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1.
Vaccine ; 2019 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31635976

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Evaluate whether adjuvanted quadrivalent influenza vaccine (aQIV) elicits a noninferior immune response compared with a licensed adjuvanted trivalent influenza vaccine (aTIV-1; Fluad™) and aTIV-2 containing an alternate B strain, examine whether aQIV had immunological superiority for the B strain absent from aTIV comparators, and evaluate reactogenicity and safety among adults ≥65 years. METHODS: In a multicenter, double-blind, randomized controlled trial, adults ≥65 years were randomized 2:1:1 to vaccination with aQIV (n = 889), aTIV-1 (n = 445), or aTIV-2 (n = 444) during the 2017-2018 influenza season. Immunogenicity was assessed by hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assay conducted on serum samples collected before vaccination and 21 days after vaccination for homologous influenza strains. RESULTS: aQIV met non-inferiority criteria for geometric mean titer ratios (GMT ratios) and seroconversion rate (SCR) differences against aTIV. The upper bounds of the 2-sided 95% confidence interval (CI) for GMT ratios were <1.5 for all 4 strains (A/H1N1 = 1.27, A/H3N2 = 1.09, B-Yamagata = 1.08, B-Victoria = 1.08). The upper bounds of the 95% CI of the SCR differences were <10% for all 4 strains (A/H1N1 = 7.76%, A/H3N2 = 4.96%, B-Yamagata = 3.27%, B-Victoria = 2.55%). aQIV also met superiority criteria (upper bound of 95% CI for GMT ratios <1 and SCR differences <0) for B strain absent from aTIV comparators (B-Yamagata GMT ratio = 0.70, SCR difference = -8.81%; B-Victoria GMT ratio = 0.78, SCR difference = -8.11%). aQIV and aTIV vaccines were immunogenic and well-tolerated. The immunological benefit of aQIV was also demonstrated in age subgroups 65-74 years, 75-84 years, and ≥85 years and in those with high comorbidity risk scores. Reactogenicity profiles were generally comparable. CONCLUSION: aQIV induces a similar immune response as the licensed aTIV vaccine against homologous influenza strains and has a comparable reactogenicity and safety profile. Superior immunogenicity against the additional B strain was observed, indicating that aQIV could provide a broader protection than aTIV against influenza in older adults (NCT03314662).

2.
Vaccine ; 2018 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30057283

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the Southern Hemisphere 2010 influenza season, Seqirus' split-virion, trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine was associated with increased reports of fevers and febrile reactions in young children. A staged clinical development program of a quadrivalent vaccine (Seqirus IIV4 [S-IIV4]; Afluria® Quadrivalent/Afluria Quad™/Afluria Tetra™), wherein each vaccine strain is split using a higher detergent concentration to reduce lipid content (considered the cause of the increased fevers and febrile reactions), is now complete. METHODS: Children aged 6-59 months were randomized 3:1 and stratified by age (6-35 months/36-59 months) to receive S-IIV4 (n = 1684) or a United States (US)-licensed comparator IIV4 (C-IIV4; Fluzone® Quadrivalent; n = 563) during the Northern Hemisphere 2016-2017 influenza season. The primary objective was to demonstrate noninferior immunogenicity of S-IIV4 versus C-IIV4. Immunogenicity was assessed by hemagglutination inhibition (baseline, 28 days postvaccination). Solicited, unsolicited, and serious adverse events were assessed for 7, 28, and 180 days postvaccination, respectively. RESULTS: S-IIV4 met the immunogenicity criteria for noninferiority. Adjusted geometric mean titer ratios (C-IIV4/S-IIV4) for the A/H1N1, A/H3N2, B/Yamagata, and B/Victoria strains were 0.79 (95% CI: 0.72, 0.88), 1.27 (1.15, 1.42), 1.12 (1.01, 1.24), and 0.97 (0.86, 1.09), respectively. Corresponding values for differences in seroconversion rates (C-IIV4 minus S-IIV4) were -10.3 (-15.4, -5.1), 2.6 (-2.5, 7.8), 3.1 (-2.1, 8.2), and 0.9 (-4.2, 6.1). Solicited, unsolicited, and serious adverse events were similar between vaccines in both age cohorts, apart from fever. Fever rates were lower with S-IIV4 (5.8%) than C-IIV4 (8.4%), with no febrile convulsions reported with either vaccine during the 7 days postvaccination. CONCLUSION: S-IIV4, manufactured with a higher detergent concentration, demonstrated noninferior immunogenicity to the US-licensed C-IIV4, with similar postvaccination safety and tolerability, in children aged 6-59 months. This completes the program demonstrating the immunogenicity and safety of S-IIV4 in participants aged 6 months and older. FUNDING: Seqirus Pty Ltd; ClinicalTrials.gov identifier:NCT02914275.

