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1.
J Clin Anesth ; 61: 109632, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31668693

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Postoperative delirium (POD) is a common complication after surgery. OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine the association between preoperative anticholinergic load calculated using the anticholinergic drug scale (ADS) and POD in cancer patients over 65 years of age. DESIGN: A retrospective sub-investigation of a randomised controlled interventional trial. SETTING: Two tertiary university hospitals. PATIENTS: Overall, patients aged 65 years and older scheduled for surgical treatment of gastrointestinary, genitourinary or gynaecological cancers. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome was the interaction between anticholinergic drug scale and occurrence of postoperative delirium. Patient clinical parameters and ADS scores were assessed preoperatively. POD screening was conducted for a total of 7 days following surgery using validated measures. Independent associations between ADS and POD were assessed using multivariate logistical regression analyses. RESULTS: A total of 651 patients (mean age, 71.8 years; 68.5% males) were included. Of those, 66 patients (10.1%) developed POD. The ADS score was independently associated with the occurrence of POD (higher ADS per point OR 1.496; 95% CI 1.09-2.05; p = 0.01). Additionally, age (per year OR 1.06; CI 95% CI 1.01-1.11; p = 0.03) and ASA state (OR 2.16; 95% CI 1.22-3.83; p = 0.01), as well as stay on ICU (yes vs. no OR 2.8; 95% CI 1.57-4.998; p < 0.01), were independently associated with POD. CONCLUSIONS: ADS assessment according to chronic medication use is a cost-effective, non-invasive method of identifying elderly cancer patients at risk for POD. TRIAL REGISTRY: www.clinicaltrials.gov. Identifier NCT01278537. Ethics: IRB of Charité University-Medicine Berlin, Germany; EA2/241/08.

2.
J Perianesth Nurs ; 33(3): 281-289, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29784257

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study aimed to determine the effect of patient empowerment on acute postoperative pain. This research was part of the Patient Empowerment and Risk-Assessed Treatment to Improve Outcome in the Elderly After Onco-Surgery Trial. DESIGN: This research was a prospective randomized controlled interventional study. METHODS: Patients who underwent gynecologic onco-surgery were included in this analysis of demographic data, basic characteristics, pain intensity by numeric rating scale, and mode of pain therapy. The intervention included provision of detailed information booklet and patient diary. FINDINGS: Ninety-one patients were enrolled (treatment group, n = 51; control group, n = 40). With the same medications, pain on the first postoperative day was significantly less severe in the treatment group than in the control group (P = .03). On multivariate logistic regression, patient empowerment had a significant effect on pain intensity (odds ratio, 3.46; 95% confidence interval, 1.35 to 8.86; P = .01). The number needed to treat to decrease pain from severe to mild (numeric rating scale, 5 to 10 to 0 to 4) was 4.35. CONCLUSIONS: Patient empowerment significantly reduces postoperative pain in elderly patients undergoing gynecologic cancer surgery.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos em Ginecologia/efeitos adversos , Dor Pós-Operatória/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Analgésicos Opioides/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Humanos , Manejo da Dor/métodos , Dor Pós-Operatória/prevenção & controle , Estudos Prospectivos
3.
J Geriatr Oncol ; 9(1): 53-59, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28888555

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prognostic value of elements of the Geriatric Assessment, in particular the Timed Up and Go (TUG) Test and the Barthel Index of Activities of Daily Living (ADL) for one-year post-operative mortality in elderly patients with cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This prospective cohort study included patients 65years of age or older undergoing elective major surgery for cancer between June 2008 and June 2010. Preoperative functional status was measured by the TUG Test and the Barthel Index of ADL Cognitive state was assessed by the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE). Complications were recorded prospectively. The degree of resection was noted. RESULTS: Data from 131 patients (56% women; median age, 71years) were analysed at 1year of follow-up. Mortality after 1year was 28.2%. Twenty-nine patients (22.3%) were dependent in ADLs, and 43 (35.2%) impaired in TUG. Thirteen patients (10.7%) were both, dependent in ADLs and impaired in TUG. Short-term complications after surgery occurred in 66% of patients, and major complications occurred in 29%. Patients who were dependent in ADLs and impaired in TUG had significantly higher 1-year mortality (OR, 4.5; 95% CI, 1.21-18.25; p=0.034). Lower scores on the MMSE (OR, 0.64; 95% CI, 0.43-0.95; p=0.048) and incomplete surgical resection (OR, 3.25; 95% CI, 1.15-9.20; p=0.026) were independently associated with higher 1-year mortality. CONCLUSION: Functional assessments, such as ADL and TUG scores, as well as mild cognitive impairment, are predictors of long-term outcome in elderly cancer patients. TRIAL REGISTRATION: German Clinical Trials Register (DRKS 00005150).


