 07 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32532848

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyze how the evidence of hippocampal diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) lesions may support the clinical diagnosis of transient global amnesia (TGA). METHODS: In this retrospective observational study, 390 consecutive patients with isolated TGA were analyzed, who were evaluated at our institution between July 1999 and August 2018. The size, location, and number of lesions and time-dependent lesion detectability were examined. The incidence of DWI lesions was reviewed with regard to different levels of clinical diagnostic certainty upon presentation to the emergency department. RESULTS: Hippocampal DWI lesions were detected in 272 (70.6%) patients with TGA, with a mean of 1.05 ± 0.98 (range 0-6) and a mean lesion size of 4.01 ± 1.22 mm (range 1.7-8.6 mm). In the subgroups of lower diagnostic certainty (amnesia witnessed by layperson or self-reported amnestic gap), DWI was helpful in supporting the diagnosis of TGA in 76 (69.1%) patients. In 187 patients with information about the exact onset, DWI lesions were analyzed in relation to latency between onset and MRI. Lesions could be detected at all time points and up to 6 days after symptom onset in individual patients; the highest rate of DWI-positive MRI (93%) was in the 12-24 hours time window. CONCLUSION: MRI findings can support the diagnosis of TGA and may be particularly valuable in situations of low clinical certainty. DWI-ideally performed with a minimum delay of 20 hours after onset-should therefore be considered a useful adjunct to the diagnosis of TGA.


Assuntos
Amnésia Global Transitória/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem de Difusão por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Amnésia Global Transitória/diagnóstico , Amnésia Global Transitória/psicologia , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Hipocampo/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Estudos Retrospectivos
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...