4.
Br J Clin Pharmacol ; 83(11): 2386-2397, 2017 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28662542

RESUMO

AIMS: Early-onset emphysema attributed to α-1 antitrypsin deficiency (AATD) is frequently overlooked and undertreated. RAPID-RCT/RAPID-OLE, the largest clinical trials of purified human α-1 proteinase inhibitor (A1 -PI; 60 mg kg-1  week-1 ) therapy completed to date, demonstrated for the first time that A1 -PI is clinically effective in slowing lung tissue loss in AATD. A posthoc pharmacometric analysis was undertaken to further explore dose, exposure and response. METHODS: A disease progression model was constructed, utilizing observed A1 -PI exposure and lung density decline rates (measured by computed tomography) from RAPID-RCT/RAPID-OLE, to predict effects of population variability and higher doses on A1 -PI exposure and clinical response. Dose-exposure and exposure-response relationships were characterized using nonlinear and linear mixed effects models, respectively. The dose-exposure model predicts summary exposures and not individual concentration kinetics; covariates included baseline serum A1 -PI, forced expiratory volume in 1 s and body weight. The exposure-response model relates A1 -PI exposure to lung density decline rate at varying exposure levels. RESULTS: A dose of 60 mg kg-1  week-1 achieved trough serum levels >11 µmol l-1 (putative 'protective threshold') in ≥98% patients. Dose-exposure-response simulations revealed increasing separation between A1 -PI and placebo in the proportions of patients achieving higher reductions in lung density decline rate; improvements in decline rates ≥0.5 g l-1  year-1 occurred more often in patients receiving A1 -PI: 63 vs. 12%. CONCLUSION: Weight-based A1 -PI dosing reliably raises serum levels above the 11 µmol l-1 threshold. However, our exposure-response simulations question whether this is the maximal, clinically effective threshold for A1 -PI therapy in AATD. The model suggested higher doses of A1 -PI would yield greater clinical effects.


Assuntos
Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Modelos Biológicos , Enfisema Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores da Tripsina/farmacologia , Deficiência de alfa 1-Antitripsina/tratamento farmacológico , Progressão da Doença , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Volume Expiratório Forçado/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Enfisema Pulmonar/diagnóstico por imagem , Enfisema Pulmonar/etiologia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Doenças Raras/complicações , Doenças Raras/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças Raras/tratamento farmacológico , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Resultado do Tratamento , Inibidores da Tripsina/uso terapêutico , alfa 1-Antitripsina/farmacologia , alfa 1-Antitripsina/uso terapêutico , Deficiência de alfa 1-Antitripsina/complicações , Deficiência de alfa 1-Antitripsina/diagnóstico por imagem
5.
Allergy Asthma Proc ; 38(3): 216-221, 2017 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28441992

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Increased estrogen levels during pregnancy can exacerbate hereditary angioedema (HAE), yet disease and treatment ramifications remain poorly studied in pregnant women. OBJECTIVE: Data from the international Berinert Patient Registry were used to evaluate outcomes of pregnancies exposed to plasma-derived, pasteurized, nanofiltered C1-inhibitor concentrate (pnfC1-INH) during routine HAE management. METHODS: This observational registry, conducted between 2010 and 2014 at 30 U.S. and 7 European sites, gathered data on 318 subjects and 15,000 pnfC1-INH infusions. Whenever possible, the subjects who used pnfC1-INH during pregnancy were followed up to term to assess neonatal outcomes and to collect maternal adverse events (AE) that occurred up to 1 month after pnfC1-INH administration. RESULTS: The registry data base included 11 pregnancies in 10 subjects who used pnfC1-INH for HAE attack treatment and/or prophylaxis (>261 doses during pregnancy). Eight pregnancies concluded in the birth of a healthy baby. Of the remaining three pregnancies: one was voluntarily terminated at 9 weeks of gestation; a second ended as a first-trimester spontaneous abortion 1 week after the subject's most recent pnfC1-INH infusion and was considered unrelated to pnf-C1INH treatment; and the third occurred in a subject who exited the registry approximately 2 months before her due date, with no further follow up. As assessed for 30 days after each pnfC1-INH infusion, there were no AEs that were considered related to pnfC1-INH therapy. CONCLUSION: Administration of pnfC1-INH during pregnancy was generally safe and not associated with any treatment-related AEs. In all registry pregnancies followed up to term, the birth of a healthy baby was reported.


