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1.
J Clin Invest ; 2022 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36125911

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitidies (AAV) are life-threatening systemic autoimmune conditions. ANCA directed against proteinase 3 (PR3) or myeloperoxidase (MPO) bind their cell surface-presented antigen, activate neutrophils and cause vasculitis. An imbalance between PR3 and its major inhibitor α1-antitrypsin (AAT) was proposed to underlie PR3- but not MPO-AAV. We measured AAT and PR3 in healthies and AAV patients and studied protective AAT effects pertaining to PR3- and MPO-ANCA. METHODS: Plasma and blood neutrophils were assessed for PR3 and AAT. Wild-type, mutant, and oxidation-resistant AAT species were produced to characterize AAT-PR3 interactions by flow cytometry, immunoblotting, FRET assays, and surface plasmon resonance measurements. Neutrophil activation was measured using the ferricytochrome C assay and AAT methionine-oxidation by Parallel Reaction Monitoring. RESULTS: We found significantly increased PR3 and AAT pools in both PR3- and MPO-AAV patients, however, only in PR3-AAV did the PR3 pool correlate with ANCA titer, inflammatory response and disease severity. Mechanistically, AAT prevented PR3 from binding to CD177, thereby reducing neutrophil surface antigen for ligation by PR3-ANCA. Active PR3-AAV patients showed critical methionine-oxidation in plasma AAT that was recapitulated by ANCA-activated neutrophils. The protective PR3-related AAT effects were compromised by methionine-oxidation in the AAT reactive center loop but preserved when two critical methionines were substituted by valine and leucine. CONCLUSION: Pathogenic differences between PR3- and MPO-AAV are related to AAT regulation of membrane-PR3, attenuating neutrophil activation by PR3- rather than MPO-ANCA. Oxidation-resistant AAT could serve as adjunctive therapy in PR3-AAV.

2.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 2022 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36100708

RESUMO

Hereditary chronic kidney disease (CKD) appears to be more frequent than the clinical perception. Exome sequencing (ES) studies in CKD cohorts could identify pathogenic variants in ~10% of individuals. Tubulointerstitial kidney diseases, showing no typical clinical/histologic finding but tubulointerstitial fibrosis, are particularly difficult to diagnose. We used a targeted panel (29 genes) and MUC1-SNaPshot to sequence 271 DNAs, selected in defined disease entities and age cutoffs from 5217 individuals in the German Chronic Kidney Disease cohort. We identified 33 pathogenic variants. Of these 27 (81.8%) were in COL4A3/4/5, the largest group being 15 COL4A5 variants with nine unrelated individuals carrying c.1871G>A, p.(Gly624Asp). We found three cysteine variants in UMOD, a novel missense and a novel splice variant in HNF1B and the homoplastic MTTF variant m.616T>C. Copy-number analysis identified a heterozygous COL4A5 deletion, and a HNF1B duplication/deletion, respectively. Overall, pathogenic variants were present in 12.5% (34/271) and variants of unknown significance in 9.6% (26/271) of selected individuals. Bioinformatic predictions paired with gold standard diagnostics for MUC1 (SNaPshot) could not identify the typical cytosine duplication ("c.428dupC") in any individual, implying that ADTKD-MUC1 is rare. Our study shows that >10% of selected individuals carry disease-causing variants in genes partly associated with tubulointerstitial kidney diseases. COL4A3/4/5 genes constitute the largest fraction, implying they are regularly overlooked using clinical Alport syndrome criteria and displaying the existence of phenocopies. We identified variants easily missed by some ES pipelines. The clinical filtering criteria applied enriched for an underlying genetic disorder.

