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1.
Europace ; 2020 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31998940

RESUMO

AIMS: Using a modified CARTO 3D mapping system, we studied if premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) cause position shifts within the 3D co-ordinate system. We quantified magnitude of the phenomenon and corrected for it, by creating both an activation map that represents the conventional local activation time (LAT) and one corrected for this position shift (hybrid LAT map). METHODS AND RESULTS: We prospectively enrolled patients planned for PVC ablation. Distances between the earliest LAT, the earliest hybrid-LAT, and the best pacemap positions were calculated in a 3D model. Ablation was performed at the best hybrid-LAT location. Efficacy was evaluated by acute response to ablation as well as clinical outcome on 24-h Holter at 1 year. One hundred and twenty-seven LAT-hybrid pairs were studied in 18 patients (age 48.3 ± 18.0 years, 12 female). Baseline PVC burden was 16 ± 12%. The mean position shift between LAT-hybrid and its associated LAT position was 8.9 ± 5.5 mm. The mean position shift between best LAT-hybrid and best pacemap was 6.2 ± 5.0 mm and the mean shift between best conventional LAT and best pacemap was 13.5 ± 7.0 mm (P < 0.0001 for all pairwise comparisons). Exclusive targeting of best LAT-hybrid position resulted in acute abolition of PVC activity in all patients. After 1-year follow-up, mean PVC burden reduction was 16% (baseline) to <1%. CONCLUSION: Premature ventricular contractions cause a position shift in 3D mapping systems compared with the same endocardial position in sinus rhythm. An approach to account for this phenomenon, correct it and target exclusively the adjusted 3D position is feasible and highly efficient in terms of acute and 1-year clinical outcome after radiofrequency ablation.

2.
J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol ; 30(10): 2002-2011, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31338871

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: With its steerable transcatheter delivery system, the Micra can be deployed in nonapical positions within the right ventricle, potentially allowing reduction of the paced QRS width. We sought to evaluate the safety and long-term performance of the right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT) pacing using the Micra transcatheter pacing system (TPS). We also compared the paced QRS between RVOT, mid-septal, and apical implant positions. METHODS: All patients who underwent a Micra TPS implantation at the University Hospitals of Leuven were enrolled in this observational study. Right ventricular (RV) position of the device was assessed on per-procedural ventriculography. Paced QRS was analyzed and follow-up completed at 1 month and then every 6 months. RESULTS: Among the 133 patients included (mean follow-up: 13 ± 11 months), 45 were implanted in the RVOT, 58 midseptally, and 30 at the apex. All implant procedures were successful and no pericardial effusion was encountered within the 30 days post-implant. Two major complications were reported with devices implanted at the apex. Pacing impedance was significantly higher in the RVOT compared to the mid-septal and apical position (P < .001). Pacing threshold and R-wave amplitude did not differ over time in either position. The median narrowest paced QRS duration was observed in the RVOT (142 ms) compared to mid-septal (159 ms; P < .001), and apical position (181 ms; P < .001). CONCLUSION: Implantation of the Micra TPS in the RVOT is safe and feasible. Electrical performance over time was comparable to mid-septal and apical positions. The narrowest paced QRS complexes is achieved with RVOT pacing.