Assuntos
Angioedemas Hereditários/tratamento farmacológico , Proteína Inibidora do Complemento C1/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Proteína Inibidora do Complemento C1/administração & dosagem , Proteína Inibidora do Complemento C1/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Complicações Cardiovasculares na Gravidez/tratamento farmacológico , Resultado da Gravidez , Sistema de Registros , Adulto Jovem
6.
Allergy Rhinol (Providence) ; 8(1): 13-19, 2017 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28381322

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The plasma-derived, pasteurized, nanofiltered C1-inhibitor concentrate (pnfC1-INH) is approved in the United States as an intravenous (IV) on-demand treatment for hereditary angioedema (HAE) attacks, and, in Europe, as on demand and short-term prophylaxis. OBJECTIVE: This analysis evaluated Berinert Patient Registry data regarding IV pnfC1-INH used as long-term prophylaxis (LTP). METHODS: The international registry (2010-2014) collected prospective and retrospective usage, dosing, and safety data on individuals who used pnfC1-INH for any reason. RESULTS: The registry included data on 47 subjects (80.9% female subjects; mean age, 44.8 years), which reflected 4082 infusions categorized as LTP and a total of 430.2 months of LTP administration. The median absolute dose of pnfC1-INH given for LTP was 1000 IU (range, 500-3000 IU), with a median time interval between infusion and a subsequent pnfC1-INH-treated attack of 72.0 hours (range, 0.0-166.4 hours). Fifteen subjects (31.9%) had no pnfC1-INH-treated HAE attacks within 7 days after pnfC1-INH infusion for LTP; 32 subjects (68.1%) experienced 246 attacks, with rates of 0.06 attacks per infusion and 0.57 attacks per month. A total of 81 adverse events were reported in 16 subjects (34.0%) (0.02 events per infusion; 0.19 events per month); only 3 adverse events were considered related to pnfC1-INH (noncardiac chest pain, postinfusion headache, deep vein thrombosis in a subject with an IV port). CONCLUSION: In this international registry, IV pnf-C1-INH given as LTP for HAE was safe and efficacious, with a low rate of attacks that required pnfC1-INH treatment, particularly within the first several days after LTP administration.

7.
N Engl J Med ; 376(12): 1131-1140, 2017 03 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28328347

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hereditary angioedema is a disabling, potentially fatal condition caused by deficiency (type I) or dysfunction (type II) of the C1 inhibitor protein. In a phase 2 trial, the use of CSL830, a nanofiltered C1 inhibitor preparation that is suitable for subcutaneous injection, resulted in functional levels of C1 inhibitor activity that would be expected to provide effective prophylaxis of attacks. METHODS: We conducted an international, prospective, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-ranging, phase 3 trial to evaluate the efficacy and safety of self-administered subcutaneous CSL830 in patients with type I or type II hereditary angioedema who had had four or more attacks in a consecutive 2-month period within 3 months before screening. We randomly assigned the patients to one of four treatment sequences in a crossover design, each involving two 16-week treatment periods: either 40 IU or 60 IU of CSL830 per kilogram of body weight twice weekly followed by placebo, or vice versa. The primary efficacy end point was the number of attacks of angioedema. Secondary efficacy end points were the proportion of patients who had a response (≥50% reduction in the number of attacks with CSL830 as compared with placebo) and the number of times that rescue medication was used. RESULTS: Of the 90 patients who underwent randomization, 79 completed the trial. Both doses of CSL830, as compared with placebo, reduced the rate of attacks of hereditary angioedema (mean difference with 40 IU, -2.42 attacks per month; 95% confidence interval [CI], -3.38 to -1.46; and mean difference with 60 IU, -3.51 attacks per month; 95% CI, -4.21 to -2.81; P<0.001 for both comparisons). Response rates were 76% (95% CI, 62 to 87) in the 40-IU group and 90% (95% CI, 77 to 96) in the 60-IU group. The need for rescue medication was reduced from 5.55 uses per month in the placebo group to 1.13 uses per month in the 40-IU group and from 3.89 uses in the placebo group to 0.32 uses per month in the 60-IU group. Adverse events (most commonly mild and transient local site reactions) occurred in similar proportions of patients who received CSL830 and those who received placebo. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with hereditary angioedema, the prophylactic use of a subcutaneous C1 inhibitor twice weekly significantly reduced the frequency of acute attacks. (Funded by CSL Behring; COMPACT EudraCT number, 2013-000916-10 , and ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01912456 .).


Assuntos
Proteína Inibidora do Complemento C1/administração & dosagem , Angioedema Hereditário Tipos I e II/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Proteína Inibidora do Complemento C1/efeitos adversos , Proteína Inibidora do Complemento C1/metabolismo , Estudos Cross-Over , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Angioedema Hereditário Tipos I e II/classificação , Humanos , Injeções Subcutâneas , Masculino , Risco , Autoadministração , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
9.
Lancet Respir Med ; 5(1): 51-60, 2017 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27916480

