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2.
J Abnorm Psychol ; 130(5): 525-536, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34472888

RESUMO

Genetic predispositions play an important role in alcohol use. Understanding the psychosocial mechanisms through which genetic risk unfolds to influence alcohol use outcomes is critical for identifying modifiable targets and developing prevention and intervention efforts. In this study, we examined the role of sensation seeking and social support from family and friends in linking genetic risk to alcohol use. We also examined the role of social support in moderating the associations between genetic risk and sensation seeking and alcohol use. Data were drawn from a sample of 2,836 European American adults from the Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism (46% male, mean age = 35.65, standard deviation [SD] = 10.78). Results from path analysis indicated that genome-wide polygenic scores for alcohol consumption (alc-GPS) were associated with higher sensation seeking, which in turn was associated with higher levels of alcohol use. alc-GPS was also associated with higher alcohol use indirectly via lower levels of family support. In addition, high friend support attenuated the association between alc-GPS and sensation seeking and alcohol use. The pattern of associations was similar for males and females, with some differences in the associations between social support and alcohol use observed across age. Our findings highlight the important role of intermediate phenotypes and gene-environment interplay in the pathways of risk from genetic predispositions to complex alcohol use outcomes. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).

3.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5071, 2021 08 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34417470

RESUMO

Identification of causal variants and genes underlying genome-wide association study (GWAS) loci is essential to understand the biology of alcohol use disorder (AUD) and drinks per week (DPW). Multi-omics integration approaches have shown potential for fine mapping complex loci to obtain biological insights to disease mechanisms. In this study, we use multi-omics approaches, to fine-map AUD and DPW associations at single SNP resolution to demonstrate that rs56030824 on chromosome 11 significantly reduces SPI1 mRNA expression in myeloid cells and lowers risk for AUD and DPW. Our analysis also identifies MAPT as a candidate causal gene specifically associated with DPW. Genes prioritized in this study show overlap with causal genes associated with neurodegenerative disorders. Multi-omics integration analyses highlight, genetic similarities and differences between alcohol intake and disordered drinking, suggesting molecular heterogeneity that might inform future targeted functional and cross-species studies.


Assuntos
Alcoolismo/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genômica , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/genética , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Epigênese Genética , Feto/metabolismo , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Loci Gênicos , Marcadores Genéticos , Humanos , Desequilíbrio de Ligação/genética , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Mapeamento Físico do Cromossomo , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética
4.
Cardiorenal Med ; 11(4): 174-183, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34433165

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Patients with chronic kidney disease experience high rates of cardiovascular mortality and morbidity. When kidney disease progresses to the need for dialysis, sudden cardiac death (SCD) accounts for 25-35% of all cardiovascular deaths. The objective was to determine if rare genetic variants known to be associated with cardiovascular death in the general population are associated with SCD in patients undergoing hemodialysis. METHODS: We performed a case-control study comparing 126 (37 African American [AfAn] and 89 European ancestry [EA]) SCD subjects and 107 controls (34 AfAn and 73 EA), matched for age, sex, self-reported race, dialysis duration (<2, 2-5 and >5 years), and the presence or absence of diabetes mellitus. To target the coding regions of genes previously reported to be associated with 15 inherited cardiac conditions (ICCs), we used the TruSight Cardio Kit (Illumina, San Diego, CA, USA) to capture the genetic regions of interest. In all, the kit targets 572-kb regions that include the protein-coding regions and 40-bp 5' and 3' end-flanking regions of 174 genes associated with the 15 ICCs. Using the sequence data, burden tests were conducted to identify genes with an increased number of variants among SCD cases compared to matched controls. RESULTS: Eleven genes were associated with SCD, but after correction for multiple testing, none of the 174 genes were identified as having more variants in the SCD cases than the matched controls, including previously identified genes. Secondary burden tests grouping variants based on diseases and gene function did not produce statistically significant associations. DISCUSSION/CONCLUSIONS: We found no associations between genes known to be associated with ICCs and SCD in our sample of patients undergoing hemodialysis. This suggests that genetic causes are unlikely to be a major pathogenic factor in SCD in hemodialysis patients, although our sample size limits definitive conclusions.

