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1.
Mol Psychiatry ; 2019 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31492941

RESUMO

Based on the discovery by the Resilience Project (Chen R. et al. Nat Biotechnol 34:531-538, 2016) of rare variants that confer resistance to Mendelian disease, and protective alleles for some complex diseases, we posited the existence of genetic variants that promote resilience to highly heritable polygenic disorders1,0 such as schizophrenia. Resilience has been traditionally viewed as a psychological construct, although our use of the term resilience refers to a different construct that directly relates to the Resilience Project, namely: heritable variation that promotes resistance to disease by reducing the penetrance of risk loci, wherein resilience and risk loci operate orthogonal to one another. In this study, we established a procedure to identify unaffected individuals with relatively high polygenic risk for schizophrenia, and contrasted them with risk-matched schizophrenia cases to generate the first known "polygenic resilience score" that represents the additive contributions to SZ resistance by variants that are distinct from risk loci. The resilience score was derived from data compiled by the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium, and replicated in three independent samples. This work establishes a generalizable framework for finding resilience variants for any complex, heritable disorder.

2.
Mol Psychiatry ; 2019 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31477794

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of complex traits, such as alcohol use disorders (AUD), usually identify variants in non-coding regions and cannot by themselves distinguish whether the associated variants are functional or in linkage disequilibrium with the functional variants. Transcriptome studies can identify genes whose expression differs between alcoholics and controls. To test which variants associated with AUD may cause expression differences, we integrated data from deep RNA-seq and GWAS of four postmortem brain regions from 30 subjects with AUD and 30 controls to analyze allele-specific expression (ASE). We identified 88 genes with differential ASE in subjects with AUD compared to controls. Next, to test one potential mechanism contributing to the differential ASE, we analyzed single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the 3' untranslated regions (3'UTR) of these genes. Of the 88 genes with differential ASE, 61 genes contained 437 SNPs in the 3'UTR with at least one heterozygote among the subjects studied. Using a modified PASSPORT-seq (parallel assessment of polymorphisms in miRNA target-sites by sequencing) assay, we identified 25 SNPs that affected RNA levels in a consistent manner in two neuroblastoma cell lines, SH-SY5Y and SK-N-BE(2). Many of these SNPs are in binding sites of miRNAs and RNA-binding proteins, indicating that these SNPs are likely causal variants of AUD-associated differential ASE. In sum, we demonstrate that a combination of computational and experimental approaches provides a powerful strategy to uncover functionally relevant variants associated with the risk for AUD.

3.
Biol Psychiatry ; 86(5): 330-332, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31416515
4.
Addict Biol ; : e12800, 2019 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31270906

RESUMO

The level of response (LR) to alcohol as measured with the Self-Report of the Effects of Alcohol Retrospective Questionnaire (SRE) evaluates the number of standard drinks usually required for up to four effects. The need for a higher number of drinks for effects is genetically influenced and predicts higher risks for heavy drinking and alcohol problems. We conducted genome-wide association study (GWAS) in the African-American (COGA-AA, N = 1527 from 309 families) and European-American (COGA-EA, N = 4723 from 956 families) subsamples of the Collaborative Studies on the Genetics of Alcoholism (COGA) for two SRE scores: SRE-T (average of first five times of drinking, the period of heaviest drinking, and the most recent 3 months of consumption) and SRE-5 (the first five times of drinking). We then meta-analyzed the two COGA subsamples (COGA-AA + EA). Both SRE-T and SRE-5 were modestly heritable (h2 : 21%-31%) and genetically correlated with alcohol dependence (AD) and DSM-IV AD criterion count (rg : 0.35-0.76). Genome-wide significant associations were observed (SRE-T: chromosomes 6, rs140154945, COGA-EA P = 3.30E-08 and 11, rs10647170, COGA-AA+EA P = 3.53E-09; SRE-5: chromosome13, rs4770359, COGA-AA P = 2.92E-08). Chromosome 11 was replicated in an EA dataset from the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism intramural program. In silico functional analyses and RNA expression analyses suggest that the chromosome 6 locus is an eQTL for KIF25. Polygenic risk scores derived using the COGA SRE-T and SRE-5 GWAS predicted 0.47% to 2.48% of variances in AD and DSM-IV AD criterion count in independent datasets. This study highlights the genetic contribution of alcohol response phenotypes to the etiology of alcohol use disorders.

