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2.
BMC Med Imaging ; 19(1): 70, 2019 08 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31429709

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome (OMS) is a rare clinical disorder and typically occurs in association with occult neuroblastic tumor in pediatric patients. I-123 metaiodobenzylguanidine (mIBG) scintigraphy is widely adopted as screening procedure in patients with suspected neuroblastic tumor. Also, contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or computed tomography (CT) are involved in the imaging workup, primarily for the assessment of the primary tumor region. However, the diagnostic value of whole-body MRI (WB-MRI) for the detection of occult neuroblastic tumor in pediatric patients presenting with OMS remains unknown. CASE PRESENTATION: We present three cases of patients with OMS, in whom WB-MRI revealed occult neuroblastic tumor masses, whereas scintigraphy was inconclusive: In a 17 months old girl with OMS, WB-MRI revealed a paravertebral mass. After thoracoscopic resection, histopathology revealed a ganglioneuroblastoma. A 13 months old boy presenting with OMS WB-MRI detected a tumor of the left adrenal gland; histopathology demonstrated a ganglioneuroblastoma after adrenalectomy. In a 2 year old boy with OMS, immunoscintigraphy at the time of diagnosis was inconclusive. At the age of 13 years, a WB-MRI was performed due to persistent neurological symptoms, revealing a paravertebral retroperitoneal mass, which was classified as ganglioneuroblastoma. CONCLUSION: In OMS, particularly in the setting of inconclusive scintigraphy, WB-MRI may be considered as a valuable alternative in the early phase of diagnostic work-up.

3.
Blood ; 2019 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31366618

RESUMO

LMO2 (hematopoietic transcription factor LIM domain only 2), a member of the TAL1 transcriptional complex, plays an essential role during early hematopoiesis and is frequently activated in T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) patients. Here, we demonstrated that LMO2 is activated by deacetylation on lysine 74 and 78 via the nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT)/sirtuin 2 (SIRT2) pathway. LMO2 deacetylation enables LMO2 to interact with LDB1 and activate the TAL1 complex. NAMPT/SIRT2-mediated activation of LMO2 by deacetylation is essential for hematopoietic differentiation of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells and blood formation in zebrafish embryos. In T-ALL, deacetylated LMO2 induces expression of TAL1 complex target genes HHEX, NKX3.1 as well as LMO2 autoregulation. Consistent with this, inhibition of NAMPT or SIRT2 suppressed the in vitro growth and in vivo engraftment of T-ALL cells via diminished LMO2 deacetylation. This new molecular mechanism may provide new therapeutic possibilities in T-ALL and may contribute to the development of new methods for in vitro generation of blood cells.

4.
Bone Marrow Transplant ; 54(Suppl 2): 689-693, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31431707

RESUMO

Posttransplant relapsed B-cell precursor ALL can be cured by 2nd hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) in 20% of patients. The major cause of death after second HSCT is leukemic relapse. One reliable predictor for survival after 2nd-HSCT are posttransplant MRD levels. Patients with detectable or increase of MRD are likely to relapse. Patients in complete molecular remission show the best leukemia-free survival and lowest cumulative incidence (CI) of relapse. As patients who undergo second or subsequent HSCT are high-risk patients, we evaluated the prophylactic use of the chimeric Fc-optimized CD19-4G7SDIE-mAb. Posttransplant relapsed CD19+ BCP-ALL patients, who underwent a second or subsequent haplo-HSCT from a T- and B-cell depleted graft received posttransplant prophylactic CD19-4G7SDIE-mAb treatment on compassionate use in complete molecular remission, to increase the antileukemic activity of the new reconstituting immune system by recruiting Fc-expressing effector cells. NK cells recovered early and robust. The 3 year overall survival in 15 evaluable patients was 56%, the 3 year event-free survival was 55% and the CI of relapse 38%. Compared to a historical control group, the CI of relapse was markedly lower and consecutively the EFS higher. Posttransplant-targeted therapy may overcome the need for unspecific GvL effect of undesired GvHD, that can cause severe morbidity and mortality. Due to a low adverse event profile the CD19-4G7SDIE-mAb may be suitable for broad administration to consolidate posttransplant MRD negativity.