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Purified α1 proteinase inhibitor (A1PI) slowed emphysema progression in patients with severe α1 antitrypsin deficiency in a randomised controlled trial (RAPID-RCT), which was followed by an open-label extension trial (RAPID-OLE). The aim was to investigate the prolonged treatment effect of A1PI on the progression of emphysema as assessed by the loss of lung density in relation to RAPID-RCT. METHODS: Patients who had received either A1PI treatment (Zemaira or Respreeza; early-start group) or placebo (delayed-start group) in the RAPID-RCT trial were included in this 2-year open-label extension trial (RAPID-OLE). Patients from 22 hospitals in 11 countries outside of the USA received 60 mg/kg per week A1PI. The primary endpoint was annual rate of adjusted 15th percentile lung density loss measured using CT in the intention-to-treat population with a mixed-effects regression model. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00670007. FINDINGS: Between March 1, 2006, and Oct 13, 2010, 140 patients from RAPID-RCT entered RAPID-OLE: 76 from the early-start group and 64 from the delayed-start group. Between day 1 and month 24 (RAPID-RCT), the rate of lung density loss in RAPID-OLE patients was lower in the early-start group (-1·51 g/L per year [SE 0·25] at total lung capacity [TLC]; -1·55 g/L per year [0·24] at TLC plus functional residual capacity [FRC]; and -1·60 g/L per year [0·26] at FRC) than in the delayed-start group (-2·26 g/L per year [0·27] at TLC; -2·16 g/L per year [0·26] at TLC plus FRC, and -2·05 g/L per year [0·28] at FRC). Between months 24 and 48, the rate of lung density loss was reduced in delayed-start patients (from -2·26 g/L per year to -1·26 g/L per year), but no significant difference was seen in the rate in early-start patients during this time period (-1·51 g/L per year to -1·63 g/L per year), thus in early-start patients the efficacy was sustained to month 48. INTERPRETATION: RAPID-OLE supports the continued efficacy of A1PI in slowing disease progression during 4 years of treatment. Lost lung density was never recovered, highlighting the importance of early intervention with A1PI treatment. FUNDING: CSL Behring.


Assuntos
Enfisema Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores de Serino Proteinase/administração & dosagem , Deficiência de alfa 1-Antitripsina/complicações , alfa 1-Antitripsina/administração & dosagem , Adolescente , Adulto , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Pulmão/patologia , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Enfisema Pulmonar/congênito , Enfisema Pulmonar/patologia , Análise de Regressão , Testes de Função Respiratória , Capacidade Pulmonar Total , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem , Deficiência de alfa 1-Antitripsina/patologia
11.
Drugs Aging ; 33(11): 819-827, 2016 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27699634

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Treatment of hereditary angioedema (HAE) in 'older adults' (those aged ≥65 years) has not been well studied. The international Berinert Patient Registry collected data on the use of intravenous plasma-derived, pasteurized, nanofiltered C1-inhibitor concentrate (pnfC1-INH; Berinert®/CSL Behring) in patients of any age, including many older adults. METHODS: This observational registry, conducted from 2010 to 2014 at 30 US and seven European sites, gathered prospective (post-enrollment) and retrospective (pre-enrollment) usage and adverse event (AE) data on subjects treated with pnfC1-INH. RESULTS: The registry documented 1701 pnfC1-INH infusions in 27 older adults. A total of 1511 HAE attacks treated with pnfC1-INH administration were reported among 25 of the 27 (92.6 %) older adults. Among the older adults, mean (standard deviation [SD]) (8.8 [4.1] IU/kg) and median (6.4 IU/kg) pnfC1-INH doses were lower than those reported for 252 'younger adults' (those aged <65 years: 12.9 [6.2], 12.5 IU/kg, respectively). A total of 19 AEs occurred in 8 of 23 (34.8 %) older adults with prospective data, for rates of 0.83 events per subject and 0.02 events per infusion, similar to corresponding rates in younger adults (0.91 and 0.03, respectively). None of the AEs were considered related to pnfC1-INH, and all but two events (prostatectomy, gastrointestinal bleeding) were mild or moderate in severity. Administration of pnfC1-INH outside of a healthcare setting was reported for 1609 infusions in 16 older adults, representing 94.6 % of all pnfC1-INH infusions in this age group. There were no recorded instances of difficulty with self-administration of intravenous pnfC1-INH. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest a high degree of safety with intravenous pnfC1-INH use in older adults with HAE, regardless of administration setting. Trial Registration Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01108848.


Assuntos
Angioedemas Hereditários/tratamento farmacológico , Proteínas Inativadoras do Complemento 1 , Sistema de Registros , Adulto , Idoso , Angioedemas Hereditários/metabolismo , Proteínas Inativadoras do Complemento 1/administração & dosagem , Proteínas Inativadoras do Complemento 1/efeitos adversos , Proteínas Inativadoras do Complemento 1/uso terapêutico , Proteína Inibidora do Complemento C1 , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/induzido quimicamente , Humanos , Infusões Intravenosas , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estados Unidos
12.
Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol ; 117(5): 508-513, 2016 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27788880

