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1.
J Ren Nutr ; 2019 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31761711

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: In the general population, "healthy" dietary patterns are associated with improved health outcomes, but data on associations between observance of specific dietary patterns and kidney function in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) are sparse. METHODS: Dietary intake was evaluated using food frequency questionnaires in patients with moderately severe CKD under nephrology care enrolled into the observational multicenter German CKD study. The Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet score, Mediterranean diet score, and German Food Pyramid Index (GFPI) were calculated and their association with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and albuminuria was assessed by multivariable linear regression analysis, adjusted for gender, age, body mass index, energy intake, smoking status, alcohol intake, education, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL- cholesterol), low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-cholesterol), hypertension, and diabetes mellitus. RESULTS: A total of 2,813 patients (41% women; age 60.1 ± 11.6 years) were included in the analysis. High DASH diet score and GFPI were associated with lower systolic blood pressure and lower intake of antihypertensive medication, higher HDL, and lower uric acid levels. Mediterranean-style diet was associated with lower prevalence of diabetes mellitus. Higher DASH and Mediterranean diet scores were associated with higher eGFR (ß-coefficient = 1.226, P < .001; ß-coefficient = 0.932, P = .007, respectively). In contrast, GFPI was not associated with eGFR. For the individual components of the dietary patterns, higher intake of nuts and legumes, cereals, fish, and polyunsaturated fats was associated with higher eGFR and higher intake of dairy, composed of low- and whole-fat dairy, was associated with lower eGFR. No association was found between dietary patterns and albuminuria. CONCLUSION: Higher observance of the DASH or Mediterranean diet, but not German food pyramid recommendations, was associated with higher eGFR among patients with CKD. Improving dietary habits may offer an opportunity to better control comorbidities and kidney function decline in patients with CKD.

2.
Pflugers Arch ; 2019 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31754831

RESUMO

The recent bestowal of the Nobel Prize 2019 in Physiology or Medicine to Gregg L. Semenza, Sir Peter J. Ratcliffe, and William G. Kaelin Jr. celebrates a series of remarkable discoveries that span from the physiological research question on how oxygen deficiency (hypoxia) induces the red blood cell forming hormone erythropoietin (Epo) to the first clinical application of a novel family of Epo-inducing drugs to treat patients suffering from renal anemia. This review looks back at the most important findings made by the three Nobel laureates, highlights current research trends, and sheds an eye on future perspectives of hypoxia research, including emerging and potential clinical applications.

3.
Kidney Int ; 96(6): 1250-1253, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31759480
4.
J Clin Periodontol ; 2019 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31603565

RESUMO

AIM: To assess the prevalence and severity of periodontitis in patients with moderate chronic kidney disease (CKD) and comparing the results with the self-reported periodontitis awareness of the study subjects. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The periodontal status of 270 patients with moderate CKD randomly selected from a cohort of 5,217 subjects participating in the prospective observational German Chronic Kidney Disease (GCKD) project was analysed by recording bleeding on probing (BOP), probing pocket depth (PPD) and clinical attachment level (CAL). Furthermore, the awareness of the study subjects of their periodontal conditions was evaluated by a self-reported questionnaire. RESULTS: 24.4% of the CKD study patients showed no or only mild signs of periodontal disease, 47.6% displayed moderate and 27% severe periodontitis. Questionnaire data revealed that 62.3% of the study subjects with severe periodontitis were not aware of the presence of the disease, 44.4% denied having received any systematic periodontal therapy so far, although 50% of them indicated to visit their dentist regularly for professional tooth cleanings. CONCLUSION: While the clinical study data confirm an increased prevalence of periodontitis in CKD patients, their self-reported awareness of periodontitis was low.

6.
Nat Rev Dis Primers ; 5(1): 60, 2019 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31488840

RESUMO

Autosomal dominant tubulointerstitial kidney disease (ADTKD) is a recently defined entity that includes rare kidney diseases characterized by tubular damage and interstitial fibrosis in the absence of glomerular lesions, with inescapable progression to end-stage renal disease. These diseases have long been neglected and under-recognized, in part due to confusing and inconsistent terminology. The introduction of a gene-based, unifying terminology led to the identification of an increasing number of cases, with recent data suggesting that ADTKD is one of the more common monogenic kidney diseases after autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease, accounting for ~5% of monogenic disorders causing chronic kidney disease. ADTKD is caused by mutations in at least five different genes, including UMOD, MUC1, REN, HNF1B and, more rarely, SEC61A1. These genes encode various proteins with renal and extra-renal functions. The mundane clinical characteristics and lack of appreciation of family history often result in a failure to diagnose ADTKD. This Primer highlights the different types of ADTKD and discusses the distinct genetic and clinical features as well as the underlying mechanisms.