3.
Kidney Int ; 102(6): 1359-1370, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36049643

RESUMO

Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a major health issue, the outcome of which depends primarily on damage and reparative processes of tubular epithelial cells. Mechanisms underlying AKI remain incompletely understood, specific therapies are lacking and monitoring the course of AKI in clinical routine is confined to measuring urine output and plasma levels of filtration markers. Here we demonstrate feasibility and potential of a novel approach to assess the cellular and molecular dynamics of AKI by establishing a robust urine-to-single cell RNA sequencing (scRNAseq) pipeline for excreted kidney cells via flow cytometry sorting. We analyzed 42,608 single cell transcriptomes of 40 urine samples from 32 patients with AKI and compared our data with reference material from human AKI post-mortem biopsies and published mouse data. We demonstrate that tubular epithelial cells transcriptomes mirror kidney pathology and reflect distinct injury and repair processes, including oxidative stress, inflammation, and tissue rearrangement. We also describe an AKI-specific abundant urinary excretion of adaptive progenitor-like cells. Thus, single cell transcriptomics of kidney cells excreted in urine provides noninvasive, unprecedented insight into cellular processes underlying AKI, thereby opening novel opportunities for target identification, AKI sub-categorization, and monitoring of natural disease course and interventions.


Assuntos
Injúria Renal Aguda , Humanos , Camundongos , Animais , Injúria Renal Aguda/patologia , Rim/patologia , Biomarcadores/urina , Estresse Oxidativo , Células Epiteliais/patologia
4.
Genome Med ; 14(1): 103, 2022 09 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36085050

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acute kidney injury (AKI) occurs frequently in critically ill patients and is associated with adverse outcomes. Cellular mechanisms underlying AKI and kidney cell responses to injury remain incompletely understood. METHODS: We performed single-nuclei transcriptomics, bulk transcriptomics, molecular imaging studies, and conventional histology on kidney tissues from 8 individuals with severe AKI (stage 2 or 3 according to Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) criteria). Specimens were obtained within 1-2 h after individuals had succumbed to critical illness associated with respiratory infections, with 4 of 8 individuals diagnosed with COVID-19. Control kidney tissues were obtained post-mortem or after nephrectomy from individuals without AKI. RESULTS: High-depth single cell-resolved gene expression data of human kidneys affected by AKI revealed enrichment of novel injury-associated cell states within the major cell types of the tubular epithelium, in particular in proximal tubules, thick ascending limbs, and distal convoluted tubules. Four distinct, hierarchically interconnected injured cell states were distinguishable and characterized by transcriptome patterns associated with oxidative stress, hypoxia, interferon response, and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, respectively. Transcriptome differences between individuals with AKI were driven primarily by the cell type-specific abundance of these four injury subtypes rather than by private molecular responses. AKI-associated changes in gene expression between individuals with and without COVID-19 were similar. CONCLUSIONS: The study provides an extensive resource of the cell type-specific transcriptomic responses associated with critical illness-associated AKI in humans, highlighting recurrent disease-associated signatures and inter-individual heterogeneity. Personalized molecular disease assessment in human AKI may foster the development of tailored therapies.


Assuntos
Injúria Renal Aguda , COVID-19 , Injúria Renal Aguda/genética , COVID-19/genética , Estado Terminal , Humanos , Rim , Transcriptoma
5.
Dtsch Med Wochenschr ; 147(21): 1398-1406, 2022 10.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36174584

RESUMO

Kidney disease represents an increasing global health problem. Its mitigation requires effective communication between all stakeholders involved in assessment, diagnosis and therapy and individuals affected by kidney disease. However, as of today the nomenclature for kidney function and kidney disease is far from uniform. In 2019, the international non-profit organization Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) has implemented a consensus process to develop a glossary in English language to standardize the nomenclature for kidney function, kidney structure and kidney disease. Guiding principles for this process were (1) precision, (2) patient-centeredness and (3) consistency with KDIGO guidelines. The current position paper includes a translation of this nomenclature into German that was developed on behalf of the national societies for nephrology in Germany, Austria and Switzerland.


