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1.
Science ; 373(6557): 871-876, 2021 08 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34282049

RESUMO

DeepMind presented notably accurate predictions at the recent 14th Critical Assessment of Structure Prediction (CASP14) conference. We explored network architectures that incorporate related ideas and obtained the best performance with a three-track network in which information at the one-dimensional (1D) sequence level, the 2D distance map level, and the 3D coordinate level is successively transformed and integrated. The three-track network produces structure predictions with accuracies approaching those of DeepMind in CASP14, enables the rapid solution of challenging x-ray crystallography and cryo-electron microscopy structure modeling problems, and provides insights into the functions of proteins of currently unknown structure. The network also enables rapid generation of accurate protein-protein complex models from sequence information alone, short-circuiting traditional approaches that require modeling of individual subunits followed by docking. We make the method available to the scientific community to speed biological research.


Assuntos
Aprendizado Profundo , Conformação Proteica , Dobramento de Proteína , Proteínas/química , Proteínas ADAM/química , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Simulação por Computador , Microscopia Crioeletrônica , Cristalografia por Raios X , Bases de Dados de Proteínas , Proteínas de Membrana/química , Modelos Moleculares , Complexos Multiproteicos/química , Redes Neurais de Computação , Subunidades Proteicas/química , Proteínas/fisiologia , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas G/química , Esfingosina N-Aciltransferase/química
2.
Org Biomol Chem ; 19(2): 439-445, 2021 01 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33331366

RESUMO

Biocatalysts are receiving increased attention in the field of selective oxyfunctionalization of C-H bonds, with cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (CYP450s), and the related peroxygenases, leading the field. Here we report on the substrate promiscuity of CYP505A30, previously characterized as a fatty acid hydroxylase. In addition to its regioselective oxyfunctionalization of saturated fatty acids (ω-1 - ω-3 hydroxylation), primary fatty alcohols are also accepted with similar regioselectivities. Moreover, alkanes such as n-octane and n-decane are also readily accepted, allowing for the production of non-vicinal diols through sequential oxygenation.

3.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 20088, 2019 12 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31882753

RESUMO

Cytochrome P450 reductases (CPRs) are diflavin oxidoreductases that supply electrons to type II cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (CYPs). In addition, it can also reduce other proteins and molecules, including cytochrome c, ferricyanide, and different drugs. Although various CPRs have been functionally and structurally characterized, the overall mechanism and its interaction with different redox acceptors remain elusive. One of the main problems regarding electron transfer between CPRs and CYPs is the so-called "uncoupling", whereby NAD(P)H derived electrons are lost due to the reduced intermediates' (FAD and FMN of CPR) interaction with molecular oxygen. Additionally, the decay of the iron-oxygen complex of the CYP can also contribute to loss of reducing equivalents during an unproductive reaction cycle. This phenomenon generates reactive oxygen species (ROS), leading to an inefficient reaction. Here, we present the study of the CPR from Candida tropicalis (CtCPR) lacking the hydrophobic N-terminal part (Δ2-22). The enzyme supports the reduction of cytochrome c and ferricyanide, with an estimated 30% uncoupling during the reactions with cytochrome c. The ROS produced was not influenced by different physicochemical conditions (ionic strength, pH, temperature). The X-ray structures of the enzyme were solved with and without its cofactor, NADPH. Both CtCPR structures exhibited the closed conformation. Comparison with the different solved structures revealed an intricate ionic network responsible for the regulation of the open/closed movement of CtCPR.


Assuntos
Candida tropicalis/enzimologia , NADPH-Ferri-Hemoproteína Redutase/metabolismo , Cristalografia por Raios X , Transporte de Elétrons , NADPH-Ferri-Hemoproteína Redutase/química , Oxirredução , Conformação Proteica
4.
Front Chem ; 5: 41, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28674689

RESUMO

The substrate specificity of enzymes is crucial to control the fate of metabolites to different pathways. However, there is growing evidence that many enzymes can catalyze alternative reactions. This promiscuous behavior has important implications in protein evolution and the acquisition of new functions. The question is how the undesirable outcomes of in vivo promiscuity can be prevented. ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase from Escherichia coli is an example of an enzyme that needs to select the correct substrate from a broad spectrum of alternatives. This selection will guide the flow of carbohydrate metabolism toward the synthesis of reserve polysaccharides. Here, we show that the allosteric activator fructose-1,6-bisphosphate plays a role in such selection by increasing the catalytic efficiency of the enzyme toward the use of ATP rather than other nucleotides. In the presence of fructose-1,6-bisphosphate, the kcat/S0.5 for ATP was near ~600-fold higher that other nucleotides, whereas in the absence of activator was only ~3-fold higher. We propose that the allosteric regulation of certain enzymes is an evolutionary mechanism of adaptation for the selection of specific substrates.