5.
Genes Brain Behav ; 18(6): e12580, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31099175

RESUMO

Genetic influences on alcohol and drug dependence partially overlap, however, specific loci underlying this overlap remain unclear. We conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of a phenotype representing alcohol or illicit drug dependence (ANYDEP) among 7291 European-Americans (EA; 2927 cases) and 3132 African-Americans (AA: 1315 cases) participating in the family-based Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism. ANYDEP was heritable (h 2 in EA = 0.60, AA = 0.37). The AA GWAS identified three regions with genome-wide significant (GWS; P < 5E-08) single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on chromosomes 3 (rs34066662, rs58801820) and 13 (rs75168521, rs78886294), and an insertion-deletion on chromosome 5 (chr5:141988181). No polymorphisms reached GWS in the EA. One GWS region (chromosome 1: rs1890881) emerged from a trans-ancestral meta-analysis (EA + AA) of ANYDEP, and was attributable to alcohol dependence in both samples. Four genes (AA: CRKL, DZIP3, SBK3; EA: P2RX6) and four sets of genes were significantly enriched within biological pathways for hemostasis and signal transduction. GWS signals did not replicate in two independent samples but there was weak evidence for association between rs1890881 and alcohol intake in the UK Biobank. Among 118 AA and 481 EA individuals from the Duke Neurogenetics Study, rs75168521 and rs1890881 genotypes were associated with variability in reward-related ventral striatum activation. This study identified novel loci for substance dependence and provides preliminary evidence that these variants are also associated with individual differences in neural reward reactivity. Gene discovery efforts in non-European samples with distinct patterns of substance use may lead to the identification of novel ancestry-specific genetic markers of risk.

6.
Genes Brain Behav ; 18(6): e12579, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31090166

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of alcohol dependence (AD) have reliably identified variation within alcohol metabolizing genes (eg, ADH1B) but have inconsistently located other signals, which may be partially attributable to symptom heterogeneity underlying the disorder. We conducted GWAS of DSM-IV AD (primary analysis), DSM-IV AD criterion count (secondary analysis), and individual dependence criteria (tertiary analysis) among 7418 (1121 families) European American (EA) individuals from the Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism (COGA). Trans-ancestral meta-analyses combined these results with data from 3175 (585 families) African-American (AA) individuals from COGA. In the EA GWAS, three loci were genome-wide significant: rs1229984 in ADH1B for AD criterion count (P = 4.16E-11) and Desire to cut drinking (P = 1.21E-11); rs188227250 (chromosome 8, Drinking more than intended, P = 6.72E-09); rs1912461 (chromosome 15, Time spent drinking, P = 1.77E-08). In the trans-ancestral meta-analysis, rs1229984 was associated with multiple phenotypes and two additional loci were genome-wide significant: rs61826952 (chromosome 1, DSM-IV AD, P = 8.42E-11); rs7597960 (chromosome 2, Time spent drinking, P = 1.22E-08). Associations with rs1229984 and rs18822750 were replicated in independent datasets. Polygenic risk scores derived from the EA GWAS of AD predicted AD in two EA datasets (P < .01; 0.61%-1.82% of variance). Identified novel variants (ie, rs1912461, rs61826952) were associated with differential central evoked theta power (loss - gain; P = .0037) and reward-related ventral striatum reactivity (P = .008), respectively. This study suggests that studying individual criteria may unveil new insights into the genetic etiology of AD liability.

7.
Alcohol Clin Exp Res ; 43(8): 1759-1768, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31141183

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Alcohol consumption and problems are increasing among older adults, who are at elevated risk for alcohol-related accidents and medical problems. This paper describes a pilot follow-up of older adults with a history of alcohol dependence that was designed to determine the feasibility of conducting a more extensive investigation. METHODS: The sample consisted of previously assessed subjects in the Collaborative Studies on the Genetics of Alcoholism who: (i) were age 50+; (ii) had lifetime DSM-IV AD; and (iii) had DNA available. Individuals were located through family contacts, Internet searches, and death registries. A brief telephone interview assessed demographics, health, and alcohol involvement. RESULTS: Of the total sample (N = 2,174), 36% were contacted, 24% were deceased, and 40% were not yet located. Most (89%) contacted subjects were interviewed, and 99% of them agreed to future evaluation. Thirty percent of interviewed subjects reported abstinence for 10+ years, 56% reported drinking within the past year, and 14% last drank between >1 and 10 years ago. There were no age-related past-year differences in weekly consumption (overall sample mean: 16 drinks), number of drinking weeks (30.8), maximum number of drinks in 24 hours (8.1), or prevalence of weekly risky drinking (19%). Among those who drank within the past 5 years, the 3 most common alcohol-related problems were spending excessive time drinking or recovering (49%), drinking more/longer than intended (35%), and driving while intoxicated (35%); and about a third (32%) received some form of treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Over a 1-year period, we located 60% of individuals last seen an average of 23 years ago. The majority of contacted individuals were interviewed and willing to be evaluated again. Although the proportion of individuals currently drinking diminished with age, subjects exhibited troublesome levels of alcohol consumption and problems. Our findings suggest the importance and feasibility of a more comprehensive follow-up.

