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1.
Eur J Med Genet ; : 103812, 2019 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31731040

RESUMO

Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser syndrome (MRKH) is a rare malformative disorder, characterized by congenital aplasia of the uterus and the upper two thirds of the vagina (MIM #277000). For a majority of patients, the disorder remained without identified genetic cause. However, four recurrent microdeletions, i.e. 1q21.1-16p11.2-17q12 and 22q11.21, as well as variants in genes contained in these loci, have been identified in a small number of cases. We describe an additional patient with 2q12.1q14.1 microdeletion, showing MRKH and congenital hypothyroidism due to thyroid gland hypoplasia. The patient received a dual diagnosis with microdeletion of SHOX locus in addition to the 2q12.1q14.1 microdeletion. Literature review and database analysis has enabled us to identify 5 OMIM morbid genes: CKAP2L, IL1B, IL1RN, IL36RN and PAX8. Among these, PAX8 (Paired Box Gene 8), a transcriptional factor part of the paired-box family, plays a key role in the development of the thyroid gland, kidneys and Müllerian derivatives. We discuss here the role of PAX8 and speculate on the possible involvement of PAX8 in MRKH. In this study, we report a second case of 2q12.1q14.1 microdeletion, involving PAX8 as a gene associated with Müllerian agenesis in a MRKH I and hypothyroidism. Further studies will confirm the direct participation of PAX8 in gene target sequencing in a population of MRKH with hypothyroidism.

2.
Genet Med ; 2019 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31700164

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Most classical aniridia is caused by PAX6 haploinsufficiency. PAX6 missense variants can be hypomorphic or mimic haploinsufficiency. We hypothesized that missense variants also cause previously undescribed disease by altering the affinity and/or specificity of PAX6 genomic interactions. METHODS: We screened PAX6 in 372 individuals with bilateral microphthalmia, anophthalmia, or coloboma (MAC) from the Medical Research Council Human Genetics Unit eye malformation cohort (HGUeye) and reviewed data from the Deciphering Developmental Disorders study. We performed cluster analysis on PAX6-associated ocular phenotypes by variant type and molecular modeling of the structural impact of 86 different PAX6 causative missense variants. RESULTS: Eight different PAX6 missense variants were identified in 17 individuals (15 families) with MAC, accounting for 4% (15/372) of our cohort. Seven altered the paired domain (p.[Arg26Gln]x1, p.[Gly36Val]x1, p.[Arg38Trp]x2, p.[Arg38Gln]x1, p.[Gly51Arg]x2, p.[Ser54Arg]x2, p.[Asn124Lys]x5) and one the homeodomain (p.[Asn260Tyr]x1). p.Ser54Arg and p.Asn124Lys were exclusively associated with severe bilateral microphthalmia. MAC-associated variants were predicted to alter but not ablate DNA interaction, consistent with the electrophoretic mobility shifts observed using mutant paired domains with well-characterized PAX6-binding sites. We found no strong evidence for novel PAX6-associated extraocular disease. CONCLUSION: Altering the affinity and specificity of PAX6-binding genome-wide provides a plausible mechanism for the worse-than-null effects of MAC-associated missense variants.

3.
Mol Genet Genomic Med ; 7(10): e00939, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31454185

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pallister-Killian syndrome (PKS) is a rare sporadic disorder caused by tetrasomy of the short arm of chromosome 12. The main clinical manifestations are global developmental delay, intellectual disability, epilepsy, dysmorphic features, hypopigmented and/or hyperpigmented lesions, and multiple congenital anomalies. PKS is associated with tissue mosaicism, which is difficult to diagnose through peripheral blood sample by conventional cytogenetic methods and fluorescence in situ hybridization. METHODS: Here, we report five patients with PKS. We delineate their clinical phenotypes and we compare them with previously published cases. We used array Comparative Genomic Hybridization (aCGH) with DNA extracted from peripheral blood samples. The five patients have also been tested by conventional cytogenetics techniques. RESULTS: Four out of five patients showed tetrasomy 12p by aCGH. Three of the four patients have typical i(12p) and one of the four demonstrated atypical tetrasomy 12p. The percentage of mosaicism was as low as 20%. Our cohort exhibited the typical PKS phenotypes. CONCLUSION: Our results demonstrate the efficacy of aCGH for the diagnosis of PKS from DNA extracted from lymphocytes. Thus, for patients suspected of PKS, we recommend performing aCGH on lymphocytes at an early age before  proceeding to skin biopsy. aCGH on peripheral blood samples is sensitive in detecting low level of mosaicism and it is less invasive method than skin biopsy. We reviewed also the literature concerning the previously published PKS patients diagnosed by aCGH.