5.
Front Microbiol ; 6: 1253, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26617591

RESUMO

In bacteria, UDP-glucose is a central intermediate in carbohydrate metabolism. The enzyme responsible for its synthesis is encoded by the galU gene and its deletion generates cells unable to ferment galactose. In some bacteria, there is a second gene, galF, encoding for a protein with high sequence identity to GalU. However, the role of GalF has been contradictory regarding its catalytic capability and not well understood. In this work we show that GalF derives from a catalytic (UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase) ancestor, but its activity is very low compared to GalU. We demonstrated that GalF has some residual UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase activity by in vitro and in vivo experiments in which the phenotype of a galU (-) strain was reverted by the over-expression of GalF and its mutant. To demonstrate its evolutionary path of "enzyme inactivation" we enhanced the catalysis by mutagenesis and showed the importance of the quaternary structure. This study provides important information to understand the structural and functional evolutionary origin of the protein GalF in enteric bacteria.

6.
Biochim Biophys Acta ; 1850(1): 88-96, 2015 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25316289

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Giardia lamblia is a pathogen of humans and other vertebrates. The synthesis of glycogen and of structural oligo and polysaccharides critically determine the parasite's capacity for survival and pathogenicity. These characteristics establish that UDP-glucose is a relevant metabolite, as it is a main substrate to initiate varied carbohydrate metabolic routes. RESULTS: Herein, we report the molecular cloning of the gene encoding UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase from genomic DNA of G. lamblia, followed by its heterologous expression in Escherichia coli. The purified recombinant enzyme was characterized to have a monomeric structure. Glucose-1-phosphate and UTP were preferred substrates, but the enzyme also used galactose-1-phosphate and TTP. The catalytic efficiency to synthesize UDP-galactose was significant. Oxidation by physiological compounds (hydrogen peroxide and nitric oxide) inactivated the enzyme and the process was reverted after reduction by cysteine and thioredoxin. UDP-N-acetyl-glucosamine pyrophosphorylase, the other UTP-related enzyme in the parasite, neither used galactose-1-phosphate nor was affected by redox modification. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that in G. lamblia the UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase is regulated by oxido-reduction mechanism. The enzyme exhibits the ability to synthesize UDP-glucose and UDP-galactose and it plays a key role providing substrates to glycosyl transferases that produce oligo and polysaccharides. GENERAL SIGNIFICANCE: The characterization of the G. lamblia UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase reinforces the view that in protozoa this enzyme is regulated by a redox mechanism. As well, we propose a new pathway for UDP-galactose production mediated by the promiscuous UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase of this organism.


Assuntos
Galactosefosfatos/metabolismo , Giardia lamblia/enzimologia , Proteínas de Protozoários/metabolismo , UTP-Glucose-1-Fosfato Uridililtransferase/metabolismo , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Biocatálise , Clonagem Molecular , Cisteína/metabolismo , Eletroforese em Gel de Poliacrilamida , Escherichia coli/genética , Giardia lamblia/genética , Glucofosfatos/metabolismo , Cinética , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Oxirredução , Proteínas de Protozoários/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes/metabolismo , Homologia de Sequência de Aminoácidos , Especificidade por Substrato , Tiorredoxinas/metabolismo , Fatores de Tempo , UTP-Glucose-1-Fosfato Uridililtransferase/genética
7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 14(5): 9703-21, 2013 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23648478