8.
Alcohol Clin Exp Res ; 43(6): 1113-1125, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30994927

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Genomewide association studies (GWAS) have begun to identify loci related to alcohol consumption, but little is known about whether this genetic propensity overlaps with specific indices of problem drinking in ascertained samples. METHODS: In 6,731 European Americans who had been exposed to alcohol, we examined whether polygenic risk scores (PRS) from a GWAS of weekly alcohol consumption in the UK Biobank predicted variance in 6 alcohol-related phenotypes: alcohol use, maximum drinks within 24 hours (MAXD), total score on the Self-Rating of the Effects of Ethanol Questionnaire (SRE-T), DSM-IV alcohol dependence (DSM4AD), DSM-5 alcohol use disorder symptom counts (DSM5AUDSX), and reduction/cessation of problematic drinking. We also examined the extent to which an single nucleotide polymorphism (rs1229984) in ADH1B, which is strongly associated with both alcohol consumption and dependence, contributed to the polygenic association with these phenotypes and whether PRS interacted with sex, age, or family history of alcoholism to predict alcohol-related outcomes. We performed mixed-effect regression analyses, with family membership and recruitment site included as random effects, as well as survival modeling of age of onset of DSM4AD. RESULTS: PRS for alcohol consumption significantly predicted variance in 5 of the 6 outcomes: alcohol use (Δmarginal R2  = 1.39%, Δ area under the curve [AUC] = 0.011), DSM4AD (Δmarginal R2  = 0.56%; ΔAUC = 0.003), DSM5AUDSX (Δmarginal R2  = 0.49%), MAXD (Δmarginal R2  = 0.31%), and SRE-T (Δmarginal R2  = 0.22%). PRS were also associated with onset of DSM4AD (hazard ratio = 1.11, p = 2.08e-5). The inclusion of rs1229984 attenuated the effects of the alcohol consumption PRS, particularly for DSM4AD and DSM5AUDSX, but the PRS continued to exert an independent effect for all 5 alcohol measures (Δmarginal R2 after controlling for ADH1B = 0.14 to 1.22%). Interactions between PRS and sex, age, or family history were nonsignificant. CONCLUSIONS: Genetic propensity for typical alcohol consumption was associated with alcohol use and was also associated with 4 of the additional 5 outcomes, though the variance explained in this sample was modest. Future GWAS that focus on the multifaceted nature of AUD, which goes beyond consumption, might reveal additional information regarding the polygenic underpinnings of problem drinking.

9.
Psychol Med ; 49(7): 1218-1226, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30929657

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite established clinical associations among major depression (MD), alcohol dependence (AD), and alcohol consumption (AC), the nature of the causal relationship between them is not completely understood. We leveraged genome-wide data from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium (PGC) and UK Biobank to test for the presence of shared genetic mechanisms and causal relationships among MD, AD, and AC. METHODS: Linkage disequilibrium score regression and Mendelian randomization (MR) were performed using genome-wide data from the PGC (MD: 135 458 cases and 344 901 controls; AD: 10 206 cases and 28 480 controls) and UK Biobank (AC-frequency: 438 308 individuals; AC-quantity: 307 098 individuals). RESULTS: Positive genetic correlation was observed between MD and AD (rgMD-AD = + 0.47, P = 6.6 × 10-10). AC-quantity showed positive genetic correlation with both AD (rgAD-AC quantity = + 0.75, P = 1.8 × 10-14) and MD (rgMD-AC quantity = + 0.14, P = 2.9 × 10-7), while there was negative correlation of AC-frequency with MD (rgMD-AC frequency = -0.17, P = 1.5 × 10-10) and a non-significant result with AD. MR analyses confirmed the presence of pleiotropy among these four traits. However, the MD-AD results reflect a mediated-pleiotropy mechanism (i.e. causal relationship) with an effect of MD on AD (beta = 0.28, P = 1.29 × 10-6). There was no evidence for reverse causation. CONCLUSION: This study supports a causal role for genetic liability of MD on AD based on genetic datasets including thousands of individuals. Understanding mechanisms underlying MD-AD comorbidity addresses important public health concerns and has the potential to facilitate prevention and intervention efforts.