5.
Leukemia ; 2019 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31431735

RESUMO

We used hybrid capture-targeted next-generation sequencing of circulating cell-free DNA (ccfDNA) of pediatric Hodgkin lymphoma (PHL) patients to determine pathogenic mechanisms and assess the clinical utility of this method. Hodgkin-Reed/Sternberg (HRS) cell-derived single nucleotide variants, insertions/deletions, translocations and VH-DH-JH rearrangements were detected in pretherapy ccfDNA of 72 of 96 patients. Number of variants per patient ranged from 1 to 21 with allele frequencies from 0.6 to 42%. Nine translocation breakpoints were detected. Genes involved in JAK/STAT, NFkB and PI3K signaling and antigen presentation were most frequently affected. SOCS1 variants, mainly deletions, were found in most circulating tumor (ct) DNAs, and seven of the nine translocation breakpoints involved SOCS1. Analysis of VH-DH-JH rearrangements revealed an origin of PHL HRS cells from partially selected germinal center B cells. Amounts of pretherapy ctDNA were correlated with metabolic tumor volumes. Furthermore, in all ccfDNA samples of 43 patients with early response assessment quantitative qPET < 3, indicative of a favorable clinical course, ctDNA was not detectable. In contrast, in five of six patients with qPET > 3, indicative of an unfavorable clinical course, ctDNA remained detectable. ccfDNA analysis of PHL is thus a suitable approach to determine pathogenic mechanisms and monitor therapy response.

6.
Europace ; 2019 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31397475

RESUMO

AIMS: The Berlin Atrial Fibrillation Registry was designed to analyse oral anticoagulation (OAC) prescription in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) and acute ischaemic stroke. METHODS AND RESULTS: This investigator-initiated prospective multicentre registry enrolled patients at all 16 stroke units located in Berlin, Germany. The ongoing telephone follow-up is conducted centrally and will cover 5 years per patient. Within 2014 and 2016, 1080 patients gave written informed consent and 1048 patients were available for analysis. Median age was 77 years [interquartile range (IQR) 72-83], 503 (48%) patients were female, and 254 (24%) had a transient ischaemic attack (TIA). Overall, 470 (62%) out of 757 patients with known AF and a (pre-stroke) CHA2DS2-VASc ≥ 1 were anticoagulated at the time of stroke. At hospital discharge, 847 (81.3%) of 1042 patients were anticoagulated. Thereof 710 (68.1%) received a non-vitamin K-dependent oral anticoagulant (NOAC) and 137 (13.1%) a vitamin K antagonist (VKA). Pre-stroke intake of a NOAC [odds ratio (OR) 15.6 (95% confidence interval, 95% CI 1.97-122)] or VKA [OR 0.04 (95% CI 0.02-0.09)], an index TIA [OR 0.56 (95% CI 0.34-0.94)] rather than stroke, heart failure [OR 0.49 (95% CI 0.26-0.93)], and endovascular thrombectomy at hospital admission [OR 12.9 (95% CI 1.59-104)] were associated with NOAC prescription at discharge. Patients' age or AF type had no impact on OAC or NOAC use, respectively. CONCLUSION: About 60% of all registry patients with known AF received OAC at the time of stroke or TIA. At hospital discharge, more than 80% of AF patients were anticoagulated and about 80% of those were prescribed a NOAC.

7.
Clin Neuroradiol ; 2019 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31161343

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Lacunar infarcts are thought to result from occlusion of small penetrating arteries due to microatheroma and lipohyalinosis, pathognomonic for cerebral small vessel disease (CSVD). Concurrent embolic ischemic lesions indicate a different stroke mechanism. The purpose of this study was to examine the clinical characteristics and outcome of patients with lacunar infarcts and concurrent embolic infarcts on diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI). METHODS: All patients screened for the WAKE-UP trial (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01525290) were reviewed for acute lacunar infarcts and concurrent embolic lesions on baseline DWI. Clinical characteristics and outcome were compared between lacunar infarct patients with and without concurrent embolic lesions. RESULTS: Of 244 patients with an acute lacunar infarct, 20 (8.2%) had concurrent acute embolic infarcts. Compared to patients with a lacunar infarct only, patients with concurrent embolic infarcts were older (mean age 69 years vs. 63 years; p = 0.031), more severely affected (median National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale [NIHSS] score 5 vs. 4; p = 0.046), and-among those randomized-had worse functional outcome at 90 days (median modified Rankin Scale [mRS] 3 vs. 1; p = 0.011). CONCLUSION: Approximately 8% of lacunar infarct patients show concurrent embolic lesions suggesting a stroke etiology other than CSVD. These patients are more severely affected and have a worse functional outcome illustrating the need for a thorough diagnostic work-up of possible embolic sources even in patients with an imaging-defined diagnosis of lacunar infarcts.