Assuntos
Disfunção Cognitiva/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Gastrointestinais/mortalidade , Avaliação Geriátrica/métodos , Neoplasias Urogenitais/mortalidade , Atividades Cotidianas , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Comorbidade , Feminino , Neoplasias Gastrointestinais/psicologia , Neoplasias Gastrointestinais/cirurgia , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Testes de Estado Mental e Demência , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Neoplasias Urogenitais/psicologia , Neoplasias Urogenitais/cirurgia
4.
Z Gerontol Geriatr ; 51(1): 54-59, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27637580

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Research regarding effective collaboration and communication between professional caregivers and dermatologists and the need for further education and training for caregivers in the field of geriatric dermatology still remains relatively scarce. OBJECTIVE: To document the state of knowledge of professional caregivers in the field of geriatric dermatology and make recommendations for dermatological education and postgraduate training. METHODS: A questionnaire with open and closed questions was used to evaluate the level of knowledge and current need for information in geriatric dermatology. A total of 58 professional caregivers from several hospital departments, including geriatric wards and nursing homes participated in this study. Quantitative and qualitative data were generated and responses to open questions were categorized according to the most quoted contents. The study was approved by the Charité University in Berlin ethics committee. RESULTS: The study demonstrates that there is a lack of dermatological knowledge. Participants indicated a huge information need regarding skin tumors (77.2 %), prevention of skin diseases (50.0 %) and pruritus (41.4 %). According to the caregivers, communication problems with physicians arise in view of using standardized terms of skin diseases (22.9 %) and formulating unclear care records of skin diseases (20.8 %). CONCLUSION: Difficulties in communication between professional caregivers and physicians can influence patients' punctual and well-founded treatment; therefore, further education must be mediated vividly and practically. Moreover, training should focus on learning standardized terms and descriptions for optimizing the flow of information with physicians and written communication, such as care records.


Assuntos
Dermatologia/educação , Educação Continuada em Enfermagem , Enfermagem Geriátrica/educação , Instituição de Longa Permanência para Idosos , Colaboração Intersetorial , Casas de Saúde , Dermatopatias/enfermagem , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Alemanha , Humanos , Capacitação em Serviço , Comunicação Interdisciplinar , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pesquisa em Enfermagem , Prurido/enfermagem , Neoplasias Cutâneas/enfermagem , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
5.
Acta Diabetol ; 54(11): 1031-1038, 2017 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28866807

RESUMO

AIMS: Inverse relationships have been described between the largely genetically determined levels of serum/plasma lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)], type 2 diabetes (T2D) and fasting insulin. Here, we aimed to evaluate the nature of these relationships with respect to causality. METHODS: We tested whether we could replicate the recent negative findings on causality between Lp(a) and T2D by employing the Mendelian randomization (MR) approach using cross-sectional data from three independent cohorts, Berlin Aging Study II (BASE-II; n = 2012), LIFE-Adult (n = 3281) and LIFE-Heart (n = 2816). Next, we explored another frequently discussed hypothesis in this context: Increasing insulin levels during the course of T2D disease development inhibits hepatic Lp(a) synthesis and thereby might explain the inverse Lp(a)-T2D association. We used two fasting insulin-associated variants, rs780094 and rs10195252, as instrumental variables in MR analysis of n = 4937 individuals from BASE-II and LIFE-Adult. We further investigated causality of the association between fasting insulin and Lp(a) by combined MR analysis of 12 additional SNPs in LIFE-Adult. RESULTS: While an Lp(a)-T2D association was observed in the combined analysis (meta-effect of OR [95% CI] = 0.91 [0.87-0.96] per quintile, p = 1.3x10-4), we found no evidence of causality in the Lp(a)-T2D association (p = 0.29, fixed effect model) when using the variant rs10455872 as the instrumental variable in the MR analyses. Likewise, no evidence of a causal effect of insulin on Lp(a) levels was found. CONCLUSIONS: While these results await confirmation in larger cohorts, the nature of the inverse Lp(a)-T2D association remains to be elucidated.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Insulina/sangue , Lipoproteína(a)/sangue , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Apolipoproteínas A/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Jejum/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
6.
Drugs Aging ; 33(11): 829-837, 2016 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27665105