5.
Psychol Med ; : 1-9, 2021 Jul 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34231451

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Alcohol use disorder (AUD) and schizophrenia (SCZ) frequently co-occur, and large-scale genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified significant genetic correlations between these disorders. METHODS: We used the largest published GWAS for AUD (total cases = 77 822) and SCZ (total cases = 46 827) to identify genetic variants that influence both disorders (with either the same or opposite direction of effect) and those that are disorder specific. RESULTS: We identified 55 independent genome-wide significant single nucleotide polymorphisms with the same direction of effect on AUD and SCZ, 8 with robust effects in opposite directions, and 98 with disorder-specific effects. We also found evidence for 12 genes whose pleiotropic associations with AUD and SCZ are consistent with mediation via gene expression in the prefrontal cortex. The genetic covariance between AUD and SCZ was concentrated in genomic regions functional in brain tissues (p = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings provide further evidence that SCZ shares meaningful genetic overlap with AUD.

6.
Transl Psychiatry ; 11(1): 363, 2021 06 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34226506

RESUMO

Stimulant dependence is heritable, but specific genetic factors underlying the trait have not been identified. A genome-wide association study for stimulant dependence was performed in a discovery cohort of African- (AA) and European-ancestry (EA) subjects ascertained for genetic studies of alcohol, opioid, and cocaine use disorders. The sample comprised individuals with DSM-IV stimulant dependence (393 EA cases, 5288 EA controls; 155 AA cases, 5603 AA controls). An independent cohort from the family-based Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism (532 EA cases, 7635 EA controls; 53 AA cases, AA 3352 controls) was used for replication. One variant in SLC25A16 (rs2394476, p = 3.42 × 10-10, odds ratio [OR] = 3.70) was GWS in AAs. Four other loci showed suggestive evidence, including KCNA4 in AAs (rs11500237, p = 2.99 × 10-7, OR = 2.31) which encodes one of the potassium voltage-gated channel protein that has been linked to several other substance use disorders, and CPVL in the combined population groups (rs1176440, p = 3.05 × 10-7, OR = 1.35), whose expression was previously shown to be upregulated in the prefrontal cortex from users of cocaine, cannabis, and phencyclidine. Analysis of the top GWAS signals revealed a significant enrichment with nicotinic acetylcholine receptor genes (adjusted p = 0.04) and significant pleiotropy between stimulant dependence and alcohol dependence in EAs (padj = 3.6 × 10-3), an anxiety disorder in EAs (padj = 2.1 × 10-4), and ADHD in both AAs (padj = 3.0 × 10-33) and EAs (padj = 6.7 × 10-35). Our results implicate novel genes and pathways as having roles in the etiology of stimulant dependence.


Assuntos
Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Afro-Americanos , Autoantígenos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/genética
7.
Behav Genet ; 51(5): 543-558, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34117972

RESUMO

Genetic predispositions and environmental influences both play an important role in adolescent externalizing behavior; however, they are not always independent. To elucidate gene-environment interplay, we examined the interrelationships between externalizing polygenic risk scores, parental knowledge, and peer substance use in impacting adolescent externalizing behavior across two time-points in a high-risk longitudinal sample of 1,200 adolescents (764 European and 436 African ancestry; Mage = 12.99) from the Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism. Results from multivariate path analysis indicated that externalizing polygenic scores were directly associated with adolescent externalizing behavior but also indirectly via peer substance use, in the European ancestry sample. No significant polygenic association nor indirect effects of genetic risk were observed in the African ancestry group, likely due to more limited power. Our findings underscore the importance of gene-environment interplay and suggest peer substance use may be a mechanism through which genetic risk influences adolescent externalizing behavior.