4.
J Genet Couns ; 28(5): 1011-1020, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31313463

RESUMO

Nail-Patella syndrome (NPS) is a genetic disorder generating physical malformations and, in approximately one in three cases, ocular and renal damage. The present research aimed to deeply understand patients' subjective experience with NPS, particularly the aspects of the syndrome that affect patients' adaptation and to propose interventions that can improve genetic and psychological counseling and help patients cope with their condition. Semi-structured interviews of nine people diagnosed with NPS were analyzed using interpretative phenomenological analysis. Results highlighted attempts to look like a person without disabilities by hiding malformations and not telling the truth about symptoms' genetic origin because of patients' poor self-esteem, negative self-cognition, and social isolation experienced from childhood to adulthood. Difficulties of adaptation to physical limits and pain were also identified. The majority of participants who were not diagnosed at birth tended to consider physical symptoms as "birth malformations" without imagining other potential implications until receiving a diagnosis. Despite the diagnosis, the majority continued to minimize the potential complications by considering NPS as a "physical difference" and not adhering to medical surveillance.

6.
RNA ; 25(9): 1130-1149, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31175170

RESUMO

Minor intron splicing plays a central role in human embryonic development and survival. Indeed, biallelic mutations in RNU4ATAC, transcribed into the minor spliceosomal U4atac snRNA, are responsible for three rare autosomal recessive multimalformation disorders named Taybi-Linder (TALS/MOPD1), Roifman (RFMN), and Lowry-Wood (LWS) syndromes, which associate numerous overlapping signs of varying severity. Although RNA-seq experiments have been conducted on a few RFMN patient cells, none have been performed in TALS, and more generally no in-depth transcriptomic analysis of the ∼700 human genes containing a minor (U12-type) intron had been published as yet. We thus sequenced RNA from cells derived from five skin, three amniotic fluid, and one blood biosamples obtained from seven unrelated TALS cases and from age- and sex-matched controls. This allowed us to describe for the first time the mRNA expression and splicing profile of genes containing U12-type introns, in the context of a functional minor spliceosome. Concerning RNU4ATAC-mutated patients, we show that as expected, they display distinct U12-type intron splicing profiles compared to controls, but that rather unexpectedly mRNA expression levels are mostly unchanged. Furthermore, although U12-type intron missplicing concerns most of the expressed U12 genes, the level of U12-type intron retention is surprisingly low in fibroblasts and amniocytes, and much more pronounced in blood cells. Interestingly, we found several occurrences of introns that can be spliced using either U2, U12, or a combination of both types of splice site consensus sequences, with a shift towards splicing using preferentially U2 sites in TALS patients' cells compared to controls.


Assuntos
Nanismo/genética , Retardo do Crescimento Fetal/genética , Microcefalia/genética , Osteocondrodisplasias/genética , Processamento de RNA/genética , Transcriptoma/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Sequência de Bases/genética , Pré-Escolar , Sequência Consenso/genética , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Humanos , Lactente , Íntrons/genética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , RNA/genética , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Nuclear Pequeno/genética , Spliceossomos/genética , Adulto Jovem
7.
Hum Mutat ; 40(11): 1993-2000, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31230393

RESUMO

Human retrocopies, that is messenger RNA transcripts benefitting from the long interspersed element 1 machinery for retrotransposition, may have specific consequences for genomic testing. Next genetration sequencing (NGS) techniques allow the detection of such mobile elements but they may be misinterpreted as genomic duplications or be totally overlooked. We report eight observations of retrocopies detected during diagnostic NGS analyses of targeted gene panels, exome, or genome sequencing. For seven cases, while an exons-only copy number gain was called, read alignment inspection revealed a depth of coverage shift at every exon-intron junction where indels were also systematically called. Moreover, aberrant chimeric read pairs spanned entire introns or were paired with another locus for terminal exons. The 8th retrocopy was present in the reference genome and thus showed a normal NGS profile. We emphasize the existence of retrocopies and strategies to accurately detect them at a glance during genetic testing and discuss pitfalls for genetic testing.