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pharmacological options for the treatment of sarcopenia currently do not exist. However, off-label treatment options of some established drugs have been suggested. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to assess differences in various muscle and physical performance parameters in relation to the intake of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors in a cohort of community-dwelling older people. METHODS: Eight hundred and thirty-eight participants from the Berlin Aging Study-II (BASE-II) were included. Appendicular lean mass was assessed with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and related to height and body mass index. Muscle strength was measured by grip strength and related to muscle mass (arm muscle quality) and functional status was assessed via the timed "Up and Go" test. RESULTS: Users of ACE inhibitors had higher lean mass related to height but significantly lower lean mass related to body mass index (p = 0.001 for women and p < 0.0001 for men). Moreover, they exhibited lower arm muscle quality (p = 0.032 for women and p = 0.031 for men) and reported difficulties in climbing stairs more often than non-users (p = 0.014 for women and p = 0.004 for men). After adjustment for confounders, there were no significant differences regarding lean mass, arm muscle quality and the timed "Up and Go" test according to the use of ACE inhibitors. CONCLUSIONS: In BASE-II, no positive relationship was found between the intake of ACE inhibitors and lean mass, strength, muscle quality or function. Moreover, remarkable differences between parameters of absolute and relative lean mass in relation to the use of ACE inhibitors became evident. Fat mass proved to be an important confounder and therefore muscle mass cannot be viewed irrespectively of whole body composition.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Músculo Esquelético/efeitos dos fármacos , Sarcopenia/tratamento farmacológico , Absorciometria de Fóton , Idoso , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/administração & dosagem , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/efeitos adversos , Berlim , Composição Corporal , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Força da Mão/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Atividade Motora/efeitos dos fármacos , Força Muscular/efeitos dos fármacos , Músculo Esquelético/fisiopatologia , Uso Off-Label , Tamanho do Órgão , Análise de Regressão , Fatores de Risco , Sarcopenia/fisiopatologia
7.
Dtsch Arztebl Int ; 113(15): 253-60, 2016 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27151463

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Loss of muscle mass, particularly in old age, can restrict mobility and physical function. Sleep is thought to play a key role in the maintenance of muscle mass; sleep disturbances have a prevalence of 6-30% in Germany. In this study, based on data from the Berlin Aging Study II (BASE-II), we analyze the relationship between sleep efficiency and quality on the one hand, and muscle mass and muscle function on the other. METHODS: We analyzed cross-sectional data from 1196 subjects (52.5% women; 68 ± 4 years). Sleep behavior was assessed with questions from the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index; appendicular lean mass (ALM) with dual x-ray absorp - tiometry; and muscle function with a measure of grip strength and with questionnaires about physical activity and impairment of physical activities. Low muscle mass was determined from the ALM corrected by the body-mass index (BMI), i.e., from the ratio ALM/BMI. RESULTS: 19.1% of the women and 13.4% of the men reported poor sleep quality. Men whose ALM/BMI ratio was below the cutoff value for low muscle mass more frequently reported very poor sleep efficiency (9.1% , versus 4.8% in women; p<0.002). The adjusted odds ratio for low muscle mass was 2.8 for men with poor sleep quality (95% confidence interval: [1.1; 6.7]) and 4.3 for men with poor sleep efficiency [1.2; 15.1]. In women, there was no statistically significant association between sleep quality and efficiency on the one hand and ALM/BMI values below cutoff on the other, but poor sleep quality was found to be associated with reduced grip strength (16.25 kg ± 2.33 kg versus 15.67 kg ± 2.38 kg; p = 0.009) and low appendicular lean mass (ALM: 16.25 kg ± 2.33 kg versus 15.67 kg ± 2.38 kg; p = 0.016). CONCLUSION: These findings support the hypothesis of a link between sleep and muscle mass. The dependence of muscle mass on sleep behavior needs to be investigated in longitudinal studies.


Assuntos
Músculo Esquelético/fisiopatologia , Doenças Musculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Musculares/fisiopatologia , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/epidemiologia , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/fisiopatologia , Sono , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , Causalidade , Comorbidade , Feminino , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Força Muscular , Músculo Esquelético/patologia , Doenças Musculares/diagnóstico , Tamanho do Órgão , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Distribuição por Sexo , Fatores Sexuais , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/diagnóstico
8.
Gerontology ; 62(3): 337-44, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26821158