8.
Haematologica ; 2019 May 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31073076

RESUMO

Alterations of the tumor suppressor gene TP53 are found in different cancers, in particular in carcinomas of adults. In pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia, TP53 mutations are infrequent but enriched at relapse. As in most cancers, mainly DNA-binding domain missense mutations are found, resulting in accumulation of mutant p53, poor therapy response, and inferior outcome. Different strategies to target mutant p53 have been developed including reactivation of p53's wild type function by the small molecule APR-246. We investigated TP53 mutations in cell lines and 62 B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia samples and evaluated the activity of APR-246 in TP53 mutated or wild type acute lymphoblastic leukemias. We identified cases with TP53 missense mutations, high (mutant) p53 expression and insensitivity to the DNA-damaging agent doxorubicin. In TP53 mutated acute lymphoblastic leukemia, APR-246 induced apoptosis showing strong anti-leukemia activity. APR-246 restored mutant p53 to its wild type conformation, leading to pathway activation with induction of transcriptional targets and re-sensitization to genotoxic therapy in vitro and in vivo. In addition, induction of oxidative stress contributed to APR-246 mediated cell death. In a pre-clinical model of patient-derived TP53 mutant acute lymphoblastic leukemia, APR-246 reduced leukemia burden and strongly synergized with the genotoxic agent doxorubicin leading to superior leukemia-free survival in vivo. Thus, targeting mutant p53 by APR-246 restoring its tumor suppressive function seems to be an effective therapeutic strategy for this high-risk group of TP53 mutant acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

9.
Eur J Cancer ; 114: 27-35, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31022591

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG) is a highly aggressive paediatric brain tumour with fatal outcome. The Individualised Therapy For Relapsed Malignancies In Childhood (INFORM) registry study offers comprehensive molecular profiling of high-risk tumours to identify target alterations for potential precision therapy. We analysed molecular characteristics and clinical data after brainstem biopsy of all enrolled newly diagnosed DIPGs. PATIENTS AND METHODS: From -February 2015 to February 2018, 21 subsequent primary DIPG cases were enrolled in the nation-wide multicentre INFORM registry study after brainstem biopsy. Whole-genome, whole-exome sequencing and DNA methylation analysis were performed, and RNA-sequencing was added in case of sufficient material. Clinical data were obtained from standardised questionnaires and the INFORM clinical data bank. RESULTS: Tumour material obtained from brainstem biopsy was sufficient for DNA analysis in all cases and RNA analysis in 16 of 21 cases. In 16 of 21 cases (76%), potential targetable alterations were identified including highly relevant MET and NTRK1 fusions as well as an EZH2 alteration not previously described in DIPG. In 5 of 21 cases, molecular information was used for initiation of targeted treatment. The majority of patients (19/21) presented with neurological deficits at diagnosis. Newly arising or worsening of neurological deficits post-biopsy occurred in nine patients. Symptoms were reversible or improved notably in eight cases. CONCLUSION: In this multicentre study setting, brainstem biopsy of DIPG was feasible and yielded sufficient material for comprehensive molecular profiling. Relevant molecular targets were identified impacting clinical management in a substantial subset. Death or severe bleeding occurred in none of the cases. One of 20 patients experienced unilateral paraesthesia possibly related to biopsy.

10.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 8(6): e011729, 2019 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30879372

RESUMO

Background Mobile stroke units ( MSU s), equipped with an integrated computed tomography scanner, can shorten time to thrombolytic treatment and may improve outcome in patients with acute ischemic stroke. Original (German) MSU s are staffed by neurologists trained as emergency physicians, but patient assessment and treatment decisions by a remote neurologist may offer an alternative to neurologists aboard MSU . Methods and Results Remote neurologists examined and assessed emergency patients treated aboard the MSU in Berlin, Germany. Audiovisual quality was rated by the remote neurologist from 1 (excellent) to 6 (insufficient), and duration of video examinations was assessed. We analyzed interrater reliability of diagnoses, scores on the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale and treatment decisions (intravenous thrombolysis) between the MSU neurologist and the remote neurologist. We included 90 of 103 emergency assessments (13 patients were excluded because of either failed connection, technical problems, clinical worsening during teleconsultation, or missing data in documentation) in this study. The remote neurologist rated audiovisual quality with a median grade for audio quality of 3 (satisfactory) and for video quality of 2 (good). Mean time for completion of teleconsultations was about 19±5 minutes. The interrater reliabilities between the onboard and remote neurologist were high for diagnoses (Cohen's κ=0.86), National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale sum scores (intraclass correlation coefficient, 0.87) and treatment decisions (16 treatment decisions agreed versus 2 disagreed; Cohen's κ=0.93). Conclusions Remote assessment and treatment decisions of emergency patients are technically feasible with satisfactory audiovisual quality. Agreement on diagnoses, neurological examinations, and treatment decisions between onboard and remote neurologists was high.