8.
Orphanet J Rare Dis ; 14(1): 121, 2019 05 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31151468

RESUMO

Williams Beuren syndrome (WBS) is a multiple malformations/intellectual disability (ID) syndrome caused by 7q11.23 microdeletion and clinically characterized by a typical neurocognitive profile including excessive talkativeness and social disinhibition, often defined as "overfriendliness" and "hyersociability". WBS is generally considered as the polar opposite phenotype to Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Surprisingly, the prevalence of ASD has been reported to be significantly higher in WBS (12%) than in general population (1%). Our study aims to investigate the molecular basis of the peculiar association of ASD and WBS. We performed chromosomal microarray analysis and whole exome sequencing in six patients presenting with WBS and ASD, in order to evaluate the possible presence of chromosomal or gene variants considered as pathogenic.Our study shows that the presence of ASD in the recruited WBS patients is due to i) neither atypically large deletions; ii) nor the presence of pathogenic variants in genes localized in the non-deleted 7q11.23 allele which would unmask recessive conditions; iii) moreover, we did not identify a second, indisputable independent genetic diagnosis, related to pathogenic Copy Number Variations or rare pathogenic exonic variants in known ID/ASD causing genes, although several variants of unknown significance were found. Finally, imprinting effect does not appear to be the only cause of autism in WBS patients, since the deletions occurred in alleles of both maternal and paternal origin.The social disinhibition observed in WBS does not follow common social norms and symptoms overlapping with ASD, such as restricted interests and repetitive behavior, can be observed in "typical" WBS patients: therefore, the terms "overfriendliness" and "hypersociability" appear to be a misleading oversimplification.The etiology of ASD in WBS is likely to be heterogeneous. Further studies on large series of patients are needed to clarify the observed variability in WBS social communication, ranging from excessive talkativeness and social disinhibition to absence of verbal language and social deficit.

9.
J Mol Med (Berl) ; 97(5): 633-645, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30843084

RESUMO

Cohen syndrome (CS) is a rare genetic disorder due to mutations in VPS13B gene. Among various clinical and biological features, CS patients suffer from inconsistent neutropenia, which is associated with recurrent but minor infections. We demonstrate here that this neutropenia results from an exaggerate rate of neutrophil apoptosis. Besides this increased cell death, which occurs in the absence of any endoplasmic reticulum stress or defect in neutrophil elastase (ELANE) expression or localization, all neutrophil functions appeared to be normal. We showed a disorganization of the Golgi apparatus in CS neutrophils precursors, that correlates with an altered glycosylation of ICAM-1 in these cells, as evidenced by a migration shift of the protein. Furthermore, a striking decrease in the expression of SERPINB1 gene, which encodes a critical component of neutrophil survival, was detected in CS neutrophils. These abnormalities may account for the excessive apoptosis of neutrophils leading to neutropenia in CS. KEY MESSAGES: Cohen syndrome patients' neutrophils display normal morphology and functions. Cohen syndrome patients' neutrophils have an increased rate of spontaneous apoptosis compared to healthy donors' neutrophils. No ER stress or defective ELA2 expression or glycosylation was observed in Cohen syndrome patients' neutrophils. SerpinB1 expression is significantly decreased in Cohen syndrome neutrophils as well as in VPS13B-deficient cells.

10.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 27(5): 701-710, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30710147

RESUMO

Exome sequencing (ES) has revolutionized diagnostic procedures in medical genetics, particularly for developmental diseases. The variety and complexity of the information produced has raised issues regarding its use in a clinical setting. Of particular interest are patients' expectations regarding the information disclosed, the accompaniment provided, and the value patients place on these. To explore these issues in parents of children with developmental disorders and no diagnosis with known etiology, a multidisciplinary group of researchers from social and behavioral sciences and patient organizations conducted a mixed-methodology study (quantitative and qualitative) in two centers of expertise for rare diseases in France. The quantitative study aimed to determine the preferences of 513 parents regarding the disclosure of ES results. It showed that parents wished to have exhaustive information, including variants of unknown significance possibly linked to their child's disorder and secondary findings. This desire for information could be a strategy to maximize the chances of obtaining a diagnosis. The qualitative study aimed to understand the expectations and reactions of 57 parents interviewed just after the return of ES results. In-depth analysis showed that parents had ambivalent feelings about the findings whatever the results returned. The contrasting results from these studies raise questions about the value of the information provided and parents' high expectations regarding the results. The nature of parental expectations has emerged as an important topic in efforts to optimize accompaniment and support for families during the informed decision-making process and after disclosure of the results in an overall context of uncertainty.