10.
Curr Psychiatry Rep ; 21(4): 26, 2019 Mar 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30852706

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We review the search for genetic variants that affect the risk for alcohol dependence and alcohol consumption. RECENT FINDINGS: Variations in genes affecting alcohol metabolism (ADH1B, ALDH2) are protective against both alcohol dependence and excessive consumption, but different variants are found in different populations. There are different patterns of risk variants for alcohol dependence vs. consumption. Variants for alcohol dependence, but not consumption, are associated with risk for other psychiatric illnesses. ADH1B and ALDH2 strongly affect both consumption and dependence. Variations in many other genes affect both consumption and dependence-or one or the other of these traits-but individual effect sizes are small. Evidence for other specific genes that affect dependence is not yet strong. Most current knowledge derives from studies of European-ancestry populations, and large studies of carefully phenotyped subjects from different populations are needed to understand the genetic contributions to alcohol consumption and alcohol use disorders.

11.
J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry ; 58(2): 242-255.e2, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30738551

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Trauma, particularly when experienced early in life, can alter neurophysiologic and behavioral development, thereby increasing risk for substance use disorders and related psychopathology. However, few studies have empirically examined trauma using well-characterized developmental samples that are followed longitudinally. METHOD: The association of assaultive, non-assaultive, and sexual assaultive experiences before 10 years of age with developmental trajectories of brain function during response inhibition was examined by measuring electrophysiologic theta and delta oscillations during no-go and go conditions in an equal probability go/no-go task. Data were drawn from the Collaborative Study of the Genetics of Alcoholism (COGA) prospective cohort, composed of offspring who were aged 12 through 22 years at enrollment from high-risk and comparison families, with follow-ups at 2-year intervals since 2004. In addition, other important predictors of neurophysiologic functioning (eg, substance use, impulsivity, and parental alcohol use disorders) were investigated. Moreover, associations of neurophysiologic functioning with alcohol and cannabis use disorder symptom counts and externalizing and internalizing psychopathology were examined. RESULTS: Individuals exposed to sexual assaultive trauma before 10 years of age had slower rates of change in developmental trajectories of no-go frontal theta during response inhibition. Importantly, effects remained significant after accounting for exposure to other traumatic exposures, such as parental history of alcohol use disorder and participants' substance use, but not measures of impulsivity. Further, slower rates of change in no-go frontal theta adolescent and young adult development were associated with increased risk for alcohol use disorder symptoms and internalizing psychopathology, but not for cannabis use disorder symptoms or externalizing psychopathology. CONCLUSION: Childhood sexual assault is associated with atypical frontal neurophysiologic development during response inhibition. This could reflect alterations in frontal lobe development, synaptic pruning, and/or cortical maturation involving neural circuits for inhibitory control. These same areas could be associated with increased risk for young adult alcohol use disorder symptoms and internalizing psychopathology. These findings support the hypothesis that changes in neurocognitive development related to early sexual trauma exposure could increase the risk for mental health and substance use problems in young adulthood.

12.
Transl Psychiatry ; 9(1): 89, 2019 02 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30765688

RESUMO

Alcohol exposure triggers changes in gene expression and biological pathways in human brain. We explored alterations in gene expression in the Pre-Frontal Cortex (PFC) of 65 alcoholics and 73 controls of European descent, and identified 129 genes that showed altered expression (FDR < 0.05) in subjects with alcohol dependence. Differentially expressed genes were enriched for pathways related to interferon signaling and Growth Arrest and DNA Damage-inducible 45 (GADD45) signaling. A coexpression module (thistle2) identified by weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) was significantly correlated with alcohol dependence, alcohol consumption, and AUDIT scores. Genes in the thistle2 module were enriched with genes related to calcium signaling pathways and showed significant downregulation of these pathways, as well as enrichment for biological processes related to nicotine response and opioid signaling. A second module (brown4) showed significant upregulation of pathways related to immune signaling. Expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs) for genes in the brown4 module were also enriched for genetic associations with alcohol dependence and alcohol consumption in large genome-wide studies included in the Psychiatric Genetic Consortium and the UK Biobank's alcohol consumption dataset. By leveraging multi-omics data, this transcriptome analysis has identified genes and biological pathways that could provide insight for identifying therapeutic targets for alcohol dependence.