11.
JAMA Neurol ; 76(6): 641-649, 2019 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30907934

RESUMO

Importance: The rationale for intravenous thrombolysis in patients with lacunar infarcts is debated, since it is hypothesized that the microvascular occlusion underlying lacunar infarcts might not be susceptible to pharmacological reperfusion treatment. Objective: To study the efficacy and safety of intravenous thrombolysis among patients with lacunar infarcts. Design, Setting, and Participants: This exploratory secondary post hoc analysis of the WAKE-UP trial included patients who were screened and enrolled between September 2012 and June 2017 (with final follow-up in September 2017). The WAKE-UP trial was a multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial to study the efficacy and safety of intravenous thrombolysis with alteplase in patients with an acute stroke of unknown onset time, guided by magnetic resonance imaging. All 503 patients randomized in the WAKE-UP trial were reviewed for lacunar infarcts. Diagnosis of lacunar infarcts was based on magnetic resonance imaging and made by consensus of 2 independent investigators blinded to clinical information. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary efficacy variable was favorable outcome defined by a score of 0 to 1 on the modified Rankin Scale at 90 days after stroke, adjusted for age and severity of symptoms. Results: Of the 503 patients randomized in the WAKE-UP trial, 108 patients (including 74 men [68.5%]) had imaging-defined lacunar infarcts, whereas 395 patients (including 251 men [63.5%]) had nonlacunar infarcts. Patients with lacunar infarcts were younger than patients with nonlacunar infarcts (mean age [SD], 63 [12] years vs 66 [12] years; P = .003). Of patients with lacunar infarcts, 55 (50.9%) were assigned to treatment with alteplase and 53 (49.1%) to receive placebo. Treatment with alteplase was associated with higher odds of favorable outcome, with no heterogeneity of treatment outcome between lacunar and nonlacunar stroke subtypes. In patients with lacunar strokes, a favorable outcome was observed in 31 of 53 patients (59%) in the alteplase group compared with 24 of 52 patients (46%) in the placebo group (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.67 [95% CI, 0.77-3.64]). There was 1 death and 1 symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage according to Safe Implementation of Thrombolysis in Stroke-Monitoring Study criteria in the alteplase group, while no death and no symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage occurred in the placebo group. The distribution of the modified Rankin Scale scores 90 days after stroke also showed a nonsignificant shift toward better outcomes in patients with lacunar infarcts treated with alteplase, with an adjusted common odds ratio of 1.94 (95% CI, 0.95-3.93). Conclusions and Relevance: While the WAKE-UP trial was not powered to demonstrate the efficacy of treatment in subgroups of patients, the results indicate that the association of intravenous alteplase with functional outcome does not differ in patients with imaging-defined lacunar infarcts compared with those experiencing other stroke subtypes.

12.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol ; 145(4): 839-850, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30610375

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Diffuse midline gliomas, H3 K27M-mutant were introduced as a new grade IV entity in WHO classification of tumors 2016. These tumors occur often in pediatric patients and show an adverse prognosis with a median survival less than a year. Most of the studies on these tumors, previously known as pediatric diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma, are on pediatric patients and its significance in adult patients is likely underestimated. METHODS: We studied 165 cases of brain tumors of midline localization initially diagnosed as diffuse astrocytomas, oligodendrogliomas, pilocytic astrocytomas, supependymomas, ependymomas and medulloblastomas in patients with an age range of 2-85. RESULTS: We identified 41 diffuse midline gliomas according WHO 2016, including 12 pediatric and 29 adult cases, among them two cases with histological features of low grade tumors: pilocytic astrocytoma and subependymoma. 49% (20/41) of the patients were above 30 years old by the first tumor manifestation including 29% (11/41) above 54 that signifies a broader age spectrum as previously reported. Our study confirms that H3 K27M mutations are associated with a poorer prognosis in pediatric patients compared to wild-type tumors, while in adult patients these mutations do not influence the survival significantly. The pattern of tumor growth was different in pediatric compared to adult patients; a diffuse growth along the brain axis was more evident in adult compared to pediatric patients (24% vs. 15%). CONCLUSION: H3 K27M mutations are frequent in adult midline gliomas and have a prognostic role similar to H3 K27M wild-type high-grade tumors.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas/genética , Glioma/genética , Mutação , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neoplasias Encefálicas/patologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Metilação de DNA , Feminino , Glioma/patologia , Histonas/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gradação de Tumores , Adulto Jovem
13.
Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys ; 104(1): 137-143, 2019 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30593907