11.
Am J Med Genet A ; 176(12): 2740-2750, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30548201

RESUMO

The oculoauriculofrontonasal syndrome (OAFNS) is a rare disorder characterized by the association of frontonasal dysplasia (widely spaced eyes, facial cleft, and nose abnormalities) and oculo-auriculo-vertebral spectrum (OAVS)-associated features, such as preauricular ear tags, ear dysplasia, mandibular asymmetry, epibulbar dermoids, eyelid coloboma, and costovertebral anomalies. The etiology is unknown so far. This work aimed to identify molecular bases for the OAFNS. Among a cohort of 130 patients with frontonasal dysplasia, accurate phenotyping identified 18 individuals with OAFNS. We describe their clinical spectrum, including the report of new features (micro/anophtalmia, cataract, thyroid agenesis, polymicrogyria, olfactory bulb hypoplasia, and mandibular cleft), and emphasize the high frequency of nasal polyps in OAFNS (56%). We report the negative results of ALX1, ALX3, and ALX4 genes sequencing and next-generation sequencing strategy performed on blood-derived DNA from respectively, four and four individuals. Exome sequencing was performed in four individuals, genome sequencing in one patient with negative exome sequencing result. Based on the data from this series and the literature, diverse hypotheses can be raised regarding the etiology of OAFNS: mosaic mutation, epigenetic anomaly, oligogenism, or nongenetic cause. In conclusion, this series represents further clinical delineation work of the rare OAFNS, and paves the way toward the identification of the causing mechanism.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Craniofaciais/diagnóstico , Anormalidades Craniofaciais/genética , Orelha Externa/anormalidades , Anormalidades do Olho/diagnóstico , Anormalidades do Olho/genética , Estudos de Associação Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Padrões de Herança , Fenótipo , Anormalidades do Sistema Respiratório/diagnóstico , Anormalidades do Sistema Respiratório/genética , Coluna Vertebral/anormalidades , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Facies , Feminino , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/genética , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Crânio/anormalidades , Crânio/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia Computadorizada Espiral , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma
12.
Eur J Med Genet ; 2018 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30389587

RESUMO

Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia is usually linked to the presence of a pathogenic mutation ACVRL1 or ENG. Thus, apparently there is no benefit to perform an array CGH in case of HHT. However, ENG has been involved in a contiguous gene syndrome due to a de novo 9q33.3q34.11 microdeletion. We describe here a new contiguous gene syndrome involving ACVRL1 gene. A 50-year-old female patient had a typical clinical presentation of hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) with epistaxis, cutaneous-mucous telangiectases, arteriovenous malformation. She also presented a cognitive disability. Cognitive assessment showed a heterogeneous cognitive disorder predominating in the executive sphere without intellectual deficiency. She had no peculiar morphological feature. Neurological examination disclosed the presence of contralateral mirror movements during voluntary movement of each hand. A heterozygous deletion of the whole ACVRL1 gene (exons 1 to 10) was found to be responsible for the HHT features. To investigate further the dysexecutive syndrome and the mirror movements, we performed oligonucleotide array comparative genomic hybridization (array CGH) study (180K, Agilent, Santa-Clara, CA, USA). This study revealed a de novo 1.58 Mb deletion on chromosome 12q13.12q13.13 encompassing the ACVRL1 and SCN8A genes. To our knowledge, this deletion has not been previously reported and defines a new contiguous gene syndrome. The loss of one ACVRL1 allele is likely to be responsible for the HHT phenotype, while the deletion of the SCN8A gene is likely to be the cause of the mild cognitive disorder. SCN8A haploinsufficiency might also be involved in the occurrence of mirror movements. This report highlights the benefit of searching for large rearrangements in cases including unusual symptoms in association with HHT. On the other hand, an early diagnosis of 12q13.12q13.13 microdeletion based on the presence of a dysexecutive syndrome and/or mirror movement may allow to prevent HHT complications.