13.
Am J Nephrol ; 49(2): 125-132, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30669147

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Elevated serum concentrations of fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) are associated with cardiovascular mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease and those undergoing dialysis. OBJECTIVES: We tested the hypotheses that polymorphisms in FGF23, its co-receptor alpha-klotho (KL), and/or FGF23 receptors (FGFR) are associated with cardiovascular events and/or mortality. METHODS: We used 1,494 DNA samples collected at baseline from the Evaluation of Cinacalcet HCl Therapy to Lower Cardiovascular Events Trial, in which patients were randomized to the calcimimetic cinacalcet or placebo for the treatment of secondary hyperparathyroidism. We analyzed European and African Ancestry samples separately and then combined summary statistics to perform a meta-analysis. We evaluated single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in FGF23, KL, and FGFR4 as the key exposures of interest in proportional hazards (Cox) regression models using adjudicated endpoints (all-cause and cardiovascular mortality, sudden cardiac death, and heart failure [HF]) as the outcomes of interest. RESULTS: rs11063112 in FGF23 was associated with cardiovascular mortality (risk allele = A, hazard ratio [HR] 1.32, meta-p value = 0.004) and HF (HR 1.40, meta-p value = 0.007). No statistically significant associations were observed between FGF23 rs13312789 and SNPs in FGFR4 or KL genes and the outcomes of interest. CONCLUSIONS: rs11063112 was associated with HF and cardiovascular mortality in patients receiving dialysis with moderate to severe secondary hyperparathyroidism.

14.
Psychol Addict Behav ; 33(1): 58-68, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30667237

RESUMO

A multistage model of drug addiction in which individuals' motivations for use change as they develop problems is widely accepted; however, the evidence for this model comes mostly from animal work and cross-sectional studies. We used longitudinal data to test whether positive and negative reinforcement associated with alcohol consumption differed as a function of alcohol dependence (AD). Specifically, we tested whether (a) positive reinforcement is more strongly associated with alcohol consumption than is negative reinforcement among individuals without AD, (b) negative reinforcement is more strongly associated with AD than is positive reinforcement, and (c) in the presence of AD, the association between positive reinforcement and alcohol consumption becomes weaker, whereas the association with negative reinforcement becomes stronger. We included assessments between Ages 18 and 30 years from participants who indicated they ever had a drink (N = 2,556; 51.6% female) from the Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism Prospective Study. Results from generalized estimating equations indicated that positive, but not negative, reinforcement was associated with alcohol consumption among individuals without AD. Both positive and negative reinforcement were associated with AD, but the association was stronger with negative reinforcement. Results from the multilevel growth model indicated that the association between negative reinforcement and alcohol consumption became stronger with the presence of AD, whereas the association between positive reinforcement and alcohol consumption did not differ as a function of AD. We provide empirical evidence that positive and negative reinforcement are differentially associated with alcohol consumption as a function of AD. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/psicologia , Alcoolismo/psicologia , Reforço (Psicologia) , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Motivação , Estudos Prospectivos , Adulto Jovem
15.
Alcohol ; 79: 81-91, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30639126

RESUMO

The short-term effects of alcohol on gene expression in brain tissue cannot directly be studied in humans. Because neuroimmune signaling is altered by alcohol, immune cells are a logical, accessible choice to study and may provide biomarkers. RNAseq was used to study the effects of 48-h exposure to ethanol on lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) from 20 alcoholic subjects and 20 control subjects. Ethanol exposure resulted in differential expression of 4456 of the 12,503 genes detectably expressed in the LCLs (FDR [false discovery rate] ≤ 0.05); 52% of these showed increased expression. Cells from alcoholic subjects and control subjects responded similarly. The genes whose expression changed fell into many pathways: NFκB, neuroinflammation, IL6, IL2, IL8, and dendritic cell maturation pathways were activated, consistent with increased signaling by NFκB, TNF, IL1, IL4, IL18, TLR4, and LPS. Signaling by Interferons A and B decreased, as did EIF2 signaling, phospholipase C signaling, and glycolysis. Baseline gene expression patterns were similar in LCLs from alcoholic subjects and control subjects. At relaxed stringency (p < 0.05), 465 genes differed, 230 of which were also affected by ethanol. There was a suggestion of compensation because baseline differences (no ethanol) were in the opposite direction of differences due to ethanol exposure in 78% of these genes. Pathways with IL8, phospholipase C, and α-adrenergic signaling were significant. The pattern of expression was consistent with increased signaling by several cytokines, including interferons, TLR2, and TLR3 in alcoholics. Expression of genes in the cholesterol biosynthesis pathway, including the rate-limiting enzyme HMGCR, was lower in alcoholic subjects. LCLs show many effects of ethanol exposure, some of which might provide biomarkers for alcohol use disorders. Identifying genes and pathways altered by ethanol can aid in interpreting which genes within loci identified by GWAS might play functional roles.