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Decreased bone mineral density (BMD) has been linked to metabolic disorders, such as type 2 diabetes. However, results regarding the metabolic syndrome (MetS), a cluster of at least 3 of 5 cardiovascular risk parameters with potentially contradictory effects on BMD are still inconclusive. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the effect of MetS and its single parameters on BMD at 3 sites in community-dwelling older subjects. METHODS: 1,402 subjects (51.1% female, 68 ± 4 years old) from the Berlin Aging Study II (BASE-II) were included. MetS was defined as suggested by IDF/NHLBI/AHA. Insulin resistance (IR) was assessed by the homeostasis model of IR. BMD (lumbar spine, femur neck, hip) and trunk fat were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Osteoporosis was defined by a T score of ≤-2.5. RESULTS: MetS was present in 29.6% of women and 41.7% of men. In regression models, we observed a positive association of MetS with the BMD of the lumbar spine (p = 0.005) and hip (p = 0.028) in women even after adjustment for risk factors, but no effect of the single parameters apart from IR. In contrast, there was no association between MetS and BMD in men. However, higher trunk fat and higher waist circumference were associated with lower levels of BMD in men with or without MetS (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: We obtained different results in men and women. In women, the positive though slight effect of MetS on BMD could not be explained by single MetS components apart from IR. In men, central obesity was negatively associated with BMD, suggesting that the metabolic effects driven by visceral fat have a negative impact.


Assuntos
Densidade Óssea , Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia , Osteoporose/epidemiologia , Absorciometria de Fóton , Idoso , Berlim/epidemiologia , Glicemia/metabolismo , Pressão Sanguínea , Índice de Massa Corporal , HDL-Colesterol/sangue , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Colo do Fêmur/diagnóstico por imagem , Quadril/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Vida Independente , Insulina/sangue , Resistência à Insulina , Gordura Intra-Abdominal , Vértebras Lombares/diagnóstico por imagem , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica/sangue , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade Abdominal/epidemiologia , Osteoporose/diagnóstico por imagem , Análise de Regressão , Triglicerídeos/sangue , Circunferência da Cintura
9.
J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci ; 71(2): 265-72, 2016 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26265728

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a cluster of cardiovascular risk factors which has been linked with a decline in muscle mass. However, with a variety of sarcopenia definitions, it is unclear which approach is suitable to detect reduced muscle mass in subjects with MetS who are frequently characterized by an increased fat mass and higher body weight. METHODS: We analyzed cross-sectional data of 1,402 (51.1% female; 69±3.7 years) old community-dwelling subjects of the Berlin Aging Study II. MetS was defined according to the guidelines of the International Diabetes Federation/American Heart Association/National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (IDF/AHA/NHLBI, 2009). Sarcopenia was defined as suggested by Baumgartner et al. (low appendicular lean mass corrected for height, ALM/HT(2)) and according to standardized residuals following the approach suggested by Newman et al., which corrects appendicular lean mass (ALM) for weight and height. RESULTS: MetS was identified in 35% of the participants, 25.6% had sarcopenia according to ALM/HT(2), 20% according to the residual approach. We compared the two operational parameters and found that the majority of physical and metabolic parameters were more impaired and self-reported difficulties in physical performance were greater in individuals defined sarcopenic according to residuals than subjects who were sarcopenic according to a low ALM/HT(2). CONCLUSION: Our results indicate that an approach to define sarcopenia which corrects ALM both for height and weight is more suitable to detect increased physical limitations as well as higher metabolic impairment, compared to adjustment of ALM only for height.


Assuntos
Síndrome Metabólica/complicações , Sarcopenia/diagnóstico , Sarcopenia/etiologia , Atividades Cotidianas , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Composição Corporal , Estudos Transversais , Avaliação da Deficiência , Feminino , Avaliação Geriátrica , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Humanos , Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Sarcopenia/epidemiologia
10.
Z Gerontol Geriatr ; 49(5): 405-15, 2016 Jul.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26508109