13.
J Med Genet ; 2018 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30287593

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The clinical significance of 16p13.11 duplications remains controversial while frequently detected in patients with developmental delay (DD), intellectual deficiency (ID) or autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Previously reported patients were not or poorly characterised. The absence of consensual recommendations leads to interpretation discrepancy and makes genetic counselling challenging. This study aims to decipher the genotype-phenotype correlations to improve genetic counselling and patients' medical care. METHODS: We retrospectively analysed data from 16 013 patients referred to 12 genetic centers for DD, ID or ASD, and who had a chromosomal microarray analysis. The referring geneticists of patients for whom a 16p13.11 duplication was detected were asked to complete a questionnaire for detailed clinical and genetic data for the patients and their parents. RESULTS: Clinical features are mainly speech delay and learning disabilities followed by ASD. A significant risk of cardiovascular disease was noted. About 90% of the patients inherited the duplication from a parent. At least one out of four parents carrying the duplication displayed a similar phenotype to the propositus. Genotype-phenotype correlations show no impact of the size of the duplicated segment on the severity of the phenotype. However, NDE1 and miR-484 seem to have an essential role in the neurocognitive phenotype. CONCLUSION: Our study shows that 16p13.11 microduplications are likely pathogenic when detected in the context of DD/ID/ASD and supports an essential role of NDE1 and miR-484 in the neurocognitive phenotype. Moreover, it suggests the need for cardiac evaluation and follow-up and a large study to evaluate the aortic disease risk.

15.
Genet Med ; 2018 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30206421

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Variants in IQSEC2, escaping X inactivation, cause X-linked intellectual disability with frequent epilepsy in males and females. We aimed to investigate sex-specific differences. METHODS: We collected the data of 37 unpublished patients (18 males and 19 females) with IQSEC2 pathogenic variants and 5 individuals with variants of unknown significance and reviewed published variants. We compared variant types and phenotypes in males and females and performed an analysis of IQSEC2 isoforms. RESULTS: IQSEC2 pathogenic variants mainly led to premature truncation and were scattered throughout the longest brain-specific isoform, encoding the synaptic IQSEC2/BRAG1 protein. Variants occurred de novo in females but were either de novo (2/3) or inherited (1/3) in males, with missense variants being predominantly inherited. Developmental delay and intellectual disability were overall more severe in males than in females. Likewise, seizures were more frequently observed and intractable, and started earlier in males than in females. No correlation was observed between the age at seizure onset and severity of intellectual disability or resistance to antiepileptic treatments. CONCLUSION: This study provides a comprehensive overview of IQSEC2-related encephalopathy in males and females, and suggests that an accurate dosage of IQSEC2 at the synapse is crucial during normal brain development.

16.
Am J Hum Genet ; 102(6): 1195-1203, 2018 06 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29861108

RESUMO

Next-generation sequencing is a powerful tool for the discovery of genes related to neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs). Here, we report the identification of a distinct syndrome due to de novo or inherited heterozygous mutations in Tousled-like kinase 2 (TLK2) in 38 unrelated individuals and two affected mothers, using whole-exome and whole-genome sequencing technologies, matchmaker databases, and international collaborations. Affected individuals had a consistent phenotype, characterized by mild-borderline neurodevelopmental delay (86%), behavioral disorders (68%), severe gastro-intestinal problems (63%), and facial dysmorphism including blepharophimosis (82%), telecanthus (74%), prominent nasal bridge (68%), broad nasal tip (66%), thin vermilion of the upper lip (62%), and upslanting palpebral fissures (55%). Analysis of cell lines from three affected individuals showed that mutations act through a loss-of-function mechanism in at least two case subjects. Genotype-phenotype analysis and comparison of computationally modeled faces showed that phenotypes of these and other individuals with loss-of-function variants significantly overlapped with phenotypes of individuals with other variant types (missense and C-terminal truncating). This suggests that haploinsufficiency of TLK2 is the most likely underlying disease mechanism, leading to a consistent neurodevelopmental phenotype. This work illustrates the power of international data sharing, by the identification of 40 individuals from 26 different centers in 7 different countries, allowing the identification, clinical delineation, and genotype-phenotype evaluation of a distinct NDD caused by mutations in TLK2.

17.
Clin Case Rep ; 6(5): 827-834, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29744066

RESUMO

Chromosomal microarray (CMA) can detect pathogenic copy number variations in 15-20% of individuals with intellectual disability and in 10% of patients with autism spectrum disorders. The diagnostic rate in specific learning disorders (SLD) is unknown. Our study emphasizes the usefulness of CMA in the diagnostic workout assessment of familial SLD.