7.
Am J Kidney Dis ; 2019 Aug 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31473020

RESUMO

The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and European Medicines Agency (EMA) are currently willing to consider a 30% to 40% glomerular filtration rate (GFR) decline as a surrogate end point for kidney failure for clinical trials of kidney disease progression under appropriate conditions. However, these end points may not be practical for early stages of kidney disease. In March 2018, the National Kidney Foundation sponsored a scientific workshop in collaboration with the FDA and EMA to evaluate changes in albuminuria or GFR as candidate surrogate end points. Three parallel efforts were presented: meta-analyses of observational studies (cohorts), meta-analyses of clinical trials, and simulations of trial design. In cohorts, after accounting for measurement error, relationships between change in urinary albumin-creatinine ratio (UACR) or estimated GFR (eGFR) slope and the clinical outcome of kidney disease progression were strong and consistent. In trials, the posterior median R2 of treatment effects on the candidate surrogates with the clinical outcome was 0.47 (95% Bayesian credible interval [BCI], 0.02-0.96) for early change in UACR and 0.72 (95% BCI, 0.05-0.99) when restricted to baseline UACR>30mg/g, and 0.97 (95% BCI, 0.78-1.00) for total eGFR slope at 3 years and 0.96 (95% BCI, 0.63-1.00) for chronic eGFR slope (ie, the slope excluding the first 3 months from baseline, when there might be acute changes in eGFR). The magnitude of the relationships of changes in the candidate surrogates with risk for clinical outcome was consistent across cohorts and trials: a UACR reduction of 30% or eGFR slope reduction by 0.5 to 1.0mL/min/1.73m2 per year were associated with an HR of ∼0.7 for the clinical outcome in cohorts and trials. In simulations, using GFR slope as an end point substantially reduced the required sample size and duration of follow-up compared with the clinical end point when baseline eGFR was high, treatment effects were uniform, and there was no acute effect of the treatment. We conclude that both early change in albuminuria and GFR slope fulfill criteria for surrogacy for use as end points in clinical trials for chronic kidney disease progression under certain conditions, with stronger support for change in GFR than albuminuria. Implementation requires understanding conditions under which each surrogate is likely to perform well and restricting its use to those settings.

8.
Cell Signal ; 64: 109414, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31505229

RESUMO

Elevated transforming growth factor ß1 (TGFß1) levels are frequently observed in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. TGFß1 contributes to development of medial vascular calcification during hyperphosphatemia, a pathological process promoted by osteo-/chondrogenic transdifferentiation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). Vasorin is a transmembrane glycoprotein highly expressed in VSMCs, which is able to bind TGFß to inhibit TGFß signaling. Thus, the present study explored the effects of vasorin on osteo-/chondrogenic transdifferentiation and calcification of VSMCs. Primary human aortic smooth muscle cells (HAoSMCs) were treated with recombinant human TGFß1 or ß-glycerophosphate without or with recombinant human vasorin or vasorin gene silencing by siRNA. As a result, TGFß1 down-regulated vasorin mRNA expression in HAoSMCs. Vasorin supplementation inhibited TGFß1-induced pathway activation, SMAD2 phosphorylation and downstream target genes expression in HAoSMCs. Furthermore, treatment with exogenous vasorin blunted, while vasorin knockdown augmented TGFß1-induced osteo-/chondrogenic transdifferentiation of HAoSMCs. In addition, phosphate down-regulated vasorin mRNA expression in HAoSMCs. Phosphate-induced TGFß1 expression was not affected by addition of exogenous vasorin. Nonetheless, the phosphate-induced TGFß1 signaling, osteo-/chondrogenic transdifferentiation and calcification of HAoSMCs were all blunted by vasorin. Conversely, silencing of vasorin aggravated osteoinduction in HAoSMCs during high phosphate conditions. Aortic vasorin expression was reduced in the hyperphosphatemic klotho-hypomorphic mouse model of CKD-related vascular calcification. In conclusion, vasorin, which suppresses TGFß1 signaling and protects against osteo-/chondrogenic transdifferentiation and calcification of VSMCs, is reduced by pro-calcifying conditions. Thus, vasorin is a novel key regulator of VSMC calcification and may represent a potential therapeutic target for vascular calcification during CKD.