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This retrospective analysis aimed to address the efficacy of total nodal irradiation (TNI)-based reconditioning regimens in pediatric patients with graft failure/rejection after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Thirty-three pediatric patients with malignant (n = 25) and nonmalignant diseases (n = 8) were treated with a TNI-based reconditioning regimen. All patients received a 7-Gy single dose combined with anti-T lymphocyte antibody OKT3 (n = 16), anti-thymocyte globulin (n = 24), fludarabine (n = 31), and/or thiotepa (n = 28), followed by an infusion of peripheral blood stem cells (n = 31) or bone marrow transplant (n = 2). Twenty-eight of 33 patients had haploidentical family donors. RESULTS: After a median of 11 days, engraftment was seen in 32 of 33 children. Two children died 34 days after retransplantation because of either disease relapse or treatment-related multiple organ failure. Severe acute toxicity was reported in only 1 child (systemic inflammatory response syndrome-like reaction; recovery after cortisone treatment). The average follow-up was 60.2 months (range, 1.1-162.5 months). Event-free and overall survival rates at 2/5 years follow-up were 62.0%/58.6% and 65.1%/61.7%, respectively. Despite sustained engraftment, 12 patients died from disease relapse (n = 3), Moschkowitz syndrome (n = 1), or multiple organ failure (n = 8). Follow-up data were available for 18 of 21 survivors, with a median follow-up of 92.8 months (range, 3.6-162.5 months). Hypothyroidism was present in 78.6% of patients, and sex/growth hormonal insufficiencies were reported for 37.5%. Mean forced expiratory volume in 1 second after TNI was 84%; mean vital capacity was 79%. Severe growth failure (<3rd percentile) occurred in 28.6% (height) and 35.7% (weight) of patients. No secondary malignancies were reported. CONCLUSIONS: In the high-risk group of patients with graft failure/rejection after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation, the TNI-based reconditioning regimen seems to allow sustained engraftment combined with a favorable toxicity profile, leading to long-term event-free and overall survival. Late toxicity after a median follow-up of over 7.5 years includes growth failure, manageable hormonal deficiencies, and a low risk of decrease of lung function.

14.
Int J Stroke ; : 1747493018806194, 2018 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30303808

RESUMO

Background Patients with a sudden onset of focal neurological deficits consistent with stroke, who turn out to have alternative conditions, have been labeled stroke mimics. Aims We assessed a recently validated telemedicine-based stroke mimic score (TeleStroke mimic score; TM-score) and individual patient characteristics with regard to its discriminative value between cerebrovascular disease and stroke mimic patients in the in-person, pre-hospital setting. Methods We evaluated patients cared for in a mobile stroke unit in Berlin, Germany. We investigated whether the TM-score (comprising six parameters), Face Arm Speech Time test, and individual patient characteristics were able to differentiate cerebrovascular disease from stroke mimic patients. Results We included 423 patients (299 (70.7%) cerebrovascular disease and 124 (29.3%) stroke mimic) in the final analysis. A TM-score > 30 indicated a high probability of a cerebrovascular disease and a score ≤15 of a stroke mimic. The TM-score performed well to identify stroke mimics (area under the curve of 0.74 under receiver-operating characteristic curve analysis). The cerebrovascular disease patients were older (74.8 vs. 69.8 years, p = 0.001), had more often severe strokes (NIHSS > 14 25.8% vs. 11.3%, p = 0.001), presented more often with weakness of the face (70.9% vs. 42.7%, p = 0.001) or arm (60.9% vs. 33.9%, p = 0.001), dysarthria (59.5% vs. 40.3%, p < 0.001), history of atrial fibrillation (38.1% vs. 21.0%, p = 0.001), arterial hypertension (78.9% vs. 53.2%, p < 0.001), and less often with seizure (0.7% vs. 21.0%, p < 0.001). Conclusions The TM-score and certain patient characteristics can help paramedics and emergency physicians in the field to identify stroke mimic patients and select the most appropriate hospital destination.