Assuntos
Nefropatias , Nefrologia , Humanos , Nefropatias/terapia , Rim , Alemanha , Prognóstico
6.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(33): e2114734119, 2022 08 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35947615

RESUMO

The kidney-specific gene UMOD encodes for uromodulin, the most abundant protein excreted in normal urine. Rare large-effect variants in UMOD cause autosomal dominant tubulointerstitial kidney disease (ADTKD), while common low-impact variants strongly associate with kidney function and the risk of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in the general population. It is unknown whether intermediate-effect variants in UMOD contribute to CKD. Here, candidate intermediate-effect UMOD variants were identified using large-population and ADTKD cohorts. Biological and phenotypical effects were investigated using cell models, in silico simulations, patient samples, and international databases and biobanks. Eight UMOD missense variants reported in ADTKD are present in the Genome Aggregation Database (gnomAD), with minor allele frequency (MAF) ranging from 10-5 to 10-3. Among them, the missense variant p.Thr62Pro is detected in ∼1/1,000 individuals of European ancestry, shows incomplete penetrance but a high genetic load in familial clusters of CKD, and is associated with kidney failure in the 100,000 Genomes Project (odds ratio [OR] = 3.99 [1.84 to 8.98]) and the UK Biobank (OR = 4.12 [1.32 to 12.85). Compared with canonical ADTKD mutations, the p.Thr62Pro carriers displayed reduced disease severity, with slower progression of CKD and an intermediate reduction of urinary uromodulin levels, in line with an intermediate trafficking defect in vitro and modest induction of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Identification of an intermediate-effect UMOD variant completes the spectrum of UMOD-associated kidney diseases and provides insights into the mechanisms of ADTKD and the genetic architecture of CKD.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Renal Crônica , Uromodulina , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Mutação , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/genética , Uromodulina/genética
7.
Biomolecules ; 12(8)2022 08 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36009051

RESUMO

Medial vascular calcification is common in chronic kidney disease (CKD) and is closely linked to hyperphosphatemia. Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) can take up pro-calcific properties and actively augment vascular calcification. Various pro-inflammatory mediators are able to promote VSMC calcification. In this study, we investigated the effects and mechanisms of periostin, a matricellular signaling protein, in calcifying human VSMCs and human serum samples. As a result, periostin induced the mRNA expression of pro-calcific markers in VSMCs. Furthermore, periostin augmented the effects of ß-glycerophosphate on the expression of pro-calcific markers and aggravated the calcification of VSMCs. A periostin treatment was associated with an increased ß-catenin abundance as well as the expression of target genes. The pro-calcific effects of periostin were ameliorated by WNT/ß-catenin pathway inhibitors. Moreover, a co-treatment with an integrin αvß3-blocking antibody blunted the pro-calcific effects of periostin. The silencing of periostin reduced the effects of ß-glycerophosphate on the expression of pro-calcific markers and the calcification of VSMCs. Elevated serum periostin levels were observed in hemodialysis patients compared with healthy controls. These observations identified periostin as an augmentative factor in VSMC calcification. The pro-calcific effects of periostin involve integrin αvß3 and the activation of the WNT/ß-catenin pathway. Thus, the inhibition of periostin may be beneficial to reduce the burden of vascular calcification in CKD patients.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Renal Crônica , Calcificação Vascular , Células Cultivadas , Humanos , Integrina alfaVbeta3/metabolismo , Músculo Liso Vascular/metabolismo , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/metabolismo , Calcificação Vascular/genética , Via de Sinalização Wnt/genética , beta Catenina/metabolismo
8.
J Am Soc Nephrol ; 2022 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35985814

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: CKD is characterized by a sustained proinflammatory response of the immune system, promoting hypertension and cardiovascular disease. The underlying mechanisms are incompletely understood but may be linked to gut dysbiosis. Dysbiosis has been described in adults with CKD; however, comorbidities limit CKD-specific conclusions. METHODS: We analyzed the fecal microbiome, metabolites, and immune phenotypes in 48 children (with normal kidney function, CKD stage G3-G4, G5 treated by hemodialysis [HD], or kidney transplantation) with a mean±SD age of 10.6±3.8 years. RESULTS: Serum TNF-α and sCD14 were stage-dependently elevated, indicating inflammation, gut barrier dysfunction, and endotoxemia. We observed compositional and functional alterations of the microbiome, including diminished production of short-chain fatty acids. Plasma metabolite analysis revealed a stage-dependent increase of tryptophan metabolites of bacterial origin. Serum from patients on HD activated the aryl hydrocarbon receptor and stimulated TNF-α production in monocytes, corresponding to a proinflammatory shift from classic to nonclassic and intermediate monocytes. Unsupervised analysis of T cells revealed a loss of mucosa-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells and regulatory T cell subtypes in patients on HD. CONCLUSIONS: Gut barrier dysfunction and microbial metabolite imbalance apparently mediate the proinflammatory immune phenotype, thereby driving the susceptibility to cardiovascular disease. The data highlight the importance of the microbiota-immune axis in CKD, irrespective of confounding comorbidities.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35998320