18.
Ann Neurol ; 83(5): 926-934, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29630738

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Cut homeodomain transcription factor CUX2 plays an important role in dendrite branching, spine development, and synapse formation in layer II to III neurons of the cerebral cortex. We identify a recurrent de novo CUX2 p.Glu590Lys as a novel genetic cause for developmental and epileptic encephalopathy (DEE). METHODS: The de novo p.Glu590Lys variant was identified by whole-exome sequencing (n = 5) or targeted gene panel (n = 4). We performed electroclinical and imaging phenotyping on all patients. RESULTS: The cohort comprised 7 males and 2 females. Mean age at study was 13 years (0.5-21.0). Median age at seizure onset was 6 months (2 months to 9 years). Seizure types at onset were myoclonic, atypical absence with myoclonic components, and focal seizures. Epileptiform activity on electroencephalogram was seen in 8 cases: generalized polyspike-wave (6) or multifocal discharges (2). Seizures were drug resistant in 7 or controlled with valproate (2). Six patients had a DEE: myoclonic DEE (3), Lennox-Gastaut syndrome (2), and West syndrome (1). Two had a static encephalopathy and genetic generalized epilepsy, including absence epilepsy in 1. One infant had multifocal epilepsy. Eight had severe cognitive impairment, with autistic features in 6. The p.Glu590Lys variant affects a highly conserved glutamine residue in the CUT domain predicted to interfere with CUX2 binding to DNA targets during neuronal development. INTERPRETATION: Patients with CUX2 p.Glu590Lys display a distinctive phenotypic spectrum, which is predominantly generalized epilepsy, with infantile-onset myoclonic DEE at the severe end and generalized epilepsy with severe static developmental encephalopathy at the milder end of the spectrum. Ann Neurol 2018;83:926-934.

19.
Mol Syndromol ; 8(6): 325-330, 2017 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29230163

RESUMO

We report a 3-generation family in which 2 Xp copy number variations (CNVs) co-segregate. The proband presented with syndromic intellectual disability. The CNV had been revealed by conventional karyotyping, identifying a large Xp22 duplication causing an Xp functional disomy. Family studies found that this duplication was inherited from the proband's mother and was also present in one of his sisters. This sister had conventional karyotyping performed during pregnancy with a normal result. Postnatally, her child, the proband's nephew, presented with autism spectrum disorders. aCGH revealed a 339-kb IL1RAPL1 duplication. Overall, the proband, his mother, and one of his sisters all harboured both CNVs, while his other sister and the 2 sons of each sister only carried the IL1RAPL1 intragenic duplication. As seen in this family, we emphasise the importance of small CNV detection, the pathogenicity of IL1RAPL1 exonic duplications in male carriers, and the difficulties for genetic counselling with the risk of double diagnosis in a single patient.

20.
NPJ Genom Med ; 2: 32, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29263841

RESUMO

Phelan-McDermid syndrome (PMS) is characterized by a variety of clinical symptoms with heterogeneous degrees of severity, including intellectual disability (ID), absent or delayed speech, and autism spectrum disorders (ASD). It results from a deletion of the distal part of chromosome 22q13 that in most cases includes the SHANK3 gene. SHANK3 is considered a major gene for PMS, but the factors that modulate the severity of the syndrome remain largely unknown. In this study, we investigated 85 patients with different 22q13 rearrangements (78 deletions and 7 duplications). We first explored the clinical features associated with PMS, and provide evidence for frequent corpus callosum abnormalities in 28% of 35 patients with brain imaging data. We then mapped several candidate genomic regions at the 22q13 region associated with high risk of clinical features, and suggest a second locus at 22q13 associated with absence of speech. Finally, in some cases, we identified additional clinically relevant copy-number variants (CNVs) at loci associated with ASD, such as 16p11.2 and 15q11q13, which could modulate the severity of the syndrome. We also report an inherited SHANK3 deletion transmitted to five affected daughters by a mother without ID nor ASD, suggesting that some individuals could compensate for such mutations. In summary, we shed light on the genotype-phenotype relationship of patients with PMS, a step towards the identification of compensatory mechanisms for a better prognosis and possibly treatments of patients with neurodevelopmental disorders.

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