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous studies have indicated a relationship between type II diabetes (T2D), metabolic syndrome (MetS) and pulmonary function but the pathological mechanism responsible remains unclear. The aim of the current analysis within the Berlin Aging Study II (BASE-II) was to investigate the influence of abdominal obesity and muscle mass on pulmonary function in subjects with T2D and MetS. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A prebronchodilator pulmonary function test was carried out in 1369 subjects from the BASE-II (mean age 69 ± 4 years, 51.6 % women) where T2D was defined according to the German Diabetes Association (DDG) criteria, MetS according to the criteria of the International Diabetes Federation (IDF), American Heart Association (AHA) and National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute (NHLBI) criteria from 2009 and pulmonary obstruction (obstructive lung disease, OLD) by the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) criteria of a forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1 and forced vital capacity (FVC) ratio < 70 %. RESULTS: Of the subjects 50.9 % achieved a sufficient level of quality according to the GOLD guidelines and were analyzed with respect to the research question. The FEV1 and FVC were decreased in study participants with T2D and MetS and the lung volume decreased with an increasing number of MetS criteria. Parameters of body composition, such as waist circumference and muscle mass had a significant influence on lung volumes, independent of MetS or T2D. DISCUSSION: In this study MetS and T2D were associated with decreased lung volumes; however, muscle mass and abdominal obesity proved to be the most important factors influencing pulmonary function and could thus form the link between pulmonary function and MetS or T2D. Measurement of grip strength for the determination of muscle mass and waist circumference for determining abdominal obesity could contribute to the interpretation of the results of pulmonary function tests.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/diagnóstico , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/epidemiologia , Testes de Função Respiratória/estatística & dados numéricos , Distribuição por Idade , Idoso , Causalidade , Comorbidade , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico , Feminino , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica/diagnóstico , Prevalência , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Fatores de Risco , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
11.
J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci ; 71(10): 1315-21, 2016 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26686229

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Selected nutrients or food groups have often been studied with regard to long-term mortality and cardiovascular disease, whereas the relation between diet quality and appendicular lean mass (ALM) has rarely been researched. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to explore the association between a Mediterranean-style diet and ALM in community-dwelling older people. METHODS: Cross-sectional data from the Berlin Aging Study II were available for 1,509 participants (51% women, 68.2±3.7 years). Nutrient intake was assessed using the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition Food Frequency Questionnaire. Adherence to a Mediterranean-style diet was evaluated with the modified Mediterranean-type diet score (mMedTypeDiet). ALM was determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and related to body mass index (ALM/BMI). A general linear regression model was carried out to assess the association between mMedTypeDiet score groups and ALM/BMI. RESULTS: ALM/BMI was higher in women with a higher adherence to the mMedTypeDiet (0.64±0.1 vs 0.62±0.1 and 0.61±0.1 in low and medium adherence, retrospectively, p = .004). In the risk factor-adjusted general linear regression analysis, a higher adherence to the mMedTypeDiet was associated with higher ALM/BMI in women and better ALM/fat mass ratio when compared to a medium and a low diet quality. No significant associations were seen in men. CONCLUSIONS: Higher adherence to a Mediterranean-style diet was associated with a positive effect on ALM/BMI in women.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Composição Corporal/fisiologia , Dieta Mediterrânea , Cooperação do Paciente , Absorciometria de Fóton , Idoso , Berlim , Estudos Transversais , Ingestão de Energia , Feminino , Humanos , Vida Independente , Masculino , Avaliação Nutricional , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários
12.
Ger Med Sci ; 13: Doc19, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26609286

RESUMO

In 2010, under the guidance of the DGAI (German Society of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine) and DIVI (German Interdisciplinary Association for Intensive Care and Emergency Medicine), twelve German medical societies published the "Evidence- and Consensus-based Guidelines on the Management of Analgesia, Sedation and Delirium in Intensive Care". Since then, several new studies and publications have considerably increased the body of evidence, including the new recommendations from the American College of Critical Care Medicine (ACCM) in conjunction with Society of Critical Care Medicine (SCCM) and American Society of Health-System Pharmacists (ASHP) from 2013. For this update, a major restructuring and extension of the guidelines were needed in order to cover new aspects of treatment, such as sleep and anxiety management. The literature was systematically searched and evaluated using the criteria of the Oxford Center of Evidence Based Medicine. The body of evidence used to formulate these recommendations was reviewed and approved by representatives of 17 national societies. Three grades of recommendation were used as follows: Grade "A" (strong recommendation), Grade "B" (recommendation) and Grade "0" (open recommendation). The result is a comprehensive, interdisciplinary, evidence and consensus-based set of level 3 guidelines. This publication was designed for all ICU professionals, and takes into account all critically ill patient populations. It represents a guide to symptom-oriented prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of delirium, anxiety, stress, and protocol-based analgesia, sedation, and sleep-management in intensive care medicine.