RESUMO

During conflicts, people with kidney disease, either those remaining in the affected zones or those who are displaced, may be exposed to additional threats because of medical and logistical challenges. Acute kidney injury developing on the battlefield, in field hospitals or in higher-level hospital settings is characterized by poor outcomes. People with chronic kidney disease may experience treatment interruptions, contributing to worsening kidney function. Patients living on dialysis or with a functioning graft may experience limitations of dialysis possibilities or availability of immunosuppressive medications, increasing the risk of severe complications including death. When patients must flee, these threats are compounded by unhealthy and insecure conditions both during displacement and/or at destination. Measures to attenuate these risks may only be partially effective. Local preparedness for overall and medical/kidney-related disaster response is essential. Due to limitations in supply, adjustments in dialysis frequency or dose, switching between hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis and changes in immunosuppressive regimens may be required. Telemedicine (if possible) may be useful to support inexperienced local physicians in managing medical and logistical challenges. Limited treatment possibilities during warfare may necessitate referral of patients to distant higher-level hospitals, once urgent care has been initiated. Preparation for disasters should occur ahead of time. Inclusion of disaster nephrology in medical and nursing curricula and training of patients, families and others on self-care and medical practice in austere settings may enhance awareness and preparedness, support best practices adapted to the demanding circumstances, and prepare non-professionals to lend support.

10.
Eur J Prev Cardiol ; 2022 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35972749

RESUMO

AIMS: The 2021 ESC guideline on cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention categorizes moderate and severe chronic kidney disease (CKD) as high and very-high CVD risk status regardless of other factors like age and does not include estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and albuminuria in its algorithms, SCORE2 and SCORE2-OP, to predict CVD risk. We developed and validated an "Add-on" to incorporate CKD measures into these algorithms, using a validated approach. METHODS: In 3,054,840 participants from 34 datasets, we developed three Add-ons (eGFR only, eGFR + urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio [ACR] [the primary Add-on], and eGFR + dipstick proteinuria) for SCORE2 and SCORE2-OP. We validated c-statistics and net reclassification improvement (NRI), accounting for competing risk of non-CVD death, in 5,997,719 participants from 34 different datasets. RESULTS: In the target population of SCORE2 and SCORE2-OP without diabetes, the CKD Add-on (eGFR only) and CKD Add-on (eGFR + ACR) improved c-statistic by 0.006 (95%CI 0.004-0.008) and 0.016 (0.010-0.023), respectively, for SCORE2 and 0.012 (0.009-0.015) and 0.024 (0.014-0.035), respectively, for SCORE2-OP. Similar results were seen when we included individuals with diabetes and tested the CKD Add-on (eGFR + dipstick). In 57,485 European participants with CKD, SCORE2 or SCORE2-OP with a CKD Add-on showed a significant NRI (e.g., 0.100 [0.062-0.138] for SCORE2) compared to the qualitative approach in the ESC guideline. CONCLUSION: Our Add-ons with CKD measures improved CVD risk prediction beyond SCORE2 and SCORE2-OP. This approach will help clinicians and patients with CKD refine risk prediction and further personalize preventive therapies for CVD.