8.
Addiction ; 116(11): 3227-3234, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33950550

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: While epidemiological studies support a role for heavy, high-potency cannabis use on first-episode psychosis, genetic models of causation suggest reverse causal effects of schizophrenia on cannabis use liability. We estimated the genetic relationship between cannabis use disorder (CUD) and schizophrenia (SCZ) and tested whether liability for CUD is causally associated with increased liability to SCZ while adjusting for tobacco smoking. DESIGN: This study used summary statistics from published genome-wide association studies (GWAS). We used genomic structural equation modeling, latent causal variable analysis, and multivariable Mendelian randomization to examine genetic relationships between CUD, cannabis ever-use, ever-smoked tobacco regularly, nicotine dependence and SCZ, and to test for a causal relationship between liability to CUD and liability to SCZ. SETTING: Genome-wide association studies were published previously as part of international consortia. PARTICIPANTS: Sample sizes of the GWAS summary statistics used in this study ranged from 161 405 to 357 806 individuals of European ancestry. MEASUREMENTS: Genome-wide summary statistics for CUD and SCZ were the primary measurements, while summary statistics for cannabis ever-use, ever-smoked tobacco regularly and nicotine dependence were included as additional variables in the genomic structural equation models and the multivariable Mendelian randomization analyses. FINDINGS: Genetic liability to CUD was significantly associated with SCZ [ß = 0.29, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.11, 0.46, P = 0.001], even when accounting for cannabis ever-use, ever-smoked tobacco regularly and nicotine dependence as simultaneous predictors. We found mixed evidence of a causal relationship, with the latent causal variable analysis finding no evidence of causality (genetic causality proportion = -0.08, 95% CI = -0.40, 0.23, P = 0.87) but the multivariable Mendelian randomization analyses suggesting a significant, risk-increasing effect of CUD on liability to SCZ (ß = 0.10, 95% CI = 0.02, 0.18, P = 0.02), accounting for the additional risk factors (cannabis ever-use, ever-smoked tobacco regularly and nicotine dependence). CONCLUSIONS: Genetic liability for cannabis use disorder appears to be robustly associated with schizophrenia, above and beyond tobacco smoking and cannabis ever-use, with mixed evidence to support a causal relationship between cannabis use disorder and schizophrenia.


Assuntos
Cannabis , Esquizofrenia , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genômica , Humanos , Esquizofrenia/genética
9.
Am J Psychiatry ; : appiajp202020091390, 2021 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33985350

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) of the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), a 10-item screen for alcohol use disorder (AUD), have elucidated novel loci for alcohol consumption and misuse. However, these studies also revealed that GWASs can be influenced by numerous biases (e.g., measurement error, selection bias), which may have led to inconsistent genetic correlations between alcohol involvement and AUD, as well as paradoxically negative genetic correlations between alcohol involvement and psychiatric disorders and/or medical conditions. The authors used genomic structural equation modeling to elucidate the genetics of alcohol consumption and problematic consequences of alcohol use as measured by AUDIT. METHODS: To explore these unexpected differences in genetic correlations, the authors conducted the first item-level and the largest GWAS of AUDIT items (N=160,824) and applied a multivariate framework to mitigate previous biases. RESULTS: The authors identified novel patterns of similarity (and dissimilarity) among the AUDIT items and found evidence of a correlated two-factor structure at the genetic level ("consumption" and "problems," rg=0.80). Moreover, by applying empirically derived weights to each of the AUDIT items, the authors constructed an aggregate measure of alcohol consumption that was strongly associated with alcohol dependence (rg=0.67), moderately associated with several other psychiatric disorders, and no longer positively associated with health and positive socioeconomic outcomes. Lastly, by conducting polygenic analyses in three independent cohorts that differed in their ascertainment and prevalence of AUD, the authors identified novel genetic associations between alcohol consumption, alcohol misuse, and health. CONCLUSIONS: This work further emphasizes the value of AUDIT for both clinical and genetic studies of AUD and the importance of using multivariate methods to study genetic associations that are more closely related to AUD.

10.
Genes Brain Behav ; : e12738, 2021 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33893716

RESUMO

The National Institute on Drug Abuse and Joint Institute for Biological Sciences at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory hosted a meeting attended by a diverse group of scientists with expertise in substance use disorders (SUDs), computational biology, and FAIR (Findability, Accessibility, Interoperability, and Reusability) data sharing. The meeting's objective was to discuss and evaluate better strategies to integrate genetic, epigenetic, and 'omics data across human and model organisms to achieve deeper mechanistic insight into SUDs. Specific topics were to (a) evaluate the current state of substance use genetics and genomics research and fundamental gaps, (b) identify opportunities and challenges of integration and sharing across species and data types, (c) identify current tools and resources for integration of genetic, epigenetic, and phenotypic data, (d) discuss steps and impediment related to data integration, and (e) outline future steps to support more effective collaboration-particularly between animal model research communities and human genetics and clinical research teams. This review summarizes key facets of this catalytic discussion with a focus on new opportunities and gaps in resources and knowledge on SUDs.