Assuntos
Analgesia/normas , Sedação Consciente/normas , Cuidados Críticos/normas , Sedação Profunda/normas , Delírio/tratamento farmacológico , Ansiedade/diagnóstico , Ansiedade/tratamento farmacológico , Consenso , Delírio/diagnóstico , Delírio/terapia , Medicina Baseada em Evidências , Humanos , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/uso terapêutico , Sono , Estresse Psicológico/diagnóstico , Estresse Psicológico/tratamento farmacológico
13.
Z Gerontol Geriatr ; 2015 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26508108

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous studies have indicated a relationship between type II diabetes (T2D), metabolic syndrome (MetS) and pulmonary function but the pathological mechanism responsible remains unclear. The aim of the current analysis within the Berlin Aging Study II (BASE-II) was to investigate the influence of abdominal obesity and muscle mass on pulmonary function in subjects with T2D and MetS. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A prebronchodilator pulmonary function test was carried out in 1369 subjects from the BASE-II (mean age 69 ± 4 years, 51.6 % women) where T2D was defined according to the German Diabetes Association (DDG) criteria, MetS according to the criteria of the International Diabetes Foundation (IDF), American Heart Association (AHA) and National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute (NHLBI) criteria from 2009 and pulmonary obstruction (obstructive lung disease, OLD) by the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) criteria of a forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1 and forced vital capacity (FVC) ratio < 70 %. RESULTS: Of the subjects 50.9 % achieved a sufficient level of quality according to the GOLD guidelines and were analyzed with respect to the research question. The FEV1 and FVC were decreased in study participants with T2D and MetS and the lung volume decreased with an increasing number of MetS criteria. Parameters of body composition, such as waist circumference and muscle mass had a significant influence on lung volumes, independent of MetS or T2D. DISCUSSION: In this study MetS and T2D were associated with decreased lung volumes; however, muscle mass and abdominal obesity proved to be the most important factors influencing pulmonary function and could thus form the link between pulmonary function and MetS or T2D. Measurement of grip strength for the determination of muscle mass and waist circumference for determining abdominal obesity could contribute to the interpretation of the results of pulmonary function tests.

14.
PLoS One ; 10(9): e0139040, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26421427

RESUMO

Reduced pulmonary function and elevated serum cholesterol levels are recognized risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Currently, there is some controversy concerning relationships between cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, serum triglycerides and lung function. However, most previous studies compared patients suffering from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) with healthy controls, and only a small number examined this relationship in population-based cohorts. Moreover, lipoprotein a [Lp(a)], another lipid parameter independently associated with cardiovascular diseases, appears not to have been addressed at all in studies of lung function at the population level. Here, we determined relationships between lung function and several lipid parameters including Lp(a) in 606 older community-dwelling participants (55.1% women, 68±4 years old) from the Berlin Aging Study II (BASE-II). We found a significantly lower forced expiration volume in 1 second (FEV1) in men with low Lp(a) concentrations (t-test). This finding was further substantiated by linear regression models adjusting for known covariates, showing that these associations are statistically significant in both men and women. According to the highest adjusted model, men and women with Lp(a) levels below the 20th percentile had 217.3ml and 124.2ml less FEV1 and 239.0ml and 135.2ml less FVC, respectively, compared to participants with higher Lp(a) levels. The adjusted models also suggest that the known strong correlation between pro-inflammatory parameters and lung function has only a marginal impact on the Lp(a)-pulmonary function association. Our results do not support the hypothesis that higher Lp(a) levels are responsible for the increased CVD risk in people with reduced lung function, at least not in the group of community-dwelling older people studied here.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/sangue , Volume Expiratório Forçado , Lipoproteína(a)/sangue , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Modelos Biológicos , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , Caracteres Sexuais , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/sangue , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/fisiopatologia
15.
PLoS One ; 10(9): e0137824, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26378939

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This randomized controlled, clinical prospective interventional trial was aimed at exploring the effect of patient empowerment on short- and long-term outcomes after major oncologic surgery in elderly cancer patients. METHODS: This trial was performed from February 2011 to January 2014 at two tertiary medical centers in Germany. The study included patients aged 65 years and older undergoing elective surgery for gastro-intestinal, genitourinary, and thoracic cancer. The patients were randomly assigned to the intervention group, i.e. patient empowerment through information booklet and diary keeping, or to the control group, which received standard care. Randomization was done by block randomization in blocks of four in order of enrollment. The primary outcome were 1,postoperative length of hospital stay (LOS) and 2. long-term global health-related quality of life (HRQoL) one year postoperatively. HRQoL was assessed using the EORTC QLQ C30 questionnaire. Secondary outcomes encompassed postoperative stress and complications. Further objectives were the identification of predictors of LOS, and HRQoL at 12 months. RESULTS: Overall 652 patients were included. The mean age was 72 ± 4.9 years, and the majority of patients were male (68.6%, n = 447). The ^median of postoperative length of stay was 9 days (IQR 7-14 day). There were no significant differences between the intervention and the control groups in postoperative LOS (p = 0.99) or global HRQoL after one year (women: p = 0.54, men: p = 0.94). While overall complications and major complications occurred in 74% and 24% of the cases, respectively, frequency and severity of complications did not differ significantly between the groups. Patients in the intervention group reported significantly less postoperative pain (p = 0.03) than the control group. Independent predictors for LOS were identified as severity of surgery, length of anesthesia, major postoperative complications, nutritional state, and pre-operative physical functional capacity measured by the Timed Up and Go-test by multiple robust regressions. CONCLUSION: Patient empowerment through information booklet and diary keeping did not shorten the postoperative LOS in elderly onco-surgical patients, but improved quality of care regarding postoperative pain. Postoperative length of stay is influenced by pre-operative nutritional state, pre-operative functional impairment, severity of surgery, and length of anesthesia. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov. Identifier NCT01278537.