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Limited data are available regarding C1 inhibitor (C1-INH) administration and anti-C1-INH antibodies. OBJECTIVE: To assess the incidence of antibody formation during treatment with pasteurized, nanofiltered plasma-derived C1-INH (pnfC1-INH) in patients with hereditary angioedema with C1-INH deficiency (C1-INH-HAE) and the comparative efficacy of pnfC1-INH in patients with and without antibodies. METHODS: In this multicenter, open-label study, patients with C1-INH-HAE (≥12 years of age) were given 20 IU/kg of pnfC1-INH per HAE attack that required treatment and followed up for 9 months. Blood samples were taken at baseline (day of first attack) and months 3, 6, and 9 and analyzed for inhibitory anti-C1-INH antibody (iC1-INH-Ab) and noninhibitory anti-C1-INH antibodies (niC1-INH-Abs). RESULTS: The study included 46 patients (69.6% female; mean age, 38.9 years; all white) who received 221 on-site pnfC1-INH infusions; most patients received 6 or fewer infusions. No patient tested positive (titer ≥1:50) for iC1-INH-Ab at any time during the study. Thirteen patients (28.2%) had detectable niC1-INH-Abs in 1 or more samples. Nine patients (19.6%) had detectable niC1-INH-Abs at baseline; 3 of these had no detectable antibodies after baseline. Of 10 patients (21.7%) with 1 or more detectable result for niC1-INH-Abs after baseline, 6 had detectable niC1-INH-Abs at baseline. Mean times to symptom relief onset and complete symptom resolution per patient were similar for those with or without anti-niC1-INH-Abs. CONCLUSION: Administration of pnfC1-INH was not associated with iC1-INH-Ab formation in this population. Noninhibitory antibodies were detected in some patients but fluctuated during the study independently of pnfC1-INH administration and appeared to have no effect on pnfC1-INH efficacy. TRIAL REGISTRATION: clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT01467947.


Assuntos
Angioedemas Hereditários/sangue , Angioedemas Hereditários/tratamento farmacológico , Anticorpos/sangue , Proteína Inibidora do Complemento C1/uso terapêutico , Inativadores do Complemento/uso terapêutico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Angioedemas Hereditários/imunologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
13.
J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract ; 4(5): 963-71, 2016 Sep-Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27286778

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The plasma-derived, highly purified, nanofiltered C1-inhibitor concentrate (Berinert; "pnfC1-INH") is approved in the United States for treating hereditary angioedema (HAE) attacks and in many European countries for attack treatment and short-term prophylaxis. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to describe safety and usage patterns of pnfC1-INH. METHODS: A multicenter, observational, registry was conducted between 2010 and 2014 at 30 United States and 7 European sites to obtain both prospective (occurring after enrollment) and retrospective (occurring before enrollment) safety and usage data on subjects receiving pnfC1-INH for any reason. RESULTS: Of 343 enrolled patients, 318 received 1 or more doses of pnfC1-INH for HAE attacks (11,848 infusions) or for prophylaxis (3142 infusions), comprising the safety population. Median dosages per infusion were 10.8 IU/kg (attack treatment) and 16.6 IU/kg (prophylaxis). Approximately 95% of infusions were administered outside of a health care setting. No adverse events (AEs) were reported in retrospective data. Among prospective data (n = 296 subjects; 9148 infusions), 252 AEs were reported in 85 (28.7%) subjects (rate of 0.03 events/infusion); 9 events were considered related to pnfC1-INH. Two thromboembolic events were reported in subjects with thrombotic risk factors. No patient was noted to have undergone viral testing for suspected blood-borne infection during registry participation. CONCLUSIONS: The findings from this large, international patient registry documented widespread implementation of pnfC1-INH self-administration outside of a health care setting consistent with current HAE guidelines. These real-world data revealed pnfC1-INH usage for a variety of reasons in patients with HAE and showed a high level of safety regardless of administration setting or reason for use.


Assuntos
Angioedemas Hereditários/tratamento farmacológico , Proteína Inibidora do Complemento C1/uso terapêutico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Angioedemas Hereditários/prevenção & controle , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Proteína Inibidora do Complemento C1/efeitos adversos , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sistema de Registros , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
14.
J Aerosol Med Pulm Drug Deliv ; 29(3): 242-50, 2016 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26669827