15.
Brain Pathol ; 2018 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30246434

RESUMO

Ependymoma with YAP1-MAMLD1 fusion is a rare, recently described supratentorial neoplasm of childhood, with few cases published so far. We report on 15 pediatric patients with ependymomas carrying YAP1-MAMLD1 fusions, with their characteristic histopathology, immunophenotype and molecular/cytogenetic, radiological and clinical features. The YAP1-MAMLD1 fusion was documented by RT-PCR/Sanger sequencing, and tumor genomes were studied by molecular inversion probe (MIP) analysis. Significant copy number alterations were identified by GISTIC (Genomic Identification of Significant Targets in Cancer) analysis. All cases showed similar histopathological features including areas of high cellularity, presence of perivascular pseudo-rosettes, small to medium-sized nuclei with characteristic granular chromatin and strikingly abundant cells with dot-like cytoplasmic expression of epithelial membrane antigen. Eleven cases presented features of anaplasia, corresponding to WHO grade III. MRI showed large supratentorial multinodular tumors with cystic components, heterogeneous contrast enhancement, located in the ventricular or periventricular region. One of two variants of YAP1-MAMLD1 fusions was detected in all cases. The MIP genome profiles showed balanced profiles, with focal alterations of the YAP1 locus at 11q22.1-11q21.2 (7/14), MAMLD1 locus (Xp28) (10/14) and losses of chromosome arm 22q (5/14). Most patients were female (13/15) and younger than 3 years at diagnosis (12/15; median age, 8.2 months). Apart from one patient who died during surgery, all patients are alive without evidence of disease progression after receiving different treatment protocols, three without postoperative further treatment (median follow-up, 4.84 years). In this to date, largest series of ependymomas with YAP1-MAMLD1 fusions we show that they harbor characteristic histopathological, cytogenetic and imaging features, occur mostly in young girls under 3 years and are associated with good outcome. Therefore, this genetically defined neoplasm should be considered a distinct disease entity. The diagnosis should be confirmed by demonstration of the specific fusion. Further studies on large collaborative series are warranted to confirm our findings.

16.
Front Neurol ; 9: 273, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29740391

RESUMO

Background and aims: Assessment of ischemic lesions on computed tomography or MRI diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) using the Alberta Stroke Program Early Computed Tomography Score (ASPECTS) is widely used to guide acute stroke treatment. However, it has never been defined how many voxels need to be affected to label a DWI-ASPECTS region ischemic. We aimed to assess the effect of various lesion load thresholds on DWI-ASPECTS and compare this automated analysis with visual rating. Materials and methods: We analyzed overlap of individual DWI lesions of 315 patients from the previously published predictive value of fluid-attenuated inversion recovery study with a probabilistic ASPECTS template derived from 221 CT images. We applied multiple lesion load thresholds per DWI-ASPECTS region (>0, >1, >10, and >20% in each DWI-ASPECTS region) to compute DWI-ASPECTS for each patient and compared the results to visual reading by an experienced stroke neurologist. Results: By visual rating, median ASPECTS was 9, 84 patients had a DWI-ASPECTS score ≤7. Mean DWI lesion volume was 22.1 (±35) ml. In contrast, by use of >0, >1-, >10-, and >20%-thresholds, median DWI-ASPECTS was 1, 5, 8, and 10; 97.1% (306), 72.7% (229), 41% (129), and 25.7% (81) had DWI-ASPECTS ≤7, respectively. Overall agreement between automated assessment and visual rating was low for every threshold used (>0%: κw = 0.020 1%: κw = 0.151; 10%: κw = 0.386; 20% κw = 0.381). Agreement for dichotomized DWI-ASPECTS ranged from fair to substantial (≤7: >10% κ = 0.48; >20% κ = 0.45; ≤5: >10% κ = 0.528; and >20% κ = 0.695). Conclusion: Overall agreement between automated and the standard used visual scoring is low regardless of the lesion load threshold used. However, dichotomized scoring achieved more comparable results. Varying lesion load thresholds had a critical impact on patient selection by ASPECTS. Of note, the relatively low lesion volume and lack of patients with large artery occlusion in our cohort may limit generalizability of these findings.