12.
Am J Hematol ; 97(9): 1178-1188, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35751858

RESUMO

Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) develop anemia largely because of inappropriately low erythropoietin (EPO) production and insufficient iron available to erythroid precursors. In four phase 3, randomized, open-label, clinical trials in dialysis-dependent and non-dialysis-dependent patients with CKD and anemia, the hypoxia-inducible factor prolyl hydroxylase inhibitor, vadadustat, was noninferior to the erythropoiesis-stimulating agent, darbepoetin alfa, in increasing and maintaining target hemoglobin concentrations. In these trials, vadadustat increased the concentrations of serum EPO, the numbers of circulating erythrocytes, and the numbers of circulating reticulocytes. Achieved hemoglobin concentrations were similar in patients treated with either vadadustat or darbepoetin alfa, but compared with patients receiving darbepoetin alfa, those receiving vadadustat had erythrocytes with increased mean corpuscular volume and mean corpuscular hemoglobin, while the red cell distribution width was decreased. Increased serum transferrin concentrations, as measured by total iron-binding capacity, combined with stable serum iron concentrations, resulted in decreased transferrin saturation in patients randomized to vadadustat compared with patients randomized to darbepoetin alfa. The decreases in transferrin saturation were associated with relatively greater declines in serum hepcidin and ferritin in patients receiving vadadustat compared with those receiving darbepoetin alfa. These results for serum transferrin saturation, hepcidin, ferritin, and erythrocyte indices were consistent with improved iron availability in the patients receiving vadadustat. Thus, overall, vadadustat had beneficial effects on three aspects of erythropoiesis in patients with anemia associated with CKD: increased endogenous EPO production, improved iron availability to erythroid cells, and increased reticulocytes in the circulation.


Assuntos
Anemia , Eritropoetina , Hematínicos , Insuficiência Renal Crônica , Anemia/tratamento farmacológico , Anemia/etiologia , Ensaios Clínicos Fase III como Assunto , Darbepoetina alfa/uso terapêutico , Eritropoese , Eritropoetina/uso terapêutico , Ferritinas , Glicina/análogos & derivados , Hematínicos/uso terapêutico , Hemoglobinas/metabolismo , Hepcidinas , Humanos , Ferro/uso terapêutico , Ácidos Picolínicos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/complicações , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Transferrinas/uso terapêutico
13.
Kidney Int ; 102(3): 624-639, 2022 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35716955

RESUMO

Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) reflects kidney function. Progressive eGFR-decline can lead to kidney failure, necessitating dialysis or transplantation. Hundreds of loci from genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for eGFR help explain population cross section variability. Since the contribution of these or other loci to eGFR-decline remains largely unknown, we derived GWAS for annual eGFR-decline and meta-analyzed 62 longitudinal studies with eGFR assessed twice over time in all 343,339 individuals and in high-risk groups. We also explored different covariate adjustment. Twelve genome-wide significant independent variants for eGFR-decline unadjusted or adjusted for eGFR-baseline (11 novel, one known for this phenotype), including nine variants robustly associated across models were identified. All loci for eGFR-decline were known for cross-sectional eGFR and thus distinguished a subgroup of eGFR loci. Seven of the nine variants showed variant-by-age interaction on eGFR cross section (further about 350,000 individuals), which linked genetic associations for eGFR-decline with age-dependency of genetic cross-section associations. Clinically important were two to four-fold greater genetic effects on eGFR-decline in high-risk subgroups. Five variants associated also with chronic kidney disease progression mapped to genes with functional in-silico evidence (UMOD, SPATA7, GALNTL5, TPPP). An unfavorable versus favorable nine-variant genetic profile showed increased risk odds ratios of 1.35 for kidney failure (95% confidence intervals 1.03-1.77) and 1.27 for acute kidney injury (95% confidence intervals 1.08-1.50) in over 2000 cases each, with matched controls). Thus, we provide a large data resource, genetic loci, and prioritized genes for kidney function decline, which help inform drug development pipelines revealing important insights into the age-dependency of kidney function genetics.


Assuntos
N-Acetilgalactosaminiltransferases , Insuficiência Renal Crônica , Insuficiência Renal , Estudos Transversais , Loci Gênicos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular/genética , Humanos , Rim , Estudos Longitudinais , N-Acetilgalactosaminiltransferases/genética , Insuficiência Renal/genética
14.
Eur J Neurol ; 29(9): 2716-2724, 2022 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35652747