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In cystic fibrosis (CF) patients, inhalation of alpha1-proteinase inhibitor (A1-PI) can prevent or slow down persistent infections and reduce the massive ongoing inflammation and excessive levels of NE that destroy the airway epithelium, leading to progressive loss of pulmonary function and death. It is essential for an efficient treatment with inhaled A1-PI that an adequate and reproducible dose is deposited within all regions of the lung. The I-neb AAD System provides two inhalation modes: the Target Inhalation Mode (TIM) and the Tidal Breathing Mode (TBM). Both were compared in this study for their efficiency to deliver A1-PI to the lungs. METHODS: This was a randomized, open label, cross-over study to investigate the lung deposition of A1-PI in 6 healthy subjects (HS) and 15 CF subjects. The primary endpoint was to evaluate the total lung deposition relative to filling dose of A1-PI inhalation solution using the I-neb AAD System in TIM and in TBM. The main secondary endpoints were extra-thoracic deposition, exhaled drug fraction, nebulizer residue, C/P ratio, and variance of pixel counts. Additional exploratory endpoints were total treatment time and the inhalation time. Radiolabeling was performed considering GMP using a commercially available sterile labeling kit. Radiolabeling was validated using NGI data acquired by gamma scintillation and UV spectrometry. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: The intrapulmonary deposition (mean ± SD) in CF subjects was 47.0% ± 6.6% and 46.7% ± 10.3% in TIM and TBM, respectively, and in healthy subjects, 50.0% ± 6.7% and 54.8% ± 7.0% in TIM and TBM, respectively. TIM resulted in an approximately 40% lower treatment time (HS 6.4 min vs. 10.3 min, CF 5.3 min vs. 10.7 min) and less extra-thoracic deposition compared to TBM, and showed a higher residue of drug in the nebulizer, compared to TBM. In both groups, inhalation of a single dose of 77 mg of A1-PI was efficient, safe, and well tolerated using TIM and TBM.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/administração & dosagem , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacocinética , Anti-Inflamatórios/administração & dosagem , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacocinética , Fibrose Cística/tratamento farmacológico , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos/instrumentação , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Nebulizadores e Vaporizadores , alfa 1-Antitripsina/administração & dosagem , alfa 1-Antitripsina/farmacocinética , Administração por Inalação , Adulto , Aerossóis , Algoritmos , Anti-Infecciosos/efeitos adversos , Anti-Inflamatórios/efeitos adversos , Estudos Cross-Over , Fibrose Cística/metabolismo , Fibrose Cística/fisiopatologia , Desenho de Equipamento , Feminino , Alemanha , Humanos , Inalação , Pulmão/metabolismo , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Modelos Biológicos , Distribuição Tecidual , Adulto Jovem , alfa 1-Antitripsina/efeitos adversos
15.
Chronic Obstr Pulm Dis ; 4(1): 34-44, 2016 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28848909

RESUMO

The RAPID (NCT00261833; N=180) and RAPID Extension (NCT00670007; N=140) trials demonstrated significantly reduced lung density decline in patients with alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency (AATD) receiving alpha-1 proteinase inhibitor (A1PI) versus placebo. Desmosine and isodesmosine (DES/IDES) are unique crosslinkers of mature elastin fibers and are utilized as measures of elastin degradation. The aim of this post-hoc study was to determine the effect of A1PI therapy on DES/IDES levels in patients from RAPID/RAPID Extension. Plasma levels of DES/IDES were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry. Correlation between changes in DES/IDES levels and computed tomography (CT) lung density decline was assessed. Analysis showed that DES/IDES levels were significantly reduced versus baseline in patients receiving A1PI at all time points, from month 3 through month 48. A significant increase from baseline in DES/IDES was observed with placebo at month 24 (n=54; 0.016; p=0.018). DES/IDES change from baseline was significantly different with A1PI versus placebo at months 3 (-0.021; 95% confidence interval [CI] -0.037, 0.004; p=0.026), 12 (-0.040; 95% CI -0.055, 0.025; p<0.001), and 24 (-0.052; 95% CI -0.070, 0.034; p<0.001). Placebo patients started A1PI therapy at month 24 and showed significant reductions in plasma DES/IDES at months 36 (p<0.001) and 48 (p<0.001). Reduced elastin degradation was associated with slower lung density decline (p=0.005), correlating a chemical index of therapy with an anatomical index by CT. In conclusion, A1PI therapy reduced elastin degradation, including pulmonary elastin, in patients with AATD. These data support using DES/IDES levels as biomarkers to monitor emphysema progression and treatment response.