3.
Acta Cardiol ; : 1-9, 2019 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31145671

RESUMO

Background: With increasing cardiovascular implantable electronic device (CIED) implantations, growing number of extractions of leads and devices are noted, mainly for complications such as infection and lead dysfunction. The optimal timing for re-implantation remains uncertain. We  investigated the time to eventual re-implantation of CIEDs in the University Hospitals Leuven, Belgium. Methods: All consecutive patients, referred for extraction between January 2005 and December 2016, were analysed for the timing of eventual re-implantation. Results: Two-hundred and forty-three patients were included. Mean follow-up was 77 ± 37 months. Global re-implantation rate was 89.3%: 100% for lead dysfunctions versus 80.7% following infections. Median time to re-implantation (TTR) was 0 [0-111] days and 8.5 [0-3025] days, respectively (p < .001). Globally 0 [0-3025] days. Re-implantation was performed in 83.2% of pacemaker patients, compared to 95.8% of defibrillator patients (p < .001). Median TTR was 4 [0-3025] days and 0 [0-345] days, respectively (p < .001). In AV-block related pacemaker indications, 90% were re-implanted, compared to 78% for symptomatic indications (p = .09). Median TTR was 2 [0-3025] and 6 [0-2047] days, respectively (p = .02). Re-implantation was performed in 96.7% of defibrillator patients with a secondary prevention indication, compared to 94.7% with primary prevention indication (p = .59). Median TTR was 0 [0-164] and 0 [0-345] days, respectively (p = .472). Conclusions: Ten percent of CIEDs is not re-implanted after extraction. CIEDs are re-implanted more often and earlier after extraction for lead dysfunction than after extraction for infectious reasons. Pacemakers are re-implanted less and later than defibrillators. Re-implantation is performed faster in stronger clinical CIED indications.

4.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 8(9): e011172, 2019 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31057083

RESUMO

Background The natural history and long-term outcome in pediatric patients with idiopathic ventricular fibrillation ( IVF ) are poorly characterized. We sought to define the clinical characteristics and long-term outcomes of a pediatric cohort with an initial diagnosis of IVF . Methods and Results Patients were included from an International Registry of IVF (consisting of 496 patients). Inclusion criteria were: (1) VF with no identifiable cause following comprehensive analysis for ischemic, electrical or structural heart disease and (2) age ≤16 years. These included 54 pediatric IVF cases (age 12.7±3.7 years, 59% male) among whom 28 (52%) had a previous history of syncope (median 2 syncopal episodes [interquartile range 1]). Thirty-six (67%) had VF in situations associated with high adrenergic tone. During a median 109±12 months of follow-up, 31 patients (57%) had recurrence of ventricular arrhythmias, mainly VF . Two patients developed phenotypic expression of an inherited arrhythmia syndrome during follow-up (hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and long QT syndrome, respectively). A total of 15 patients had positive genetic testing for inherited arrhythmia syndromes. Ten patients (18%) experienced device-related complications. Three patients (6%) died, 2 due to VF storm. Conclusions In pediatric patients with IVF , a minority develop a definite clinical phenotype during long-term follow-up. Recurrent VF is common in this patient group.

5.
Europace ; 21(5): 690-697, 2019 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30843036

RESUMO

Atrial fibrillation (AF), is the most common sustained arrhythmia and is associated with a substantial increase in morbidity and mortality. Several studies have demonstrated sex-related differences in various aspects, including age at diagnosis, clinical manifestations, management and prognosis. These dissimilarities may dictate different approaches to management and could translate to differences in outcomes. However, similarly to other cardiovascular therapies, there may be a tendency to treat females more conservatively and less aggressively than male patients. The use of oral anticoagulants, for example, is lower in female patients with AF. Electrical cardioversion is less often used. Likewise, despite higher rates of adverse reactions to antiarrhythmic drugs in women, they are less likely to undergo catheter ablations, a well-established therapeutic approach to symptomatic patients with recurrences of AF. In this article, we review sex related dissimilarities in patients with AF. In addition, we discuss various treatment options, and specifically refer to differences in access of treatment, success rates, and potential treatment-related complications.