9.
Dtsch Arztebl Int ; 116(22): 397-404, 2019 May 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31366430

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Studies from multiple countries have shown that acute kidney injury (AKI) in hospitalized patients is associated with mortality and morbidity. There are no reliable data at present on the incidence and mortality of AKI episodes among hospitalized patients in Germany. The utility of administrative codings of AKI for the identification of AKI episodes is also unclear. METHODS: In an exploratory approach, we retrospectively analyzed all episodes of AKI over a period of 3.5 years (2014-2017) on the basis of routinely obtained serum creatinine measurements in 103 161 patients whose creatinine had been measured at least twice and who had been in the hospital for at least two days. We used the "Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes" (KDIGO) criteria for AKI. In parallel, we assessed the administrative coding of discharge diagnoses of the same patients with codes from the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10-GM). RESULTS: Among 185 760 hospitalizations, stage 1 AKI occurred in 25 417 cases (13.7%), stage 2 in 8503 cases (4.6%), and stage 3 in 5881 cases (3.1%). AKI cases were associated with length of hospital stay, renal morbidity, and overall mortality, and this association was stage-dependent. The in-hospital mortality was 5.1% for patients with stage 1 AKI, 13.7% for patients with stage 2 AKI, and 24.8% for patients with stage 3 AKI. An administrative coding for acute kidney injury (N17) was present in only 28.8% (11 481) of the AKI cases that were identified by creatinine criteria. Like the AKI cases overall, those that were identified by creatinine criteria but were not coded as AKI had significantly higher mortality, and this association was stage-dependent. CONCLUSION: AKI episodes are common among hospitalized patients and are associated with considerable morbidity and mortality, yet they are inadequately documented and probably often escape the attention of the treating physicians.

10.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 11(15): 5445-5462, 2019 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31377747

RESUMO

Medial vascular calcification occurs during the aging process and is strongly accelerated by chronic kidney disease (CKD). Elevated C-reactive protein (CRP) levels are associated with vascular calcification, cardiovascular events and mortality in CKD patients. CRP is an important promoter of vascular inflammation. Inflammatory processes are critically involved in initiation and progression of vascular calcification. Thus, the present study explored a possible impact of CRP on vascular calcification. We found that CRP promoted osteo-/chondrogenic transdifferentiation and aggravated phosphate-induced osteo-/chondrogenic transdifferentiation and calcification of primary human aortic smooth muscle cells (HAoSMCs). These effects were paralleled by increased cellular oxidative stress and corresponding pro-calcific downstream-signaling. Antioxidants or p38 MAPK inhibition suppressed CRP-induced osteo-/chondrogenic signaling and mineralization. Furthermore, silencing of Fc fragment of IgG receptor IIa (FCGR2A) blunted the pro-calcific effects of CRP. Vascular CRP expression was increased in the klotho-hypomorphic mouse model of aging as well as in HAoSMCs during calcifying conditions. In conclusion, CRP augments osteo-/chondrogenic transdifferentiation of vascular smooth muscle cells through mechanisms involving FCGR2A-dependent induction of oxidative stress. Thus, systemic inflammation may actively contribute to the progression of vascular calcification.

11.
Herzschrittmacherther Elektrophysiol ; 30(3): 251-255, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31338579

RESUMO

Patients with chronic kidney disease are at increased risk for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, with the increased prevalence of supraventricular and ventricular arrhythmia being an important factor. The underlying pathomechanisms are diverse and mainly cause increasing atrial and ventricular fibrosis with so-called cardiac remodeling. In particular, patients with advanced kidney disease were excluded from many pioneering clinical trials, so there are no clear guidelines in the treatment of cardiac arrhythmia for these patients. The potential benefits of implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) therapy for the prevention of sudden cardiac death or the benefits of anticoagulation for prevention of thromboembolic events in atrial fibrillation should therefore be evaluated individually for each patient with advanced kidney disease, taking comorbidities and the prognosis into account. When using antiarrhythmic drugs, a dose adjustment may be necessary depending on the pharmacokinetics and metabolism. Although atrial fibrillation treatment by means of pulmonary vein isolation can lead to an improvement in kidney function, the success rate seems to be significantly reduced in the presence of advanced kidney disease. Overall, an individual therapy and treatment concept for each patient with advanced chronic kidney disease is advisable.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial , Desfibriladores Implantáveis , Insuficiência Renal Crônica , Antiarrítmicos , Morte Súbita Cardíaca , Humanos
12.
Kidney Int ; 96(4): 983-994, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31358344