11.
Biol Psychiatry ; 89(12): 1127-1137, 2021 06 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33648717

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The origin of sex differences in prevalence and presentation of neuropsychiatric and behavioral traits is largely unknown. Given established genetic contributions and correlations, we tested for a sex-differentiated genetic architecture within and between traits. METHODS: Using European ancestry genome-wide association summary statistics for 20 neuropsychiatric and behavioral traits, we tested for sex differences in single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based heritability and genetic correlation (rg < 1). For each trait, we computed per-SNP z scores from sex-stratified regression coefficients and identified genes with sex-differentiated effects using a gene-based approach. We calculated correlation coefficients between z scores to test for shared sex-differentiated effects. Finally, we tested for sex differences in across-trait genetic correlations. RESULTS: We observed no consistent sex differences in SNP-based heritability. Between-sex, within-trait genetic correlations were high, although <1 for educational attainment and risk-taking behavior. We identified 4 genes with significant sex-differentiated effects across 3 traits. Several trait pairs shared sex-differentiated effects. The top genes with sex-differentiated effects were enriched for multiple gene sets, including neuron- and synapse-related sets. Most between-trait genetic correlation estimates were not significantly different between sexes, with exceptions (educational attainment and risk-taking behavior). CONCLUSIONS: Sex differences in the common autosomal genetic architecture of neuropsychiatric and behavioral phenotypes are small and polygenic and unlikely to fully account for observed sex-differentiated attributes. Larger sample sizes are needed to identify sex-differentiated effects for most traits. For well-powered studies, we identified genes with sex-differentiated effects that were enriched for neuron-related and other biological functions. This work motivates further investigation of genetic and environmental influences on sex differences.


Assuntos
Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Herança Multifatorial , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Caracteres Sexuais
12.
Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet ; 186(3): 151-161, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32652861

RESUMO

African Americans (AA) have lower prevalence of alcohol dependence and higher subjective response to alcohol than European Americans. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified genes/variants associated with alcohol dependence specifically in AA; however, the sample sizes are still not large enough to detect variants with small effects. Admixture mapping is an alternative way to identify alcohol dependence genes/variants that may be unique to AA. In this study, we performed the first admixture mapping of DSM-IV alcohol dependence diagnosis, DSM-IV alcohol dependence criterion count, and two scores from the self-rating of effects of ethanol (SRE) as measures of response to alcohol: the first five times of using alcohol (SRE-5) and average of SRE across three times (SRE-T). Findings revealed a region on chromosome 4 that was genome-wide significant for SRE-5 (p value = 4.18E-05). Fine mapping did not identify a single causal variant to be associated with SRE-5; instead, conditional analysis concluded that multiple variants collectively explained the admixture mapping signal. PPARGC1A, a gene that has been linked to alcohol consumption in previous studies, is located in this region. Our finding suggests that admixture mapping is a useful tool to identify genes/variants that may have been missed by current GWAS approaches in admixed populations.