7.
Europace ; 21(6): 944-949, 2019 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30768170

RESUMO

AIMS: Prolonged participation in exercise results in structural and electrical cardiac remodelling. The development of an athlete's heart is recognized as a risk factor for atrial arrhythmias. This study aims to evaluate the impact of athlete heart remodelling on the presentation of atrioventricular nodal re-entrant tachycardia (AVNRT). METHODS AND RESULTS: A retrospective analysis of an ablation database selecting all patients with an electrophysiologically confirmed diagnosis of AVNRT. Athletes (individuals participating in moderate to intensive sports for ≥3 h per week having done so for ≥5 years) were compared with healthy non-athletes. Atrioventricular nodal re-entrant tachycardia subforms were classified according the methods described by Katritsis and Josephson in 2013 and by Heidbuchel and Jackman in 2014. A total of 504 AVNRT patients were fully characterized, of whom 85 (17%) were athletes. Almost half of the athletes presented with atypical forms of AVNRT, where in non-athletes this frequency was about 20%. There was no difference in acute procedural success among the two groups, but the procedures in athletes were more complex, as reflected by an almost two-fold increase in the use of a long sheath to reach the slow pathway ablation area and a higher recurrence rate in athletes (10% vs. 4%). CONCLUSION: Athletes present more frequently with atypical subforms of AVNRT. This is possibly related to cardiac remodelling with dilatation of the cardiac cavities leading to changed conduction properties in the septal area. Ablation outcome is equally safe in athletes as in non-athletes with similar acute success rates. Athletes experience a higher longer-term recurrence rate.

8.
Ann Noninvasive Electrocardiol ; 24(1): e12604, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30265438

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sudden cardiac death (SCD) results from a complex interplay of abnormalities in autonomic function, myocardial substrate and vulnerability. We studied whether a combination of noninvasive risk stratification tests reflecting these key players could improve risk stratification. METHODS: Patients implanted with an ICD in whom 24-hr holter recordings were available prior to implant were included. QRS fragmentation (fQRS) was selected as measure of myocardial substrate and a high ventricular premature beat count (VPB >10/hr) for arrhythmic vulnerability. From receiver operating characteristics analysis, detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA), turbulence slope, and deceleration capacity were selected for autonomic function. Adjusted Cox regression analysis with comparison of C-statistics was performed to predict first appropriate shock (AS) and total mortality. RESULTS: A total of 220 patients were included in the analysis with an overall follow-up of 4.3 ± 3.1 years. A model including VPB >10/hr, inferior fQRS, and abnormal nonedited DFA was the best for prediction of AS after 1 year of follow-up with a trends toward improvement of the C-statistics compared to baseline (p = 0.055). The risk increased significantly with every abnormal test (HR 1.793, 95%CI 1.255-2.564). A model including fQRS in any region and abnormal edited DFA was the best for prediction of mortality after 3 years of follow-up with significant improvement of the C-statistics (p = 0.023). Each abnormal test was associated with a significant increase in mortality (HR 5.069, 95%CI 1.978-12.994). CONCLUSION: Combining noninvasive risk stratification tests according to their physiological background can improve the risk prediction of SCD and mortality.

9.
Circ Heart Fail ; 11(12): e004953, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30562098

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Deranged energy metabolism contributes to the pathophysiology of heart failure (HF). Recent studies showed diminished free fatty acid (FFA) oxidation in experimental HF models with a shift towards oxidation of ketone bodies. However, conflicting clinical data on FFA metabolism and limited knowledge on ketone body metabolism in human HF mandate additional metabolic profiling studies. We, therefore, investigated cardiac uptake of FFAs and ketone bodies (ß-hydroxybutyrate and acetoacetate) in patients with HF with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) or with aortic stenosis (AS)-induced left ventricular hypertrophy. We hypothesized that FFA oxidation is impaired in HFrEF and in AS and results in decreased concentrations of free carnitine, the necessary carrier for mitochondrial entry of activated FFAs, and in accumulation of metabolic intermediates. METHODS AND RESULTS: We collected arterial and coronary sinus blood samples in patients with HFrEF (n=15), in AS patients with preserved systolic function (n=15), and in control patients (n=15). Plasma concentration gradients across the heart show significantly greater uptake of ketone bodies in patients with HFrEF than in controls. Patients with AS show significantly increased uptake of ß-hydroxybutyrate and FFAs. Free carnitine concentration and concentration gradients of intermediates of FFA oxidation were comparable between groups. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, our results show significantly increased cardiac uptake of ketone bodies in patients with stable HFrEF and AS and increased uptake of FFAs in AS compared with control patients. The lack of myocardial release of acyl-carnitine species or change in free carnitine uptake suggests no impairment of FFA oxidation.