16.
Lancet ; 386(9991): 360-8, 2015 Jul 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26026936

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The efficacy of α1 proteinase inhibitor (A1PI) augmentation treatment for α1 antitrypsin deficiency has not been substantiated by a randomised, placebo-controlled trial. CT-measured lung density is a more sensitive measure of disease progression in α1 antitrypsin deficiency emphysema than spirometry is, so we aimed to assess the efficacy of augmentation treatment with this measure. METHODS: The RAPID study was a multicentre, double-blind, randomised, parallel-group, placebo-controlled trial of A1PI treatment in patients with α1 antitrypsin deficiency. We recruited eligible non-smokers (aged 18-65 years) in 28 international study centres in 13 countries if they had severe α1 antitrypsin deficiency (serum concentration <11 µM) with a forced expiratory volume in 1 s of 35-70% (predicted). We excluded patients if they had undergone, or were on the waiting list to undergo, lung transplantation, lobectomy, or lung volume-reduction surgery, or had selective IgA deficiency. We randomly assigned patients (1:1; done by Accovion) using a computerised pseudorandom number generator (block size of four) with centre stratification to receive A1PI intravenously 60 mg/kg per week or placebo for 24 months. All patients and study investigators (including those assessing outcomes) were unaware of treatment allocation throughout the study. Primary endpoints were CT lung density at total lung capacity (TLC) and functional residual capacity (FRC) combined, and the two separately, at 0, 3, 12, 21, and 24 months, analysed by modified intention to treat (patients needed at least one evaluable lung density measurement). This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00261833. A 2-year open-label extension study was also completed (NCT00670007). FINDINGS: Between March 1, 2006, and Nov 3, 2010, we randomly allocated 93 (52%) patients A1PI and 87 (48%) placebo, analysing 92 in the A1PI group and 85 in the placebo group. The annual rate of lung density loss at TLC and FRC combined did not differ between groups (A1PI -1·50 g/L per year [SE 0·22]; placebo -2·12 g/L per year [0·24]; difference 0·62 g/L per year [95% CI -0·02 to 1·26], p=0·06). However, the annual rate of lung density loss at TLC alone was significantly less in patients in the A1PI group (-1·45 g/L per year [SE 0·23]) than in the placebo group (-2·19 g/L per year [0·25]; difference 0·74 g/L per year [95% CI 0·06-1·42], p=0·03), but was not at FRC alone (A1PI -1·54 g/L per year [0·24]; placebo -2·02 g/L per year [0·26]; difference 0·48 g/L per year [-0·22 to 1·18], p=0·18). Treatment-emergent adverse events were similar between groups, with 1298 occurring in 92 (99%) patients in the A1PI group and 1068 occuring in 86 (99%) in the placebo group. 71 severe treatment-emergent adverse events occurred in 25 (27%) patients in the A1PI group and 58 occurred in 27 (31%) in the placebo group. One treatment-emergent adverse event leading to withdrawal from the study occurred in one patient (1%) in the A1PI group and ten occurred in four (5%) in the placebo group. One death occurred in the A1PI group (respiratory failure) and three occurred in the placebo group (sepsis, pneumonia, and metastatic breast cancer). INTERPRETATION: Measurement of lung density with CT at TLC alone provides evidence that purified A1PI augmentation slows progression of emphysema, a finding that could not be substantiated by lung density measurement at FRC alone or by the two measurements combined. These findings should prompt consideration of augmentation treatment to preserve lung parenchyma in individuals with emphysema secondary to severe α1 antitrypsin deficiency. FUNDING: CSL Behring.


Assuntos
Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Enfisema Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , Deficiência de alfa 1-Antitripsina/tratamento farmacológico , alfa 1-Antitripsina/administração & dosagem , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Volume Expiratório Forçado/efeitos dos fármacos , Volume Expiratório Forçado/fisiologia , Capacidade Residual Funcional/efeitos dos fármacos , Capacidade Residual Funcional/fisiologia , Humanos , Infusões Intravenosas , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Enfisema Pulmonar/diagnóstico por imagem , Enfisema Pulmonar/etiologia , Enfisema Pulmonar/fisiopatologia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Capacidade Pulmonar Total/efeitos dos fármacos , Capacidade Pulmonar Total/fisiologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem , alfa 1-Antitripsina/uso terapêutico , Deficiência de alfa 1-Antitripsina/complicações , Deficiência de alfa 1-Antitripsina/diagnóstico por imagem , Deficiência de alfa 1-Antitripsina/fisiopatologia
17.
J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract ; 3(2): 213-9, 2015 Mar-Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25609333

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The plasma-derived, pasteurized C1-inhibitor (C1-INH) concentrate, Berinert has a 4-decade history of use in hereditary angioedema (HAE), with a substantial literature base that demonstrates safety and efficacy. Thromboembolic events have rarely been reported with C1-INH products, typically with off-label use or at supratherapeutic doses. OBJECTIVES: Active surveillance of safety and clinical usage patterns of pasteurized C1-inhibitor concentrate and the more recent pasteurized, nanofiltered C1-INH, with a particular interest in thromboembolic events. METHODS: A registry was initiated in April 2010 at 27 US and 4 EU sites to obtain both prospective and retrospective safety and usage data on subjects who were administered C1-INH (Berinert). RESULTS: As of May 10, 2013, data were available for 135 subjects and 3196 infusions. By subject, 67.4% were using C1-INH as on-demand therapy and 23.0% as both on-demand therapy and prophylactic administration. Approximately half of the infusions (49.5%) were administered for prophylaxis and >90% were given by the patient or a caregiver in the home setting. A total of 299 adverse events were reported, for an overall rate of 0.09 events per infusion with only 6 considered related to C1-INH. Two thromboembolic events were reported, both in patients with prothrombotic risk factors. CONCLUSION: This large pool of real-world clinical usage data in HAE further supports the extensive safety profile of 2 Berinert formulations when used on demand and/or for prophylaxis in both home and health care settings. No evidence was found to suggest that Berinert is an independent, causative risk factor for thromboembolic events.