13.
Psychol Med ; 51(7): 1147-1156, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31955720

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Studies suggest that alcohol consumption and alcohol use disorders have distinct genetic backgrounds. METHODS: We examined whether polygenic risk scores (PRS) for consumption and problem subscales of the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT-C, AUDIT-P) in the UK Biobank (UKB; N = 121 630) correlate with alcohol outcomes in four independent samples: an ascertained cohort, the Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism (COGA; N = 6850), and population-based cohorts: Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC; N = 5911), Generation Scotland (GS; N = 17 461), and an independent subset of UKB (N = 245 947). Regression models and survival analyses tested whether the PRS were associated with the alcohol-related outcomes. RESULTS: In COGA, AUDIT-P PRS was associated with alcohol dependence, AUD symptom count, maximum drinks (R2 = 0.47-0.68%, p = 2.0 × 10-8-1.0 × 10-10), and increased likelihood of onset of alcohol dependence (hazard ratio = 1.15, p = 4.7 × 10-8); AUDIT-C PRS was not an independent predictor of any phenotype. In ALSPAC, the AUDIT-C PRS was associated with alcohol dependence (R2 = 0.96%, p = 4.8 × 10-6). In GS, AUDIT-C PRS was a better predictor of weekly alcohol use (R2 = 0.27%, p = 5.5 × 10-11), while AUDIT-P PRS was more associated with problem drinking (R2 = 0.40%, p = 9.0 × 10-7). Lastly, AUDIT-P PRS was associated with ICD-based alcohol-related disorders in the UKB subset (R2 = 0.18%, p < 2.0 × 10-16). CONCLUSIONS: AUDIT-P PRS was associated with a range of alcohol-related phenotypes across population-based and ascertained cohorts, while AUDIT-C PRS showed less utility in the ascertained cohort. We show that AUDIT-P is genetically correlated with both use and misuse and demonstrate the influence of ascertainment schemes on PRS analyses.

14.
Mol Psychiatry ; 26(4): 1133-1141, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31595034

RESUMO

Predictive models have succeeded in distinguishing between individuals with Alcohol use Disorder (AUD) and controls. However, predictive models identifying who is prone to develop AUD and the biomarkers indicating a predisposition to AUD are still unclear. Our sample (n = 656) included offspring and non-offspring of European American (EA) and African American (AA) ancestry from the Collaborative Study of the Genetics of Alcoholism (COGA) who were recruited as early as age 12 and were unaffected at first assessment and reassessed years later as AUD (DSM-5) (n = 328) or unaffected (n = 328). Machine learning analysis was performed for 220 EEG measures, 149 alcohol-related single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from a recent large Genome-wide Association Study (GWAS) of alcohol use/misuse and two family history (mother DSM-5 AUD and father DSM-5 AUD) features using supervised, Linear Support Vector Machine (SVM) classifier to test which features assessed before developing AUD predict those who go on to develop AUD. Age, gender, and ancestry stratified analyses were performed. Results indicate significant and higher accuracy rates for the AA compared with the EA prediction models and a higher model accuracy trend among females compared with males for both ancestries. Combined EEG and SNP features model outperformed models based on only EEG features or only SNP features for both EA and AA samples. This multidimensional superiority was confirmed in a follow-up analysis in the AA age groups (12-15, 16-19, 20-30) and EA age group (16-19). In both ancestry samples, the youngest age group achieved higher accuracy score than the two other older age groups. Maternal AUD increased the model's accuracy in both ancestries' samples. Several discriminative EEG measures and SNPs features were identified, including lower posterior gamma, higher slow wave connectivity (delta, theta, alpha), higher frontal gamma ratio, higher beta correlation in the parietal area, and 5 SNPs: rs4780836, rs2605140, rs11690265, rs692854, and rs13380649. Results highlight the significance of sampling uniformity followed by stratified (e.g., ancestry, gender, developmental period) analysis, and wider selection of features, to generate better prediction scores allowing a more accurate estimation of AUD development.


Assuntos
Alcoolismo , Afro-Americanos/genética , Idoso , Alcoolismo/genética , Biomarcadores , Criança , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Aprendizado de Máquina , Masculino , Estados Unidos
15.
Mol Psychiatry ; 26(3): 800-815, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31492941

RESUMO

Based on the discovery by the Resilience Project (Chen R. et al. Nat Biotechnol 34:531-538, 2016) of rare variants that confer resistance to Mendelian disease, and protective alleles for some complex diseases, we posited the existence of genetic variants that promote resilience to highly heritable polygenic disorders1,0 such as schizophrenia. Resilience has been traditionally viewed as a psychological construct, although our use of the term resilience refers to a different construct that directly relates to the Resilience Project, namely: heritable variation that promotes resistance to disease by reducing the penetrance of risk loci, wherein resilience and risk loci operate orthogonal to one another. In this study, we established a procedure to identify unaffected individuals with relatively high polygenic risk for schizophrenia, and contrasted them with risk-matched schizophrenia cases to generate the first known "polygenic resilience score" that represents the additive contributions to SZ resistance by variants that are distinct from risk loci. The resilience score was derived from data compiled by the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium, and replicated in three independent samples. This work establishes a generalizable framework for finding resilience variants for any complex, heritable disorder.