Assuntos
Estenose da Valva Aórtica/sangue , Metabolismo Energético , Ácidos Graxos não Esterificados/sangue , Insuficiência Cardíaca/sangue , Hipertrofia Ventricular Esquerda/sangue , Corpos Cetônicos/sangue , Miocárdio/metabolismo , Função Ventricular Esquerda , Remodelação Ventricular , Ácido 3-Hidroxibutírico/sangue , Adaptação Fisiológica , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/fisiopatologia , Biomarcadores/sangue , Carnitina/sangue , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Hipertrofia Ventricular Esquerda/diagnóstico , Hipertrofia Ventricular Esquerda/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Oxirredução , Volume Sistólico
10.
J Electrocardiol ; 51(6): 1077-1083, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30497734

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Preventing sudden cardiac death (SCD) is one of the main goals in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). Many variables have been proposed, however the European and American guidelines do not incorporate any ECG or Holter monitoring derived variables other than the presence of ventricular arrhythmia in their risk stratification models. In the present study we evaluated electrocardiographic parameters in risk stratification of HCM. METHODS AND RESULTS: Novel electrocardiographic parameters including the index of cardio-electrophysiological balance (iCEB), individualized QT correction (QTi) and QT rate dependence were evaluated along with established risk factors. A composite endpoint of SCD was defined as out of hospital cardiac arrest, appropriate ICD shock and sustained ventricular tachycardia. Cox regression analysis was used to evaluate predictors of SCD. Out of the 466 HCM patients, 31 reached the composite endpoint during a follow up of 75 ±â€¯86 months. In a multivariate model, nor iCEB, QTi or QT rate dependence were predictors of SCD. Only male gender (p < 0.01; OR 13.1; CI 1.74-98.83), negative T waves in the inferior leads (p = 0.04; OR 2.51; CI 1.03-6.13) and familial sudden death (p < 0.01; OR 3.03; CI 1.39-6.59) were significant predictors. On top of either the ESC risk score or the 3 traditional 'American risk factors', only male gender was a significant predictor of SCD. CONCLUSION: No ECG or Holter monitoring parameters added in risk stratification for SCD in HCM. However, male gender and negative T waves in the inferior leads are promising novel markers to evaluate in larger cohorts.


Assuntos
Cardiomiopatia Hipertrófica/fisiopatologia , Eletrocardiografia , Adulto , Cardiomiopatia Hipertrófica/complicações , Morte Súbita Cardíaca/etiologia , Eletrocardiografia Ambulatorial , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco/métodos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Software
11.
Scand Cardiovasc J ; 52(5): 268-274, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30445881

RESUMO

AIM: 3D Rotational angiography (3DRA) allows for detailed reconstruction of atrial anatomy and is often used to facilitate pulmonary vein isolation. This study aimed to reappraise the anatomy of the right atrium (RA) using 3DRA, specifically looking at Koch's triangle and the cavotricuspid isthmus (CTI) in atrio-ventricular reentrant tachycardia (AVNRT) and atrial flutter (AFl) ablation. METHODS AND RESULTS: 3DRA was performed in 97 patients: AVNRT = 51 and AFl = 46. Dimensions of Koch's triangle and CTI were highly variable between individuals but were not different in both ablation groups. RA volume was significantly larger in AFl patients (p = .004) while indexed RA volume to the body surface area (RAVI) was lightly different (p = .024). In univariate Cox analysis, age (p = .003), RAVI (p < .001) and previous ablation of AFl (p = .003) were predictors of AF occurrence . In multivariate Cox analysis, RAVI was the only independent predictor of AF occurrence. RAVI >80 ml/m2 was a strong predictor for AF during follow-up. CONCLUSION: 3DRA allows for detailed per-procedural evaluation of RA anatomy and revealed a great variability in Koch's triangle and CTI dimensions and morphology. RA enlargement as measured by RAVI was an independent predictor for AF occurrence during follow-up.


