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Child Dev ; 90(6): 2071-2085, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29749068


Children are sensitive to a number of considerations influencing distributions of resources, including equality, equity, and reciprocity. We tested whether children use a specific type of reciprocity norm-market norms-in which resources are distributed differentially based strictly on amount offered in return. In two studies, 195 children 5-10 years and 60 adults distributed stickers to friends offering same or different amounts of money. Overall, participants distributed more equally when offers were the same and more unequally when offers were different. Although sensitive to why friends offered different amounts of money, children increasingly incorporated market norms into their distributions with age, as the oldest children and adults distributed more to those offering more, irrespective of the reasons provided.

Comportamento Infantil/fisiologia , Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Tomada de Decisões/fisiologia , Relações Interpessoais , Comportamento Social , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
J Behav Decis Mak ; 31(3): 446-460, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30319175


Adults differ in the extent to which they find spending money to be distressing; "tightwads" find spending money painful and "spendthrifts" do not find spending painful enough. This affective dimension has been reliably measured in adults, and predicts a variety of important financial behaviors and outcomes (e.g., saving behavior, credit scores). Although children's financial behavior has also received attention, feelings about spending have not been studied in children, as they have in adults. We measured the spendthrift-tightwad (ST-TW) construct in children for the first time, with a sample of 5-to-10-year-old children (n = 225). Children across the entire age range were able to reliably report on their affective responses to spending and saving, and children's ST-TW scores were related to parent reports of children's temperament and financial behavior. Further, children's ST-TW scores were predictive of whether they chose to save or spend money in the lab, even after controlling for age and how much they liked the offered items. Our novel findings - that children's feelings about spending and saving can be measured from an early age and relate to their behavior with money - are discussed with regard to theoretical and practical implications.

Behav Brain Sci ; 41: e168, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31064487


Boyer & Petersen's (B&P's) evolutionary approach to folk-economic beliefs is insightful, with far-reaching implications. We add to their discussion by positing a complementary developmental approach to the study of "emporiophobia" - studying children whose behaviors provide insight into developmental origins. We hypothesize that emporiophobia emerges early in childhood through proximal mechanisms and propose that emporiophobia develops alongside emporiophilia.

Cognição , Resolução de Problemas , Criança , Humanos
J Exp Child Psychol ; 156: 43-61, 2017 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28038343


An important task that children face is determining the value of items, and two possible cues to value include scarcity and variety. In three studies with 289 children aged 4-12years and 148 adults, we examined the use of these cues to guide choices when making selections among items. At all ages, participants typically preferred varied sets for themselves and others. In contrast, scarce items were rarely preferred to abundant items. However, when in the context of multiple recipients, participants selected scarce and varied items more when items were maximally scarce. Our results suggest that the preference for variety is early emerging, whereas the preference for scarce items is context dependent.

Comportamento de Escolha , Alocação de Recursos , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Sinais (Psicologia) , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pesquisa