Assuntos
Angioedemas Hereditários/tratamento farmacológico , Angioedemas Hereditários/prevenção & controle , Proteína Inibidora do Complemento C1/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Proteína Inibidora do Complemento C1/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sistema de Registros , Tromboembolia/induzido quimicamente , Adulto Jovem
18.
Chronic Obstr Pulm Dis ; 2(2): 177-190, 2015 Apr 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28848840

RESUMO

Clinical research in rare diseases, including alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency (AATD), faces challenges not shared by common disease research. These challenges may include the limited number of patient volunteers available for research, lack of natural history studies on which to base many clinical trial interventions, an urgency for the development of drug therapies given the often poor prognosis of rare diseases and uncertainties about appropriate biomarkers and clinical outcomes critical to clinical trial design. To address these challenges and initiate formal discussions among key stakeholders-patients, researchers, industry, federal regulators-the Alpha-1 Foundation hosted the Clinical Trial Design for Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency: A Model for Rare Diseases conference February 3-4, 2014 in Bethesda, Maryland. Discussions at the conference led to the conclusions that 1) adaptive designs should be considered for rare disease clinical trials yet more dialogue and study is needed to make these designs feasible for smaller trials and to address current limitations; 2) natural history studies, including the identification of appropriate biomarkers are critically needed and precompetitive collaborations may offer a means of creating these costly studies; and 3) patient registries and databases within the rare disease community need to be more publicly available and integrated, particularly for AATD. This report summarizes the discussions leading to these conclusions.

19.
Biol Ther ; 4(1-2): 41-55, 2014 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25118975

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Standard treatment for patients with primary immunodeficiency (PID) is monthly intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG), or weekly/biweekly subcutaneous immunoglobulin (SCIG) infusion. We used population pharmacokinetic modeling to predict immunoglobulin G (IgG) exposure following a broad range of SCIG dosing regimens for initiation and maintenance therapy in patients with PID. METHODS: Simulations of SCIG dosing were performed to predict IgG concentration-time profiles and exposure metrics [steady-state area under the IgG concentration-time curve (AUC), IgG peak concentration (C max), and IgG trough concentration (C min) ratios] for various infusion regimens. RESULTS: The equivalent of a weekly SCIG maintenance dose administered one, two, three, five, or seven times per week, or biweekly produced overlapping steady-state concentration-time profiles and similar AUC, C max, and C min values [95% confidence interval (CI) for ratios was 0.98-1.03, 0.95-1.09, and 0.92-1.08, respectively]. Administration every 3 or 4 weeks resulted in higher peaks and lower troughs; the 95% CI of the AUC, C max, and C min ratios was 0.97-1.04, 1.07-1.26, and 0.86-0.95, respectively. IgG levels >7 g/L were reached within 1 week using a loading dose regimen in which the weekly maintenance dose was administered five times in the first week of treatment. In patients with very low endogenous IgG levels, administering 1.5 times the weekly maintenance dose five times in the first week of treatment resulted in a similar response. CONCLUSIONS: The same total weekly SCIG dose can be administered at different intervals, from daily to biweekly, with minimal impact on serum IgG levels. Several SCIG loading regimens rapidly achieve adequate serum IgG levels in treatment-naïve patients.

20.
Postgrad Med ; 125(6): 53-61, 2013 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24200761

RESUMO

Replacement therapy with immunoglobulin G (IgG) given as intravenous or subcutaneous (SC) infusions is the standard treatment for patients with primary immunodeficiency. Due to the life-long need for replacement, increased flexibility in the administration and dosage regimens would improve patients' quality of life. A population pharmacokinetic model that can predict plasma IgG concentrations for various routes, dosage regimens, and patient groups is a valuable tool to improve patient therapy. Such a model was developed based on IgG concentrations from 151 unique adult and pediatric patients who participated in 4 clinical trials of intravenous and SC IgG replacement therapy. Simulations predicted that the same total IgG dose, delivered SC, either in 1 biweekly dose (once every 2 weeks), or in 2 weekly doses, results in IgG peak and trough concentrations that remain within ± 10% of each other throughout the 14-day period. The developed population pharmacokinetic model predicted that biweekly SC Hizentra dosing offers a viable alternative to weekly SC therapy, allowing more flexible and optimized dosage regimens for patients with primary immunodeficiency.


Assuntos
Imunoglobulina G/administração & dosagem , Imunoglobulina G/metabolismo , Imunoglobulinas Intravenosas/administração & dosagem , Imunoglobulinas Intravenosas/farmacocinética , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/tratamento farmacológico , Área Sob a Curva , Ensaios Clínicos Fase III como Assunto , Simulação por Computador , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Esquema de Medicação , Meia-Vida , Humanos , Injeções Intravenosas , Injeções Subcutâneas , Taxa de Depuração Metabólica , Modelos Biológicos
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