Assuntos
Flutter Atrial/diagnóstico por imagem , Flutter Atrial/cirurgia , Ablação por Cateter , Angiografia Coronária/métodos , Átrios do Coração/diagnóstico por imagem , Átrios do Coração/cirurgia , Imagem Tridimensional/métodos , Interpretação de Imagem Radiográfica Assistida por Computador/métodos , Taquicardia por Reentrada no Nó Atrioventricular/diagnóstico por imagem , Taquicardia por Reentrada no Nó Atrioventricular/cirurgia , Adulto , Idoso , Flutter Atrial/fisiopatologia , Ablação por Cateter/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Átrios do Coração/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Recidiva , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Taquicardia por Reentrada no Nó Atrioventricular/fisiopatologia , Resultado do Tratamento
12.
Pacing Clin Electrophysiol ; 41(9): 1101-1108, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29928779

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Incorporation of QTc in clinical decision support systems requires accurate QT-interval correction, also during common electrocardiogram abnormalities as ventricular conduction defects (VCD). We compared the performance and predictive value of QT correction formulas to design a patient-specific QT correction algorithm (QTcA). METHODS: The first ECG in adult patients with sinus rhythm (SR), atrial fibrillation (AF), and ventricular pacing (VP) was collected retrospectively. QT correction was performed with Bazett (QTcB), Fridericia (QTcFri), Framingham, Hodges, and Rautaharju (QTcR) formulas. Correction formulas were compared using QTc/RR linear regression. Adjusted Cox regression was performed to predict 1-year all-cause mortality. RESULTS: A total of 49,737 patients were included (70.0% SR, 24.1% AF, 5.9% VP, 11.1% VCD). Overall 1-year all-cause mortality rate was 11.8%. In patients without VCD or VP, QTcFri showed significantly better heart rate correction, both overall (P < 0.001) and in subgroups by heart rate (bradycardia P ≤ 0.001, normal P ≤ 0.050, tachycardia P ≤ 0.010). Furthermore, QTcFri improved mortality prediction significantly when compared to QTcB (P < 0.001). Patients with VCD or VP QTcR, including correction for QRS duration, had a significant better heart rate correction than QTcB (P ≤ 0.010) and improved mortality prediction significantly compared to all other formulas (P < 0.001). Implementing QTcA, designed based on QTcFri and QTcR depending on the presence of VCD or VP, reduced the patients considered to be at risk by 61.1% when compared to QTcB. CONCLUSIONS: A patient-specific QT correction algorithm would combine accurate heart rate correction, improved predictive value of mortality, and a reduction of patients considered to be at risk.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Fibrilação Atrial/fisiopatologia , Doença do Sistema de Condução Cardíaco/fisiopatologia , Estimulação Cardíaca Artificial/métodos , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Ventrículos do Coração/fisiopatologia , Idoso , Eletrocardiografia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco
13.
Ann Noninvasive Electrocardiol ; 23(5): e12548, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29709101

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Loss-of-function (LoF) mutations in the SCN5A gene cause multiple phenotypes including Brugada Syndrome (BrS) and a diffuse cardiac conduction defect. Markers of increased risk for sudden cardiac death (SCD) in LoF SCN5A mutation carriers are ill defined. We hypothesized that late potentials and fragmented QRS would be more prevalent in SCN5A mutation carriers compared to SCN5A-negative BrS patients and evaluated risk markers for SCD in SCN5A mutation carriers. METHODS: We included all SCN5A loss-of-function mutation carriers and SCN5A-negative BrS patients from our center. A combined arrhythmic endpoint was defined as appropriate ICD shock or SCD. RESULTS: Late potentials were more prevalent in 79 SCN5A mutation carriers compared to 39 SCN5A-negative BrS patients (66% versus 44%, p = .021), while there was no difference in the prevalence of fragmented QRS. PR interval prolongation was the only parameter that predicted the presence of a SCN5A mutation in BrS (OR 1.08; p < .001). Four SCN5A mutation carriers, of whom three did not have a diagnostic type 1 ECG either spontaneously or after provocation with a sodium channel blocker, reached the combined arrhythmic endpoint during a follow-up of 44 ± 52 months resulting in an annual incidence rate of 1.37%. CONCLUSION: LP were more frequently observed in SCN5A mutation carriers, while fQRS was not. In SCN5A mutation carriers, the annual incidence rate of SCD was non-negligible, even in the absence of a spontaneous or induced type 1 ECG. Therefore, proper follow-up of SCN5A mutation carriers without Brugada syndrome phenotype is warranted.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Brugada/epidemiologia , Síndrome de Brugada/genética , Morte Súbita Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Eletrocardiografia/métodos , Canal de Sódio Disparado por Voltagem NAV1.5/genética , Adulto , Bélgica , Síndrome de Brugada/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação/genética , Fenótipo , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco
14.
Acta Cardiol ; 73(5): 459-468, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29189109