17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29795418

RESUMO

Transplantation of peripheral blood stem cells (PBSC) from matched unrelated donors (MUD) is still associated with a significant risk for graft vs. host disease (GvHD), especially in pediatric patients receiving grafts from adult donors containing high amounts of T cells. Here, we present long-term follow-up results on 25 pediatric patients, (acute leukemia n = 15, NHL n = 3, CML n = 3, MDS n = 5), transplanted with CD34 or CD133 positively selected PBSC from MUDs supplemented with an add-back of 1 × 107/kg body weight (kgBW) unselected T cells resulting in a median T-cell depletion (TCD) of 1.97 log. A total of 24/25 (96%) patients had primary engraftment. Early T-cell recovery was significantly improved compared to patients receiving CD34-selected grafts without T-cell add-back and similar to patients receiving unmanipulated bone marrow. GvHD incidence was low with 8/4% aGvHD grade II/III, no grade IV and 13% limited cGvHD. In total, 16/25 (64%) patients are alive after a median follow-up of 10 years. Five-year event-free survival (EFS) was 68%, relapse probability 24% and transplantation-related mortality (TRM) 12%. Thus, in PBSC allotransplants from MUD, partial TCD with serotherapy and CSA/MTX prophylaxis, can effectively reduce GvHD without hampering engraftment and immune reconstitution.

18.
Acta Neuropathol ; 136(2): 239-253, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29766299

RESUMO

Diffuse leptomeningeal glioneuronal tumors (DLGNT) represent rare CNS neoplasms which have been included in the 2016 update of the WHO classification. The wide spectrum of histopathological and radiological features can make this enigmatic tumor entity difficult to diagnose. In recent years, large-scale genomic and epigenomic analyses have afforded insight into key genetic alterations occurring in multiple types of brain tumors and provide unbiased, complementary tools to improve diagnostic accuracy. Through genome-wide DNA methylation screening of > 25,000 tumors, we discovered a molecularly distinct class comprising 30 tumors, mostly diagnosed histologically as DLGNTs. Copy-number profiles derived from the methylation arrays revealed unifying characteristics, including loss of chromosomal arm 1p in all cases. Furthermore, this molecular DLGNT class can be subdivided into two subgroups [DLGNT methylation class (MC)-1 and DLGNT methylation class (MC)-2], with all DLGNT-MC-2 additionally displaying a gain of chromosomal arm 1q. Co-deletion of 1p/19q, commonly seen in IDH-mutant oligodendroglioma, was frequently observed in DLGNT, especially in DLGNT-MC-1 cases. Both subgroups also had recurrent genetic alterations leading to an aberrant MAPK/ERK pathway, with KIAA1549:BRAF fusion being the most frequent event. Other alterations included fusions of NTRK1/2/3 and TRIM33:RAF1, adding up to an MAPK/ERK pathway activation identified in 80% of cases. In the DLGNT-MC-1 group, age at diagnosis was significantly lower (median 5 vs 14 years, p < 0.01) and clinical course less aggressive (5-year OS 100, vs 43% in DLGNT-MC-2). Our study proposes an additional molecular layer to the current histopathological classification of DLGNT, of particular use for cases without typical morphological or radiological characteristics, such as diffuse growth and radiologic leptomeningeal dissemination. Recurrent 1p deletion and MAPK/ERK pathway activation represent diagnostic biomarkers and therapeutic targets, respectively-laying the foundation for future clinical trials with, e.g., MEK inhibitors that may improve the clinical outcome of patients with DLGNT.