Assuntos
Esquizofrenia , Alelos , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genômica , Humanos , Herança Multifatorial/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Fatores de Risco , Esquizofrenia/genética
16.
Mol Psychiatry ; 26(4): 1142-1151, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31477794

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of complex traits, such as alcohol use disorders (AUD), usually identify variants in non-coding regions and cannot by themselves distinguish whether the associated variants are functional or in linkage disequilibrium with the functional variants. Transcriptome studies can identify genes whose expression differs between alcoholics and controls. To test which variants associated with AUD may cause expression differences, we integrated data from deep RNA-seq and GWAS of four postmortem brain regions from 30 subjects with AUD and 30 controls to analyze allele-specific expression (ASE). We identified 88 genes with differential ASE in subjects with AUD compared to controls. Next, to test one potential mechanism contributing to the differential ASE, we analyzed single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the 3' untranslated regions (3'UTR) of these genes. Of the 88 genes with differential ASE, 61 genes contained 437 SNPs in the 3'UTR with at least one heterozygote among the subjects studied. Using a modified PASSPORT-seq (parallel assessment of polymorphisms in miRNA target-sites by sequencing) assay, we identified 25 SNPs that affected RNA levels in a consistent manner in two neuroblastoma cell lines, SH-SY5Y and SK-N-BE(2). Many of these SNPs are in binding sites of miRNAs and RNA-binding proteins, indicating that these SNPs are likely causal variants of AUD-associated differential ASE. In sum, we demonstrate that a combination of computational and experimental approaches provides a powerful strategy to uncover functionally relevant variants associated with the risk for AUD.


Assuntos
Alcoolismo , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Regiões 3' não Traduzidas/genética , Alcoolismo/genética , Alelos , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética
17.
Alcohol Clin Exp Res ; 44(12): 2494-2518, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33119910

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of alcohol dependence (AD) and related phenotypes have identified multiple loci, but the functional variants underlying the loci have in most cases not been identified. Noncoding variants can influence phenotype by affecting gene expression; for example, variants in the 3' untranslated regions (3'UTR) can affect gene expression posttranscriptionally. METHODS: We adapted a high-throughput assay known as PASSPORT-seq (parallel assessment of polymorphisms in miRNA target sites by sequencing) to identify among variants associated with AD and related phenotypes those that cause differential expression in neuronal cell lines. Based upon meta-analyses of alcohol-related traits in African American and European Americans in the Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism, we tested 296 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs with meta-analysis p values ≤ 0.001) that were located in 3'UTRs. RESULTS: We identified 60 SNPs that affected gene expression (false discovery rate [FDR] < 0.05) in SH-SY5Y cells and 92 that affected expression in SK-N-BE(2) cells. Among these, 30 SNPs altered RNA levels in the same direction in both cell lines. Many of these SNPs reside in the binding sites of miRNAs and RNA-binding proteins and are expression quantitative trait loci of genes including KIF6,FRMD4A,CADM2,ADD2,PLK2, and GAS7. CONCLUSION: The SNPs identified in the PASSPORT-seq assay are functional variants that might affect the risk for AD and related phenotypes. Our study provides insights into gene regulation in AD and demonstrates the value of PASSPORT-seq as a tool to screen genetic variants in GWAS loci for one potential mechanism of action.