RESUMO

AIM: Leadless cardiac pacemaker has been developed to reduce complications related to cardiac pacing and is considered as an alternative to conventional pacemaker although safety and efficacy data in clinical practice are limited. The purpose of this study was to investigate the safety and efficacy profile of Micra Transcatheter Pacing System (TPS) used in daily clinical activity with a focus on challenging cases for conventional pacing. METHODS: A total of 66 patients (46 men, 79.1 ± 9.7 years) having a Class I or II indication for ventricular pacing underwent a Micra TPS implant procedure. All patients were enrolled in a prospective registry. Follow-up visits were scheduled at discharge and after 1, 3, 6 and 12 months. RESULTS: Primary indication for pacing was third degree atrioventricular block (30.3%), sinus node dysfunction (21.2%) or permanent atrial fibrillation with bradycardia (45.5%). The device was successfully implanted in 65 patients (98.5%). During follow-up of 10.4 ± 6.1 months (range 1-23 months), electrical measurements remained stable. Mean pacing capture threshold, pacing impedance and R-wave sensing were respectively 0.57 ± 0.32 V, 580 ± 103 Ohms, 10.62 ± 4.36 mV at the last follow-up. One major (loss of function) and three minor adverse events occurred. Pericardial effusion, dislodgement, device related infection or pacemaker syndrome were not observed. Micra TPS implantation was straightforward for patients with congenital or acquired cardiac and/or vascular abnormalities, previous tricuspid surgery and after heart transplantation. CONCLUSION: Our experience confirms that implantation of Micra is safe and efficient in a real world population including patients who present a challenging condition for conventional pacing.


Assuntos
Bloqueio Atrioventricular/terapia , Cateterismo Cardíaco/métodos , Marca-Passo Artificial , Sistema de Registros , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Desenho de Equipamento , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
Acta Cardiol ; 73(1): 19-27, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28685657

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: A new end point called ICD-resistant mortality was evaluated to assess the clinical efficacy of ICD implantations. METHODS AND RESULTS: In 302 ICD patients with ischaemic cardiomyopathy, we investigated which clinical parameters predicted useful ICD implantations using cumulative incidence competing risk analysis. Implantation was deemed clinically useful when the ICD provided appropriate therapy and the patient survived implantation by 1 year and the first shock by 30 days. ICD-resistant mortality (ICDRM) was defined as death within 30 days after the first shock, within 1 year of implantation or without previous appropriate ICD therapy. After 5 years, ICDRM occurred in 23% of implantations, while 36% were clinically useful. After multivariable analysis, ICDRM was associated with LVEF <35% (HR: 2.63; p = .005), beta-blocker dose <50% (HR: 2.0; p = .01) and anterior or diffuse infarct location (HR: 3.61; p = .001 and HR: 2.89; p = .02). Useful ICD implantations were associated with beta-blocker dose <50% (HR: 1.64; p = .02) and non-anterior infarct location (HR: 3.22 vs anterior and 1.59 vs diffuse; combined p<.001). CONCLUSIONS: Five years after implantation, an ICD could be classified as useful in 1 out of 3, while ICDRM occurred in one out of four patients. At 10 years, up to 80% of implantations could be categorized. Lower LVEF was related with significantly higher incidence of ICDRM. Anterior infarcts were associated with more ICDRM and less useful implantations than non-anterior infarcts. Future risk stratification for ICD should focus more on the discrimination between arrhythmic risk, probably preventable by ICDs and ICD-resistant mortality risk.