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Impaired kidney function is associated with an increased risk of vascular events in acute stroke patients, when assessed by single measurements of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). It is unknown whether repeated measurements provide additional information for risk prediction. METHODS: The MonDAFIS (Systematic Monitoring for Detection of Atrial Fibrillation in Patients with Acute Ischemic Stroke) study randomly assigned 3465 acute ischemic stroke patients to either standard procedures or an additive Holter electrocardiogram. Baseline eGFR (CKD-EPI formula) were dichotomized into values of < versus ≥60 ml/min/1.73 m2 . eGFR dynamics were classified based on two in-hospital values as "stable normal" (≥60 ml/min/1.73 m2 ), "increasing" (by at least 15% from baseline, second value ≥ 60 ml/min/1.73 m2 ), "decreasing" (by at least 15% from baseline of ≥60 ml/min/1.73 m2 ), and "stable decreased" (<60 ml/min/1.73 m2 ). The composite endpoint (stroke, major bleeding, myocardial infarction, all-cause death) was assessed after 24 months. We estimated hazard ratios in confounder-adjusted models. RESULTS: Estimated glomerular filtration rate at baseline was available in 2947 and a second value in 1623 patients. After adjusting for age, stroke severity, cardiovascular risk factors, and randomization, eGFR < 60 ml/min/1.73 m2 at baseline (hazard ratio [HR] = 2.2, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.40-3.54) as well as decreasing (HR = 1.79, 95% CI = 1.07-2.99) and stable decreased eGFR (HR = 1.64, 95% CI = 1.20-2.24) were independently associated with the composite endpoint. In addition, eGFR < 60 ml/min/1.732 at baseline (HR = 3.02, 95% CI = 1.51-6.10) and decreasing eGFR were associated with all-cause death (HR = 3.12, 95% CI = 1.63-5.98). CONCLUSIONS: In addition to patients with low eGFR levels at baseline, also those with decreasing eGFR have increased risk for vascular events and death; hence, repeated estimates of eGFR might add relevant information to risk prediction.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial , Ataque Isquêmico Transitório , AVC Isquêmico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Fibrilação Atrial/complicações , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Humanos , Ataque Isquêmico Transitório/complicações , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/complicações
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35612992

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD), a global public health burden, is accompanied by a declining number of functional nephrons. Estimation of remaining nephron mass may improve assessment of CKD progression. Uromodulin has been suggested as a marker of tubular mass. We aimed to identify metabolites associated with uromodulin concentrations in urine and serum to characterize pathophysiologic alterations of metabolic pathways to generate new hypotheses regarding CKD pathophysiology. METHODS: We measured urinary and serum uromodulin levels (uUMOD, sUMOD) and 607 urinary metabolites and performed cross-sectional analyses within the German Chronic Kidney Disease study (N = 4628), a prospective observational study. Urinary metabolites significantly associated with urine and serum uromodulin were used to build weighted metabolite scores for urine (uMS) and serum uromodulin (sMS) and evaluated for time to adverse kidney events over 6.5 years. RESULTS: Metabolites cross-sectionally associated with uromodulin included amino acids of the tryptophan metabolism, lipids, and nucleotides. Higher levels of the sMS (HR = 0.73 [95% CI 0.64; 0.82], p = 7.45e-07) and sUMOD (HR = 0.74 [95% CI 0.63; 0.87], p = 2.32e-04) were associated with a lower risk of adverse kidney events over time, whereas uUMOD and uMS showed the same direction of association but were not significant. CONCLUSIONS: We identified urinary metabolites associated with urinary and serum uromodulin. sUMOD and the sMS were associated with lower risk of adverse kidney events among CKD patients. Higher levels of sUMOD and sMS may reflect a higher number of functional nephrons and therefore a reduced risk of adverse kidney outcomes.