18.
Dev Psychopathol ; : 1-10, 2020 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32611468

RESUMO

Many studies demonstrate that marriage protects against risky alcohol use and moderates genetic influences on alcohol outcomes; however, previous work has not considered these effects from a developmental perspective or in high-risk individuals. These represent important gaps, as it cannot be assumed that marriage has uniform effects across development or in high-risk samples. We took a longitudinal developmental approach to examine whether marital status was associated with heavy episodic drinking (HED), and whether marital status moderated polygenic influences on HED. Our sample included 937 individuals (53.25% female) from the Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism who reported their HED and marital status biennially between the ages of 21 and 25. Polygenic risk scores (PRS) were derived from a genome-wide association study of alcohol consumption. Marital status was not associated with HED; however, we observed pathogenic gene-by-environment effects that changed across young adulthood. Among those who married young (age 21), individuals with higher PRS reported more HED; however, these effects decayed over time. The same pattern was found in supplementary analyses using parental history of alcohol use disorder as the index of genetic liability. Our findings indicate that early marriage may exacerbate risk for those with higher polygenic load.

19.
Transl Psychiatry ; 10(1): 196, 2020 06 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32555147

RESUMO

Genome-wide, polygenic risk scores (PRS) have emerged as a useful way to characterize genetic liability. There is growing evidence that PRS may prove useful for early identification of those at increased risk for certain diseases. The current potential of PRS for alcohol use disorders (AUD) remains an open question. Using data from both a population-based sample [the FinnTwin12 (FT12) study] and a high-risk sample [the Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism (COGA)], we examined the association between PRSs derived from genome-wide association studies (GWASs) of (1) alcohol dependence/alcohol problems, (2) alcohol consumption, and (3) risky behaviors with AUD and other substance use disorder (SUD) criteria. These PRSs explain ~2.5-3.5% of the variance in AUD (across FT12 and COGA) when all PRSs are included in the same model. Calculations of area under the curve (AUC) show PRS provide only a slight improvement over a model with age, sex, and ancestral principal components as covariates. While individuals in the top 20, 10, and 5% of the PRS distribution had greater odds of having an AUD compared to the lower end of the continuum in both COGA and FT12, the point estimates at each threshold were statistically indistinguishable. Those in the top 5% reported greater levels of licit (alcohol and nicotine) and illicit (cannabis and opioid) SUD criteria. PRSs are associated with risk for SUD in independent samples. However, usefulness for identifying those at increased risk in their current form is modest, at best. Improvement in predictive ability will likely be dependent on increasing the size of well-phenotyped discovery samples.


Assuntos
Alcoolismo , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Alcoolismo/epidemiologia , Alcoolismo/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Herança Multifatorial , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/genética
20.
Mol Psychiatry ; 2020 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32433515

RESUMO

Aberrant connectivity of large-scale brain networks has been observed among individuals with alcohol use disorders (AUDs) as well as in those at risk, suggesting deficits in neural communication between brain regions in the liability to develop AUD. Electroencephalographical (EEG) coherence, which measures the degree of synchrony between brain regions, may be a useful measure of connectivity patterns in neural networks for studying the genetics of AUD. In 8810 individuals (6644 of European and 2166 of African ancestry) from the Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism (COGA), we performed a Multi-Trait Analyses of genome-wide association studies (MTAG) on parietal resting-state theta (3-7 Hz) EEG coherence, which previously have been associated with AUD. We also examined developmental effects of GWAS findings on trajectories of neural connectivity in a longitudinal subsample of 2316 adolescent/young adult offspring from COGA families (ages 12-30) and examined the functional and clinical significance of GWAS variants. Six correlated single nucleotide polymorphisms located in a brain-expressed lincRNA (ENSG00000266213) on chromosome 18q23 were associated with posterior interhemispheric low theta EEG coherence (3-5 Hz). These same variants were also associated with alcohol use behavior and posterior corpus callosum volume, both in a subset of COGA and in the UK Biobank. Analyses in the subsample of COGA offspring indicated that the association of rs12954372 with low theta EEG coherence occurred only in females, most prominently between ages 25 and 30 (p < 2 × 10-9). Converging data provide support for the role of genetic variants on chromosome 18q23 in regulating neural connectivity and alcohol use behavior, potentially via dysregulated myelination. While findings were less robust, genome-wide associations were also observed with rs151174000 and parieto-frontal low theta coherence, rs14429078 and parieto-occipital interhemispheric high theta coherence, and rs116445911 with centro-parietal low theta coherence. These novel genetic findings highlight the utility of the endophenotype approach in enhancing our understanding of mechanisms underlying addiction susceptibility.

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