Assuntos
Morte Súbita Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Desfibriladores Implantáveis , Cardioversão Elétrica/mortalidade , Isquemia Miocárdica/terapia , Idoso , Bélgica/epidemiologia , Morte Súbita Cardíaca/etiologia , Morte Súbita Cardíaca/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Isquemia Miocárdica/complicações , Isquemia Miocárdica/mortalidade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Taxa de Sobrevida/tendências , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
ESC Heart Fail ; 5(1): 157-171, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28967698

RESUMO

AIMS: Cardiac involvement is the main determinant of poor outcomes in sarcoidosis. Right ventricular (RV) dysfunction and left ventricular (LV) late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) have been reported to be predictive of adverse outcome in non-ischaemic cardiomyopathies. The aim of our study was to determine whether delayed RV LGE with cardiovascular magnetic resonance would be predictive of adverse events in addition to LV LGE during the long-term follow-up of pulmonary sarcoidosis patients. METHODS AND RESULTS: Eighty-four consecutive biopsy-proven pulmonary sarcoidosis patients were followed for a median of 56 months [38-74] after baseline delayed contrast-enhanced cardiac magnetic resonance. The composite primary endpoint consisted of admission for congestive heart failure, sustained ventricular tachycardia, appropriate implantable cardioverter defibrillator therapy, pacemaker implantation for high degree atrio-ventricular block, or cardiac death. The composite secondary endpoint included all-cause mortality in addition to the primary endpoint. RV and LV LGE were demonstrated in respectively 12 and 27 patients. Five of 10 events included in the primary endpoint occurred in the group with RV LGE. RV LGE, LV, or biventricular LGE yielded Cox hazard ratios of 8.71 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.90-23.81], 9.22 (95% CI 1.96-43.45), and 12.09 (95% CI 3.43-42.68) for the composite primary endpoint. In a multivariate model, the predictive value of biventricular LGE for the composite primary and secondary endpoints was strongest. Kaplan-Meier event-free survival curves were most significant for RV LGE and biventricular LGE (log rank with P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Biventricular LGE at presentation is the strongest, independent predictor of adverse outcome during long-term follow-up. Asymptomatic myocardial scar <8% of LV mass carried a favourable long-term outcome.


Assuntos
Cardiomiopatias/patologia , Ventrículos do Coração/patologia , Imagem Cinética por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Miocárdio/patologia , Medição de Risco , Sarcoidose Pulmonar/complicações , Disfunção Ventricular Direita/etiologia , Cardiomiopatias/complicações , Cardiomiopatias/epidemiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Ventrículos do Coração/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Sarcoidose Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Disfunção Ventricular Direita/diagnóstico , Disfunção Ventricular Direita/fisiopatologia
17.
J Electrocardiol ; 51(3): 549-554, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29275955

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fragmented QRS (fQRS) on a 12-lead ECG has been linked with adverse outcome. However, the visual scoring of ECGs is prone to inter- and intra-observer variability. METHODS: Five observers, two experienced and three novel, assessed fQRS in 712 digital ECGs, 100 were re-evaluated to assess intra-observer variability. Fleiss and Cohen's Kappa were calculated and compared between subgroups. RESULTS: The inter-observer variability for assessing fQRS in all leads combined was substantial with a Kappa of 0.651. Experienced observers only had a better agreement with a Kappa of 0.823. Intra-observer variability ranged from 0.736 to 0.880. In the subgroup with ventricular pacing the inter-observer variability was even significantly larger when compared to ECGs with normal QRS duration (Kappa 0.493 vs 0.664, p<0.001). CONCLUSION: The visual assessment of QRS fragmentation is prone to inter- and intra-observer variability, mainly influenced by the experience of the observers, the underlying rhythm and QRS morphology.