RESUMO

Although blood pressure control is a major goal in chronic kidney disease, no worldwide overview of either its achievement or antihypertensive prescriptions is currently available. To evaluate this we compared crude prevalence of uncontrolled blood pressure among 17 cohort studies, including 34 602 individuals with estimated glomerular filtration rate under 60 ml/min/1.73 m2 and treated hypertension across four continents, and estimated observed to expected prevalence ratios, adjusted for potential confounders. Crude prevalence of blood pressure of 140/90 mm Hg or more varied from 28% to 61% and of blood pressure of 130/80 or more from 54% to 84%. Adjusted prevalence ratios indicated poorer hypertension control than expected in cohorts from European countries, India, and Uruguay, and better control in patients from North American and high-income Asian countries. Four antihypertensive drug classes or more were prescribed to more than 30% of participants in North American and some European cohorts, but this practice was less common elsewhere. Renin angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibitors were the most common antihypertensive drugs, prescribed for 54% to 91% of cohort participants. Differences for other drug classes were much stronger, ranging from 11% to 79% for diuretics, 22% to 70% for beta-blockers, and 27% to 75% for calcium-channel blockers. The confounders studied explain only a part of the international variation in blood pressure control among individuals with chronic kidney disease. Thus, considerable heterogeneity in prescription patterns worldwide calls for further investigation into the impact of different approaches on patient outcomes.

13.
Dtsch Med Wochenschr ; 144(11): 739-742, 2019 06.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31163472

RESUMO

Assessing the risk of adverse outcomes associated with chronic kidney disease (CKD) is important for physicians and affected patients alike. Categorizing CKD according to the cause-GFR category-albuminuria category (CGA)-classification system proposed by KDIGO already provides a semi-quantitative assessment of risks. The more recent development of the "Tangri"-formula provides a means to quantify the risk of progression for patients with CKD stage G3a-G5 (eGFR 10 - 59 ml/min/1.73 m2) to kidney failure requiring kidney replacement therapy. To use this formula, the variables age, sex, eGFR and albuminuria are required (4-variable equation). An extended formula with the additional parameters calcium, phosphate, bicarbonate and albumin (8-variable equation) allows an even more precise estimation of progression risk. In patients with advanced CKD, stage G4 or higher (GFR category ≥ 4, i. e. eGFR < 30 ml/min/1.73 m2), models recently developed by the CKD-prognosis consortium can not only be used to predict the risk of kidney failure but also the risk of cardiovascular disease events and death. The risk estimators can be accessed through websites (http://kidneyfailurerisk.com, http://www.ckdpcrisk.org/lowgfrevents/) and via downloading of the respective "apps". These novel tools may prove useful for health care decisions and as a basis for discussions with CKD patients.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Renal Crônica , Albuminúria , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Progressão da Doença , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Humanos , Prognóstico , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/fisiopatologia , Fatores de Risco
14.
Kidney Int ; 96(2): 378-396, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31146971

RESUMO

Prolyl hydroxylase domain enzyme inhibitors (PHDIs) stabilize hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs), and are protective in models of acute ischemic and inflammatory kidney disease. Whether PHDIs also confer protection in chronic inflammatory kidney disease models remains unknown. Here we investigated long-term effects of PHDI treatment in adenine-induced nephropathy as a model for chronic tubulointerstitial nephritis. After three weeks, renal dysfunction and tubulointerstitial damage, including proximal and distal tubular injury, tubular dilation and renal crystal deposition were significantly attenuated in PHDI-treated (the isoquinoline derivative ICA and Roxadustat) compared to vehicle-treated mice with adenine-induced nephropathy. Crystal-induced renal fibrosis was only partially diminished by treatment with ICA. Renoprotective effects of ICA treatment could not be attributed to changes in adenine metabolism or urinary excretion of the metabolite 2,8-dihydroxyadenine. ICA treatment reduced inflammatory infiltrates of F4/80+ mononuclear phagocytes in the kidneys and supported a regulatory, anti-inflammatory immune response. Furthermore, interstitial deposition of complement C1q was decreased in ICA-treated mice fed an adenine-enriched diet. Tubular cell-specific HIF-1α and myeloid cell-specific HIF-1α and HIF-2α expression were not required for the renoprotective effects of ICA. In contrast, depletion of mononuclear phagocytes with clodronate largely abolished the nephroprotective effects of PHD inhibition. Thus, our findings indicate novel and potent systemic anti-inflammatory properties of PHDIs that confer preservation of kidney function and structure in chronic tubulointerstitial inflammation and might counteract kidney disease progression.