Assuntos
Educação de Pacientes como Assunto , Participação do Paciente/métodos , Assistência Perioperatória/métodos , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde , Qualidade de Vida , Idoso , Feminino , Neoplasias Gastrointestinais/cirurgia , Alemanha , Humanos , Tempo de Internação , Masculino , Dor Pós-Operatória , Complicações Pós-Operatórias , Estudos Prospectivos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Centros de Atenção Terciária , Neoplasias Torácicas/cirurgia , Resultado do Tratamento , Neoplasias Urogenitais/cirurgia
16.
J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci ; 70(6): 779-84, 2015 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25638537

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: For prevention and treatment of sarcopenia, defined as a decline in lean mass, reliable diagnostic criteria and cutpoints reflecting a clinically relevant threshold are indispensable. As of yet, various parameters have been proposed but no gold standard exists. The aim of this study was to compare cutpoints of appendicular lean mass related to body mass index (ALMBMI) or height (ALM/height(2)) regarding their association with self-reported physical limitations and frailty status in a sample of community-dwelling older adults. METHODS: A total of 1,343 participants from the Berlin Aging Study II were included. ALM index was assessed with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Limitations in physical performance were assessed via questionnaire and frailty status was defined according to the Fried criteria. RESULTS: In a risk factor-adjusted analysis, participants with an ALMBMI below the cutpoints had 1.4-2.8 times higher odds of difficulties in several domains of physical activity (p = .031 to p < .0001) compared with participants with normal ALMBMI. In participants with low ALM/height(2), no associations with physical limitations were found. Moreover, the odds of being prefrail/frail were statistically significant for the low ALMBMI group only (odds ratio = 2.403, 95% confidence interval: 1.671-3.454, p < .0001) and not for the low ALM/height(2) group. CONCLUSIONS: This study showed striking differences between the two operational criteria ALM/height(2) and ALMBMI concerning their association with physical limitations and prefrailty/frailty. The low ALMBMI cutpoints seem suitable to detect patients at risk for negative outcomes such as frailty who might benefit from interventions targeted at improving lean mass.


Assuntos
Distribuição da Gordura Corporal , Idoso Fragilizado , Sarcopenia/epidemiologia , Absorciometria de Fóton , Atividades Cotidianas , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estatura , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos Transversais , Avaliação da Deficiência , Feminino , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos
17.
J Am Med Dir Assoc ; 16(2): 173.e17-22, 2015 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25499428

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We investigated the impact of low phase angle (PhA) values on muscle strength, quality of life, symptom severity, and 1-year mortality in older cancer patients. DESIGN: Prospective study with 1-year follow-up. PARTICIPANTS: Cancer patients aged >60 years. METHODS: PhA was derived from whole body impedance analysis. The fifth percentile of age-, sex-, and body mass index-stratified reference values were used as cut-off. Quality of life was determined with the European Organization of Research and Treatment in Cancer questionnaire, reflecting both several function scales and symptom severity. Muscle strength was assessed by hand grip strength, knee extension strength, and peak expiratory flow. RESULTS: 433 cancer patients, aged 60-95 years, were recruited. Patients with low PhA (n = 197) exhibited decreased muscle strength compared with patients with normal PhA (hand grip strength: 22 ± 8.6 vs 28.9 ± 8.9 kg, knee extension strength: 20.8 ± 11.8 vs 28.1 ± 14.9 kg, and peak expiratory flow: 301.1 ± 118 vs 401.7 ± 142.6 L/min, P < .001). Physical function, global health status, and role function from the European Organization of Research and Treatment in Cancer questionnaire were reduced, and most symptoms (fatigue, anorexia, pain, and dyspnea) increased in patients with low PhA (P < .001). In a risk-factor adjusted regression analysis, PhA emerged as independent predictor of physical function (ß:-0.538, P = .023), hand grip strength (ß:-4.684, P < .0001), knee extension strength (ß:-4.548, P = .035), and peak expiratory flow (ß:-66.836, P < .0001). Low PhA moreover predicted 1-year mortality in the Cox proportional hazards regression model, whereas grip strength was no longer significant. CONCLUSIONS: PhA below the fifth reference percentile is highly predictive of decreased muscle strength, impaired quality of life, and increased mortality in old patients with cancer and should be evaluated in routine assessment.