16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30503783

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies of case-control status have advanced the understanding of the genetic basis of psychiatric disorders. Further progress may be gained by increasing sample size but also by new analysis strategies that advance the exploitation of existing data, especially for clinically important quantitative phenotypes. The functionally-informed efficient region-based test strategy (FIERS) introduced herein uses prior knowledge on biological function and dependence of genotypes within a powerful statistical framework with improved sensitivity and specificity for detecting consistent genetic effects across studies. As proof of concept, FIERS was used for the first genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based investigation on bipolar disorder (BD) that focuses on an important aspect of disease course, the functional outcome. FIERS identified a significantly associated locus on chromosome 15 (hg38: chr15:48965004 - 49464789 bp) with consistent effect strength between two independent studies (GAIN/TGen: European Americans, BOMA: Germans; n = 1592 BD patients in total). Protective and risk haplotypes were found on the most strongly associated SNPs. They contain a CTCF binding site (rs586758); CTCF sites are known to regulate sets of genes within a chromatin domain. The rs586758 - rs2086256 - rs1904317 haplotype is located in the promoter flanking region of the COPS2 gene, close to microRNA4716, and the EID1, SHC4, DTWD1 genes as plausible biological candidates. While implication with BD is novel, COPS2, EID1, and SHC4 are known to be relevant for neuronal differentiation and function and DTWD1 for psychopharmacological side effects. The test strategy FIERS that enabled this discovery is equally applicable for tag SNPs and sequence data.

17.
Addiction ; 2018 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30474892

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Few studies have explored how polygenic propensity to cannabis use unfolds across development, and no studies have yet examined this question in the context of environmental contributions such as peer cannabis use. Outlining the factors that contribute to progression from cannabis initiation to problem use over time may ultimately provide insights into mechanisms for targeted interventions. We sought to examine the relationships between polygenic liability for cannabis use, cannabis use trajectories across ages 12-30, and perceived peer cannabis use at ages 12-17. DESIGN: Mixed effect logistic and linear regressions were used to examine associations between polygenic risk scores, cannabis use trajectory membership, and perceived peer cannabis use. SETTING: USA PARTICIPANTS: From the Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism (COGA) study, a cohort of 1,167 individuals aged 12-26 years at their baseline (i.e., first) interview. MEASUREMENTS: Key measurements included lifetime cannabis use (yes/no), frequency of past 12-month cannabis use, maximum lifetime frequency of cannabis use, cannabis use disorder (using DSM-5 criteria), and perceived peer cannabis use. Polygenic risk scores (PRS) were created using summary statistics from a large (N = 162,082) genome-wide association study (GWAS) of cannabis use. FINDINGS: Three trajectories reflecting no/low (n=844), moderate (n=137) and high (n=186) use were identified. PRS were significantly associated with trajectory membership (p=0.002-0.006, maximum conditional R2 = 0.014, ORs = 1.40-1.49). Individuals who reported that most/all of their best friends used cannabis had significantly higher PRS than those who reported that none of their friends were users (OR = 1.35, 95% C.I. = [1.04, 1.75], p = 0.023). Perceived peer use itself explained up to 11.3% of the variance in trajectory class membership (OR: 1.50-4.65). When peer cannabis use and the cannabis use PRS were entered into the model simultaneously, both the PRS and peer use continued to be significantly associated with class membership (p < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Genetic propensity to cannabis use derived from heterogeneous samples appears to correlate with longitudinal increases in cannabis use frequency in young adults.