15.
Kidney Int ; 96(2): 480-488, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31248648

RESUMO

Damage of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) with reduction in copy number has been proposed as a biomarker for mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with increased mortality and risk of cardiovascular disease, but the underlying mechanisms remain incompletely understood. Here we investigated the prognostic role of mtDNA copy number for cause-specific mortality in 4812 patients from the German Chronic Kidney Disease study, an ongoing prospective observational national cohort study of patients with CKD stage G3 and A1-3 or G1-2 with overt proteinuria (A3) at enrollment. MtDNA was quantified in whole blood using a plasmid-normalized PCR-based assay. At baseline, 1235 patients had prevalent cardiovascular disease. These patients had a significantly lower mtDNA copy number than patients without cardiovascular disease (fully-adjusted model: odds ratio 1.03, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01-1.05 per 10 mtDNA copies decrease). After four years of follow-up, we observed a significant inverse association between mtDNA copy number and all-cause mortality, adjusted for kidney function and cardiovascular disease risk factors (hazard ratio 1.37, 95% CI 1.09-1.73 for quartile 1 compared to quartiles 2-4). When grouped by causes of death, estimates pointed in the same direction for all causes but in a fully-adjusted model decreased copy numbers were significantly lower only in infection-related death (hazard ratio 1.82, 95% CI 1.08-3.08). A similar association was observed for hospitalizations due to infections in 644 patients (hazard ratio 1.19, 95% CI 1.00-1.42 in the fully-adjusted model). Thus, our data support a role of mitochondrial dysfunction in increased cardiovascular disease and mortality risks as well as susceptibility to infections in patients with CKD.

17.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(9)2019 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31052201

RESUMO

The global burden of chronic kidney disease is rising. The etiologies, heterogeneous, and arterial hypertension, are key factors contributing to the development and progression of chronic kidney disease. Arterial hypertension is induced and maintained by a complex network of systemic signaling pathways, such as the hormonal axis of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, hemodynamic alterations affecting blood flow, oxygen supply, and the immune system. This review summarizes the clinical and histopathological features of hypertensive kidney injury and focusses on the interplay of distinct systemic signaling pathways, which drive hypertensive kidney injury in distinct cell types of the kidney. There are several parallels between hypertension-induced molecular signaling cascades in the renal epithelial, endothelial, interstitial, and immune cells. Angiotensin II signaling via the AT1R, hypoxia induced HIFα activation and mechanotransduction are closely interacting and further triggering the adaptions of metabolism, cytoskeletal rearrangement, and profibrotic TGF signaling. The interplay of these, and other cellular pathways, is crucial to balancing the injury and repair of the kidneys and determines the progression of hypertensive kidney disease.


Assuntos
Hipertensão/complicações , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Angiotensinas/metabolismo , Animais , Humanos , Hipertensão/metabolismo , Fator 1 Induzível por Hipóxia/metabolismo , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/etiologia
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31006013

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is little information in haemodialysis (HD) patients on whether temporal changes in serum calcium, phosphate or intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) are associated with mortality. METHODS: We analysed associations of phosphate, total calcium and iPTH with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in 8817 incident HD patients from the European second Analyzing Data, Recognizing Excellence and Optimizing Outcomes (AROii) cohort enrolled in 2007-09, which were prospectively followed for a median of 3 years, using time-dependent Cox proportional hazards models. We evaluated changes in risk over time depending on changes in phosphate, calcium or iPTH. RESULTS: The association of phosphate and iPTH with all-cause mortality was U-shaped, with the lowest risk ranges between 1.20 and 1.89 mmol/L for phosphate and between 239 and 710 ng/L for iPTH. For total calcium, the associations were J-shaped, with an increased risk for all-cause mortality at levels >2.36 mmol/L. Lowest risk ranges for cardiovascular mortality did not change markedly for all three parameters. If iPTH was below the lowest risk range at baseline (iPTH <239 ng/L), a subsequent increase in levels was associated with improved survival. For phosphate, an increase or decrease out of the lowest risk range was associated with increased mortality risk. For calcium, this was only the case when the values increased above the lowest risk range. CONCLUSION: In the AROii cohort, the ranges of bone mineral biomarkers associated with the lowest mortality ranges were largely consistent with the current Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes chronic kidney disease-mineral and bone disorder guideline recommendations. Allowing a suppressed iPTH to increase was associated with a lower mortality, whereas shifts of phosphate or calcium outside the lowest risk range increased mortality.

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