Assuntos
Avaliação Geriátrica/métodos , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Neoplasias/fisiopatologia , Neoplasias/psicologia , Qualidade de Vida , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Causas de Morte , Estudos de Coortes , Intervalos de Confiança , Impedância Elétrica , Feminino , Alemanha , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/mortalidade , Aptidão Física/fisiologia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Perfil de Impacto da Doença , Análise de Sobrevida
18.
PLoS One ; 9(1): e85456, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24465568

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Aim of this study was to evaluate the association between preoperative health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and mortality in a cohort of elderly patients (>65 years) with gastrointestinal, gynecological and genitourinary carcinomas. DESIGN: Prospective cohort pilot study. SETTING: Tertiary university hospital in Germany. PATIENTS: Between June 2008 and July 2010 and after ethical committee approval and written informed consent, 126 patients scheduled for onco-surgery were included. Prior to surgery as well as 3 and 12 months postoperatively all participants completed the EORTC-QLQ-C30 questionnaire (measuring self-reported health-related quality of life). Additionally, demographic and clinical data including the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) were collected. Surgery and anesthesia were conducted according to the standard operating procedures. Primary endpoint was the cumulative mortality rate over 12 months after one year. Changes in Quality of life were considered as secondary outcome. RESULTS: Mortality after one year was 28%. In univariable and multivariable logistic regression analysis baseline HRQoL self-reported cognitive function (OR per point: 0.98; CI 95% 0.96-0.99; p = 0.024) and higher symptom burden for appetite loss (per point: OR 1.02; CI 95% 1.00-1.03; p = 0.014) were predictive for long-term mortality. Additionally the MMSE as an objective measure of cognitive impairment (per point: OR 0.69; CI 95% 0.51-0.96; p = 0.026) as well as severity of surgery (OR 0.31; CI 95% 0.11-0.93; p = 0.036) were predictive for long-term mortality. Global health status 12 months after surgery was comparable to the baseline levels in survivors despite moderate impairments in other domains. CONCLUSION: This study showed that objective and self-reported cognitive functioning together with appetite loss were prognostic for mortality in elderly cancer patients. In addition, impaired cognitive dysfunction and severity of surgery were predictive for one-year mortality whereas in this selected population scheduled for surgery age, gender, cancer site and metastases were not.


Assuntos
Neoplasias/mortalidade , Neoplasias/cirurgia , Qualidade de Vida , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Mortalidade , Período Pré-Operatório , Prognóstico , Inquéritos e Questionários
19.
Int J Epidemiol ; 43(3): 703-12, 2014 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23505255

RESUMO

Similar to other industrialized countries, Germany's population is ageing. Whereas some people enjoy good physical and cognitive health into old age, others suffer from a multitude of age-related disorders and impairments which reduce life expectancy and affect quality of life. To identify and characterize the factors associated with 'healthy' vs. 'unhealthy' ageing, we have launched the Berlin Aging Study II (BASE-II), a multidisciplinary and multi-institutional project that ascertains a large number of ageing-related variables from a wide range of different functional domains. Phenotypic assessments include factors related to geriatrics and internal medicine, immunology, genetics, psychology, sociology and economics. Baseline recruitment of the BASE-II cohort was recently completed and has led to the sampling of 1600 older adults (age range 60-80 years), as well as 600 younger adults (20-35 years) serving as the basic population for in-depth analyses. BASE-II data are linked to the German Socio-Economic Panel Study (SOEP), a long-running panel survey representative of the German population, to estimate sample selectivity. A major goal of BASE-II is to facilitate collaboration with other research groups by freely sharing relevant phenotypic and genotypic data with qualified outside investigators.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Envelhecimento/psicologia , Avaliação Geriátrica/métodos , Nível de Saúde , Saúde Mental , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Alergia e Imunologia , Estudos de Coortes , Dieta , Exercício , Feminino , Genética Médica , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sexualidade , Fatores Socioeconômicos
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