18.
Am J Psychiatry ; : appiajp201818040369, 2018 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30336701

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE:: Alcohol use disorders are common conditions that have enormous social and economic consequences. Genome-wide association analyses were performed to identify genetic variants associated with a proxy measure of alcohol consumption and alcohol misuse and to explore the shared genetic basis between these measures and other substance use, psychiatric, and behavioral traits. METHOD:: This study used quantitative measures from the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) from two population-based cohorts of European ancestry (UK Biobank [N=121,604] and 23andMe [N=20,328]) and performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) meta-analysis. Two additional GWAS analyses were performed, a GWAS for AUDIT scores on items 1-3, which focus on consumption (AUDIT-C), and for scores on items 4-10, which focus on the problematic consequences of drinking (AUDIT-P). RESULTS:: The GWAS meta-analysis of AUDIT total score identified 10 associated risk loci. Novel associations localized to genes including JCAD and SLC39A13; this study also replicated previously identified signals in the genes ADH1B, ADH1C, KLB, and GCKR. The dimensions of AUDIT showed positive genetic correlations with alcohol consumption (rg=0.76-0.92) and DSM-IV alcohol dependence (rg=0.33-0.63). AUDIT-P and AUDIT-C scores showed significantly different patterns of association across a number of traits, including psychiatric disorders. AUDIT-P score was significantly positively genetically correlated with schizophrenia (rg=0.22), major depressive disorder (rg=0.26), and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (rg=0.23), whereas AUDIT-C score was significantly negatively genetically correlated with major depressive disorder (rg=-0.24) and ADHD (rg=-0.10). This study also used the AUDIT data in the UK Biobank to identify thresholds for dichotomizing AUDIT total score that optimize genetic correlations with DSM-IV alcohol dependence. Coding individuals with AUDIT total scores ≤4 as control subjects and those with scores ≥12 as case subjects produced a significant high genetic correlation with DSM-IV alcohol dependence (rg=0.82) while retaining most subjects. CONCLUSIONS:: AUDIT scores ascertained in population-based cohorts can be used to explore the genetic basis of both alcohol consumption and alcohol use disorders.

19.
Alcohol Clin Exp Res ; 42(12): 2281-2297, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30320893

RESUMO

Alcohol use disorders (AUDs) are complex traits, meaning that variations in many genes contribute to the risk, as does the environment. Although the total genetic contribution to risk is substantial, most individual variations make only very small contributions. By far the strongest contributors are functional variations in 2 genes involved in alcohol (ethanol [EtOH]) metabolism. A functional variant in alcohol dehydrogenase 1B (ADH1B) is protective in people of European and Asian descent, and a different functional variant in the same gene is protective in those of African descent. A strongly protective variant in aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) is essentially only found in Asians. This highlights the need to study a wide range of populations. The likely mechanism of protection against heavy drinking and AUDs in both cases is alteration in the rate of metabolism of EtOH that at least transiently elevates acetaldehyde. Other ADH and ALDH variants, including functional variations in ADH1C, have also been implicated in affecting drinking behavior and risk for alcoholism. The pattern of linkage disequilibrium in the ADH region and the differences among populations complicate analyses, particularly of regulatory variants. This critical review focuses upon the ADH and ALDH genes as they affect AUDs.

20.
Twin Res Hum Genet ; 21(4): 310-321, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30027866

RESUMO

Genetic predispositions play an important role in the development of internalizing and externalizing behaviors. Understanding the mechanisms through which genetic risk unfolds to influence these developmental outcomes is critical for developing prevention and intervention efforts, capturing key elements of Irv's research agenda and scientific legacy. In this study, we examined the role of parenting and personality in mediating the effect of genetic risk on adolescents' major depressive disorder and conduct disorder symptoms. Longitudinal data were drawn from a sample of 709 European American adolescents and their mothers from the Collaborative Studies on Genetics of Alcoholism. Results from multivariate path analysis indicated that adolescents' depressive symptoms genome-wide polygenic scores (DS_GPS) predicted lower parental knowledge, which in turn was associated with more subsequent major depressive disorder and conduct disorder symptoms. Adolescents' DS_GPS also had indirect effects on these outcomes via personality, with a mediating effect via agreeableness but not via other dimensions of personality. Findings revealed that the pattern of associations was similar across adolescent gender. Our findings emphasize the important role of evocative gene-environment correlation processes and intermediate phenotypes in the pathways of risk from genetic predispositions to complex adolescent outcomes.

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