RESUMO

In bacteria, glycogen or oligosaccharide accumulation involves glucose-1-phosphate partitioning into either ADP-glucose (ADP-Glc) or UDP-Glc. Their respective synthesis is catalyzed by allosterically regulated ADP-Glc pyrophosphorylase (EC 2.7.7.27, ADP-Glc PPase) or unregulated UDP-Glc PPase (EC 2.7.7.9). In this work, we characterized the UDP-Glc PPase from Streptococcus mutans. In addition, we constructed a chimeric protein by cutting the C-terminal domain of the ADP-Glc PPase from Escherichia coli and pasting it to the entire S. mutans UDP-Glc PPase. Both proteins were fully active as UDP-Glc PPases and their kinetic parameters were measured. The chimeric enzyme had a slightly higher affinity for substrates than the native S. mutans UDP-Glc PPase, but the maximal activity was four times lower. Interestingly, the chimeric protein was sensitive to regulation by pyruvate, 3-phosphoglyceric acid and fructose-1,6-bis-phosphate, which are known to be effectors of ADP-Glc PPases from different sources. The three compounds activated the chimeric enzyme up to three-fold, and increased the affinity for substrates. This chimeric protein is the first reported UDP-Glc PPase with allosteric regulatory properties. In addition, this is a pioneer work dealing with a chimeric enzyme constructed as a hybrid of two pyrophosphorylases with different specificity toward nucleoside-diphospho-glucose and our results turn to be relevant for a deeper understanding of the evolution of allosterism in this family of enzymes.


Assuntos
Escherichia coli/enzimologia , Glucose-1-Fosfato Adenililtransferase/metabolismo , Engenharia de Proteínas , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/metabolismo , Streptococcus mutans/enzimologia , UTP-Glucose-1-Fosfato Uridililtransferase/metabolismo , Regulação Alostérica , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Clonagem Molecular , Escherichia coli/química , Escherichia coli/genética , Glucose-1-Fosfato Adenililtransferase/química , Glucose-1-Fosfato Adenililtransferase/genética , Glucofosfatos/metabolismo , Modelos Moleculares , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/química , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/genética , Streptococcus mutans/química , Streptococcus mutans/genética , UTP-Glucose-1-Fosfato Uridililtransferase/química , UTP-Glucose-1-Fosfato Uridililtransferase/genética
8.
Food Microbiol ; 27(4): 515-20, 2010 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20417401

RESUMO

The aim of this work was to study the efficiency of diverse chemical and thermal treatments usually used in dairy industries to control the number of virulent and temperate Lactobacillus delbrueckii bacteriophages. Two temperate (Cb1/204 and Cb1/342) and three virulent (BYM, YAB and Ib3) phages were studied. The thermal treatments applied were: 63 degrees C for 30 min (low temperature--long time, LTLT), 72 degrees C for 15 s (high temperature--short time, HTST), 82 degrees C for 5 min (milk destined to yogurt elaboration) and 90 degrees C for 15 min (FIL-IDF). The chemical agents studied were: sodium hypochlorite, ethanol, isopropanol, peracetic acid, biocides A (quaternary ammonium chloride), B (hydrogen peroxide, peracetic acid and peroctanoic acid), C (alkaline chloride foam), D (p-toluensulfonchloroamide, sodium salt) and E (ethoxylated nonylphenol and phosphoric acid). The kinetics of inactivation were drew and T(99) (time necessary to eliminate the 99% of phage particles) calculated. Results obtained showed that temperate phages revealed lower resistance than the virulent ones to the treatment temperatures. Biocides A, C, E and peracetic acid showed a notable efficiency to inactivate high concentrations of temperate and virulent L. delbrueckii phages. Biocide B evidenced, in general, a good capacity to eliminate the phage particles. Particularly for this biocide virulent phage Ib3 showed the highest resistance in comparison to the rest of temperate and virulent ones. On the contrary, biocide D and isopropanol presented a very low capacity to inactivate all phages studied. The efficiency of ethanol and hypochlorite was variable depending to the phages considered. These results allow a better knowledge and give useful information to outline more effective treatments to reduce the phage infections in dairy plants.


Assuntos
Fagos Bacilares/fisiologia , Laticínios/microbiologia , Desinfetantes/farmacologia , Temperatura Alta , Lactobacillus delbrueckii/virologia , Fagos Bacilares/efeitos dos fármacos , Qualidade de Produtos para o Consumidor , Laticínios/virologia , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Lactobacillus delbrueckii/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Lactobacillus delbrueckii/patogenicidade , Fatores de Tempo , Virulência , Inativação de Vírus
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