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1.
JAMA Netw Open ; 2(11): e1915011, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31722025

RESUMO

Importance: Exposure to a weightless environment during spaceflight results in a chronic headward blood and tissue fluid shift compared with the upright posture on Earth, with unknown consequences to cerebral venous outflow. Objectives: To assess internal jugular vein (IJV) flow and morphology during spaceflight and to investigate if lower body negative pressure is associated with reversing the headward fluid shift experienced during spaceflight. Design, Setting, and Participants: This prospective cohort study included 11 International Space Station crew members participating in long-duration spaceflight missions . Internal jugular vein measurements from before launch and approximately 40 days after landing were acquired in 3 positions: seated, supine, and 15° head-down tilt. In-flight IJV measurements were acquired at approximately 50 days and 150 days into spaceflight during normal spaceflight conditions as well as during use of lower body negative pressure. Data were analyzed in June 2019. Exposures: Posture changes on Earth, spaceflight, and lower body negative pressure. Main Outcomes and Measures: Ultrasonographic assessments of IJV cross-sectional area, pressure, blood flow, and thrombus formation. Results: The 11 healthy crew members included in the study (mean [SD] age, 46.9 [6.3] years, 9 [82%] men) spent a mean (SD) of 210 (76) days in space. Mean IJV area increased from 9.8 (95% CI, -1.2 to 20.7) mm2 in the preflight seated position to 70.3 (95% CI, 59.3-81.2) mm2 during spaceflight (P < .001). Mean IJV pressure increased from the preflight seated position measurement of 5.1 (95% CI, 2.5-7.8) mm Hg to 21.1 (95% CI, 18.5-23.7) mm Hg during spaceflight (P < .001). Furthermore, stagnant or reverse flow in the IJV was observed in 6 crew members (55%) on approximate flight day 50. Notably, 1 crew member was found to have an occlusive IJV thrombus, and a potential partial IJV thrombus was identified in another crew member retrospectively. Lower body negative pressure was associated with improved blood flow in 10 of 17 sessions (59%) during spaceflight. Conclusions and Relevance: This cohort study found stagnant and retrograde blood flow associated with spaceflight in the IJVs of astronauts and IJV thrombosis in at least 1 astronaut, a newly discovered risk associated with spaceflight. Lower body negative pressure may be a promising countermeasure to enhance venous blood flow in the upper body during spaceflight.

2.
Science ; 364(6436)2019 04 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30975860

RESUMO

To understand the health impact of long-duration spaceflight, one identical twin astronaut was monitored before, during, and after a 1-year mission onboard the International Space Station; his twin served as a genetically matched ground control. Longitudinal assessments identified spaceflight-specific changes, including decreased body mass, telomere elongation, genome instability, carotid artery distension and increased intima-media thickness, altered ocular structure, transcriptional and metabolic changes, DNA methylation changes in immune and oxidative stress-related pathways, gastrointestinal microbiota alterations, and some cognitive decline postflight. Although average telomere length, global gene expression, and microbiome changes returned to near preflight levels within 6 months after return to Earth, increased numbers of short telomeres were observed and expression of some genes was still disrupted. These multiomic, molecular, physiological, and behavioral datasets provide a valuable roadmap of the putative health risks for future human spaceflight.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica , Astronautas , Voo Espacial , Imunidade Adaptativa , Peso Corporal , Artérias Carótidas/diagnóstico por imagem , Espessura Intima-Media Carotídea , Dano ao DNA , Metilação de DNA , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Instabilidade Genômica , Humanos , Masculino , Homeostase do Telômero , Fatores de Tempo , Estados Unidos , United States National Aeronautics and Space Administration
3.
J Appl Physiol (1985) ; 112(3): 454-62, 2012 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21903875

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The transition to microgravity eliminates the hydrostatic gradients in the vascular system. The resulting fluid redistribution commonly manifests as facial edema, engorgement of the external neck veins, nasal congestion, and headache. This experiment examined the responses to modified Valsalva and Mueller maneuvers measured by cardiac and vascular ultrasound (ECHO) in a baseline steady state and under the influence of thigh occlusion cuffs available as a countermeasure device (Braslet cuffs). METHODS: Nine International Space Station crewmember subjects (expeditions 16-20) were examined in 15 experiment sessions 101 ± 46 days after launch (mean ± SD; 33-185). Twenty-seven cardiac and vascular parameters were obtained with/without respiratory maneuvers before and after tightening of the Braslet cuffs (162 parameter states/session). Quality of cardiac and vascular ultrasound examinations was assured through remote monitoring and guidance by investigators from the NASA Telescience Center in Houston, TX, and the Mission Control Center in Korolyov, Moscow region, Russia. RESULTS: 14 of 81 conditions (27 parameters measured at baseline, Valsalva, and Mueller maneuver) were significantly different when the Braslet was applied. Seven of 27 parameters were found to respond differently to respiratory maneuvers depending on the presence or absence of thigh compression. CONCLUSIONS: Acute application of Braslet occlusion cuffs causes lower extremity fluid sequestration and exerts commensurate measurable effects on cardiac performance in microgravity. Ultrasound techniques to measure the hemodynamic effects of thigh cuffs in combination with respiratory maneuvers may serve as an effective tool in determining the volume status of a cardiac or hemodynamically compromised patient at the "microgravity bedside."


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica/fisiologia , Sistema Cardiovascular/fisiopatologia , Sistema Respiratório/fisiopatologia , Voo Espacial , Coxa da Perna/irrigação sanguínea , Ausência de Peso , Sistema Cardiovascular/diagnóstico por imagem , Hemodinâmica/fisiologia , Humanos , Ultrassonografia , Contramedidas de Ausência de Peso , Simulação de Ausência de Peso/métodos
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