19.
N Engl J Med ; 379(7): 611-622, 2018 08 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29766770

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Under current guidelines, intravenous thrombolysis is used to treat acute stroke only if it can be ascertained that the time since the onset of symptoms was less than 4.5 hours. We sought to determine whether patients with stroke with an unknown time of onset and features suggesting recent cerebral infarction on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) would benefit from thrombolysis with the use of intravenous alteplase. METHODS: In a multicenter trial, we randomly assigned patients who had an unknown time of onset of stroke to receive either intravenous alteplase or placebo. All the patients had an ischemic lesion that was visible on MRI diffusion-weighted imaging but no parenchymal hyperintensity on fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR), which indicated that the stroke had occurred approximately within the previous 4.5 hours. We excluded patients for whom thrombectomy was planned. The primary end point was favorable outcome, as defined by a score of 0 or 1 on the modified Rankin scale of neurologic disability (which ranges from 0 [no symptoms] to 6 [death]) at 90 days. A secondary outcome was the likelihood that alteplase would lead to lower ordinal scores on the modified Rankin scale than would placebo (shift analysis). RESULTS: The trial was stopped early owing to cessation of funding after the enrollment of 503 of an anticipated 800 patients. Of these patients, 254 were randomly assigned to receive alteplase and 249 to receive placebo. A favorable outcome at 90 days was reported in 131 of 246 patients (53.3%) in the alteplase group and in 102 of 244 patients (41.8%) in the placebo group (adjusted odds ratio, 1.61; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.09 to 2.36; P=0.02). The median score on the modified Rankin scale at 90 days was 1 in the alteplase group and 2 in the placebo group (adjusted common odds ratio, 1.62; 95% CI, 1.17 to 2.23; P=0.003). There were 10 deaths (4.1%) in the alteplase group and 3 (1.2%) in the placebo group (odds ratio, 3.38; 95% CI, 0.92 to 12.52; P=0.07). The rate of symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage was 2.0% in the alteplase group and 0.4% in the placebo group (odds ratio, 4.95; 95% CI, 0.57 to 42.87; P=0.15). CONCLUSIONS: In patients with acute stroke with an unknown time of onset, intravenous alteplase guided by a mismatch between diffusion-weighted imaging and FLAIR in the region of ischemia resulted in a significantly better functional outcome and numerically more intracranial hemorrhages than placebo at 90 days. (Funded by the European Union Seventh Framework Program; WAKE-UP ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01525290; and EudraCT number, 2011-005906-32 .).


Assuntos
Fibrinolíticos/uso terapêutico , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética Intervencionista , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/tratamento farmacológico , Terapia Trombolítica/métodos , Ativador de Plasminogênio Tecidual/uso terapêutico , Doença Aguda , Administração Intravenosa , Idoso , Isquemia Encefálica/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem de Difusão por Ressonância Magnética , Feminino , Fibrinolíticos/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Hemorragias Intracranianas/induzido quimicamente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/cirurgia , Trombectomia , Tempo para o Tratamento , Ativador de Plasminogênio Tecidual/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
Stroke ; 49(3): 675-681, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29459394

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Fluid-attenuated inversion recovery hyperintense vessels (FHV) are frequently observed on magnetic resonance imaging in acute stroke patients with proximal vessel occlusion. Whether FHV can serve as a surrogate for the collateral status and predict functional outcome of patients is still a matter of debate. METHODS: Acute ischemic stroke patients with M1-middle cerebral artery occlusion who received magnetic resonance imaging before endovascular treatment in 3 hospitals in Germany between January 2007 and June 2016 were eligible. Quantification of FHV was performed using an FHV-Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score (ASPECTS) rating system. Functional outcome was evaluated with the modified Rankin Scale 3 months after stroke. Collateral status of patients was graded on baseline angiography using the American Society of Interventional and Therapeutic Neuroradiology grading system. Odds for good outcome (modified Rankin Scale score, 0-2) were determined using logistic regression analyses. RESULTS: Overall, 116 patients were analyzed (median age, 74; interquartile range [IQR], 64-79; median National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale, 14; IQR, 10-19). The median FHV-ASPECTS was 2 (IQR, 1-3). Good collateral status (American Society of Interventional and Therapeutic Neuroradiology grade 3-4) on angiography was more frequently observed in patients with FHV-ASPECTS ≤2 (83% versus 57%; P=0.025). Patients with an FHV-ASPECTS ≤2 had a better functional outcome after 3 months (median modified Rankin Scale score, 2; IQR, 0-5), compared with patients with an FHV-ASPECTS >2 (median modified Rankin Scale score, 4; IQR, 3-6; P=0.015). In multiple regression analyses, FHV-ASPECTS ≤2 was independently associated with good functional outcome (adjusted odds ratio, 5.3; 95% confidence interval, 1.5-18.2). CONCLUSIONS: Low FHV-ASPECTS is associated with both better collateral status and better 3-month functional outcome in acute stroke patients with M1 vessel occlusion.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Endovasculares , Infarto da Artéria Cerebral Média/diagnóstico por imagem , Infarto da Artéria Cerebral Média/cirurgia , Angiografia por Ressonância Magnética , Sistema de Registros , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos
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