17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35524694

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Osteopontin (OPN), synthesized in the thick ascending limb of Henle's loop and in the distal tubule, is involved in the pathogenesis of kidney fibrosis, a hallmark of kidney failure (KF). In a cohort of chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients, we evaluated OPN's association with kidney markers and KF. METHODS: OPN was measured from baseline serum samples of German Chronic Kidney Disease study participants. Cross-sectional regression models for estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR) as well as Cox regression models for all-cause mortality and KF were evaluated to estimate the OPN effect. Additionally, predictive ability, of OPN and time-dependent population-attributable fraction were evaluated. RESULTS: Over a median follow-up of 6.5 years, 471 KF events and 629 deaths occurred among 4,950 CKD patients. One-unit higher log(OPN) was associated with 5.5 mL/min/1.73m2 lower eGFR (95%CI: [-6.4,-4.6]) and 1% change in OPN with 0.7% higher UACR (estimated effect 0.7, 95%CI: [0.6,0.8]). Moreover, higher OPN levels were associated with a higher risk of KF (hazard ratio [HR] 1.4, 95%CI: [1.2,1.7]) and all-cause mortality (HR 1.5, 95%CI: [1.3,1.8]). After 6 years, 31% of the KF events could be attributed to higher OPN levels (95%CI: [3%,56%]). CONCLUSIONS: In this study, higher OPN levels were associated with kidney function markers worsening, and a higher risk for adverse outcomes. A larger proportion of KF could be attributed to higher OPN levels warranting further research on OPN with regards to its role in CKD progression and possible treatment options.

18.
J Hum Hypertens ; 2022 May 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35534618

RESUMO

Treatment resistant hypertension (TRH) appears of particular relevance in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, causes and consequences of TRH in CKD patients remain incompletely understood. Therefore, we analyzed the prevalence of apparent TRH (aTRH), and phenotypic characteristics and prognosis associated with aTRH among participants of the German Chronic Kidney Disease (GCKD) study. As insufficient medication adherence has been shown to be a frequent cause of pseudoresistance, we also assessed treatment adherence. Study participants were classified as having aTRH, controlled hypertension and uncontrolled hypertension based on study visit blood pressure and self-reported medication intake. Drug adherence was assessed by comparing self-reported antihypertensive medication with detectable urinary drug metabolites measured by mass spectroscopy. Out of 4901 individuals included in this study, 38% were classified as having aTRH. Male sex, older age, lower estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), higher body mass index (BMI), higher urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR) and presence of diabetes mellitus were independently associated with higher prevalence of aTRH in a multivariable adjusted regression model. Patients classified as aTRH had higher risk for major adverse cardiovascular events and worsening of kidney disease compared to patients with no aTRH after multivariate adjustment for potential confounders. There was a high agreement between self-reported medication and detectable urinary drug metabolites. In conclusion, in a cohort of Caucasian patients with moderately severe CKD, aTRH was highly prevalent and, in most cases, likely not caused by low medication adherence. Furthermore, aTRH was linked to cardio-renal endpoints, emphasizing the need for improved management.

20.
Kidney Int Rep ; 7(5): 1004-1015, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35570994

RESUMO

Introduction: Prospective data on impact of educational attainment on prognosis in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) are scarce. We investigated the association between educational attainment and all-cause mortality, major adverse cardiovascular (CV) events (MACEs), kidney failure requiring dialysis, and CKD etiology. Methods: Participants (N = 5095, aged 18-74 years) of the ongoing multicenter German Chronic Kidney Disease (GCKD) cohort, enrolled on the basis of an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) of 30 to 60 ml/min (stages G3, A1-A3) or overt proteinuria (stages G1-G2, A3), were divided into 3 categories according to their educational attainment and were followed for 6.5 years. Results: Participants with low educational attainment (vs. high) had a higher risk for mortality (hazard ratio [HR] 1.48, 95% CI: 1.16-1.90), MACE (HR 1.37, 95% CI: 1.02-1.83), and kidney failure (HR 1.54, 95% CI: 1.15-2.05). Mediators between low educational attainment and mortality were smoking, CV disease (CVD) at baseline, low income, higher body mass index, and higher serum levels of CRP, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, uric acid, NGAL, BAP, NT-proBNP, OPN, H-FABP, and urea. Low educational attainment was positively associated with diabetic nephropathy (odds ratio [OR] 1.65, 95% CI: 1.36-2.0) and CKD subsequent to acute kidney injury (OR 1.56, 95% CI: 1.03-2.35), but negatively associated with IgA nephropathy (OR 0.68, 95% CI: 0.52-0.90). Conclusion: Low educational attainment is associated with adverse outcomes and CKD etiology. Lifestyle habits and biomarkers mediate associations between low educational attainment and mortality. Recognition of the role of educational attainment and the associated health-relevant risk factors is important to optimize the care of patients with CKD and improve prognosis.

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