Assuntos
Cardiomiopatias/fisiopatologia , Cardiomiopatias/terapia , Eletrocardiografia , Terapia de Ressincronização Cardíaca , Morte Súbita Cardíaca/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Variações Dependentes do Observador , Sistema de Registros , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
ESC Heart Fail ; 4(4): 535-544, 2017 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29154434

RESUMO

AIMS: Cardiac involvement in sarcoidosis is reported in up to 30% of patients. Left ventricular involvement demonstrated by contrast-enhanced cardiac magnetic resonance has been well validated. We sought to determine the prevalence and distribution of right ventricular late gadolinium enhancement in patients diagnosed with pulmonary sarcoidosis. METHODS AND RESULTS: We prospectively evaluated 87 patients diagnosed with pulmonary sarcoidosis with contrast-enhanced cardiac magnetic resonance for right ventricular involvement. Pulmonary artery pressures were non-invasively evaluated with Doppler echocardiography. Patient characteristics were compared between the groups with and without right ventricular involvement, and right ventricular enhancement was correlated with pulmonary hypertension, ventricular mass, volume, and systolic function. Left ventricular late gadolinium enhancement was demonstrated in 30 patients (34%). Fourteen patients (16%) had right ventricular late gadolinium enhancement, with sole right ventricular enhancement in only two patients. The pattern of right ventricular enhancement consisted of right ventricular outflow tract enhancement in 1 patient, free wall enhancement in 8 patients, ventricular insertion point enhancement in 10 patients, and enhancement of the right side of the interventricular septum in 11 patients. Pulmonary arterial hypertension correlated with the presence of right ventricular enhancement (P < 0.001). Right ventricular enhancement correlated with systolic ventricular dysfunction (P < 0.001), hypertrophy (P = 0.001), and dilation (P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Right ventricular enhancement was present in 16% of patients diagnosed with pulmonary sarcoidosis and in 48% of patients with left ventricular enhancement. The presence of right ventricular enhancement correlated with pulmonary arterial hypertension, right ventricular systolic dysfunction, hypertrophy, and dilation.


Assuntos
Cardiomiopatias/diagnóstico , Ventrículos do Coração/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem Cinética por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Sarcoidose/diagnóstico , Volume Sistólico/fisiologia , Função Ventricular Direita/fisiologia , Cardiomiopatias/fisiopatologia , Ecocardiografia Doppler/métodos , Feminino , Ventrículos do Coração/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sarcoidose/fisiopatologia
20.
Pacing Clin Electrophysiol ; 40(10): 1147-1159, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28857211

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A proportion of patients with an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) in prevention of sudden cardiac death will only receive their first appropriate ICD therapy (AT) after device replacement. Clinical reassessment at the time of replacement could be helpful to guide the decision to replace or not in the future. METHODS: All patients with an ICD for primary or secondary prevention in ischemic (ICM) or nonischemic cardiomyopathy were included in a single-center retrospective registry. The association of changes in left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF; cut-off at 35%), worsening renal function (decrease in estimated glomerular filtration rate > 15 mL/min), and worsening New York Heart Association class at elective device replacement with mortality and AT was analyzed using adjusted Cox regression analysis. RESULTS: A total of 238 (33%) out of 727 patients received elective device replacement (86.1% male, 74.4% ICM, 42.9% primary prevention). During this replacement 20.2% received a device upgrade. The mean time to replacement was 6.4 ± 2.0 years and mean follow-up after replacement was 3.4 ± 3.0 years. Of patients who did not receive AT before replacement 23.1% received their first AT after replacement. Worsening renal function (hazard ratio [HR] 2.79, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.50-5.18) and a consistently LVEF ≤35% compared to a consistently LVEF >35% (HR 2.15, 95% CI 1.10-4.19) at the time of replacement were independent predictors of mortality. Independent predictors of first AT after replacement could not be identified. CONCLUSION: Although reassessment of LVEF and renal function at replacement can be helpful in predicting total mortality, the clinical utility to guide reimplantation seemed limited. Our experience indicates that approximately 25% of patients received their first AT only after replacement.


Assuntos
Cardiomiopatias/fisiopatologia , Cardiomiopatias/terapia , Desfibriladores Implantáveis , Rim/fisiopatologia , Função Ventricular Esquerda , Idoso , Cardiomiopatias/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos
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