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1.
World Allergy Organ J ; 12(3): 100018, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30937141

RESUMO

Background: X-linked agammaglobulinemia is an inherited immunodeficiency recognized since 1952. In spite of seven decades of experience, there is still a limited understanding of regional differences in presentation and complications. This study was designed by the Primary Immunodeficiencies Committee of the World Allergy Organization to better understand regional needs, challenges and unique patient features. Methods: A survey instrument was designed by the Primary Immunodeficiencies Committee of the World Allergy Organization to collect both structured and semi-structured data on X-linked agammaglobulinemia. The survey was sent to 54 centers around the world chosen on the basis of World Allergy Organization participation and/or registration in the European Society for Immunodeficiencies. There were 40 centers that responded, comprising 32 countries. Results: This study reports on 783 patients from 40 centers around the world. Problems with diagnosis are highlighted by the reported delays in diagnosis>24 months in 34% of patients and the lack of genetic studies in 39% of centers Two infections exhibited regional variation. Vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis was seen only in countries with live polio vaccination and two centers reported mycobacteria. High rates of morbidity were reported. Acute and chronic lung diseases accounted for 41% of the deaths. Unusual complications such as inflammatory bowel disease and large granular lymphocyte disease, among others were specifically enumerated, and while individually uncommon, they were collectively seen in 20.3% of patients. These data suggest that a broad range of both inflammatory, infectious, and autoimmune conditions can occur in patients. The breadth of complications and lack of data on management subsequently appeared as a significant challenge reported by centers. Survival above 20 years of age was lowest in Africa (22%) and reached above 70% in Australia, Europe and the Americas. Centers were asked to report their challenges and responses (n = 116) emphasized the difficulties in access to immunoglobulin products (16%) and reflected the ongoing need for education of both patients and referring physicians. Conclusions: This is the largest study of patients with X-linked agammaglobulinemia and emphasizes the continued morbidity and mortality of XLA despite progress in diagnosis and treatment. It presents a world view of the successes and challenges for patients and physicians alike. A pivotal finding is the need for education of physicians regarding typical symptoms suggesting a possible diagnosis of X-linked agammaglobulinemia and sharing of best practices for the less common complications.

3.
Transfusion ; 58 Suppl 3: 3106-3113, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30536434

RESUMO

Streptococcus pneumoniae (S. pneumoniae) strains colonize the nasopharynx and can cause mucosal infections in the upper airway and middle ear, pneumonias, and invasive infections like bacteremia, sepsis, and meningitis. Over 90 serotypes, defined by the structure of their capsular polysaccharides, are known. Twenty-three of these serotypes cause most infections and several of these serotypes can develop antibiotic resistance. Susceptibility factors that increase the susceptibility to S. pneumoniae mucosal and invasive infections include all forms of primary and secondary antibody deficiencies. Many patients affected by one of these deficiencies benefit from the regular administration of human gamma globulin (IgG) preparations. Donors of plasma units used to prepare human IgG have varying concentrations of IgG antibodies against relevant S. pneumoniae serotypes. These antibodies are developed in response to colonization and common subclinical infections and by routine vaccination with S. pneumoniae polysaccharide vaccines. The presence of an adequate concentration of these protective antibodies against all prevalent serotypes needs to be determined to assure the effectiveness of human IgG. All presently available methods to assess IgG antibodies against S. pneumoniae capsular polysaccharides have advantages and pitfalls that are analyzed in this review. In vitro testing does not provide a complete or necessarily accurate measurement of the effectiveness of antibodies in vivo. For regulatory purposes, caution needs to be used in the interpretation of currently available assays that measure pneumococcal antibody levels. Monitoring S. pneumoniae infections in patients treated with IgG and tracing information about IgG lots used to treat these patients should be encouraged.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antibacterianos/metabolismo , Formação de Anticorpos/fisiologia , Imunoglobulina G/análise , Técnicas Imunológicas/normas , Infecções Pneumocócicas/imunologia , Infecções Pneumocócicas/prevenção & controle , Streptococcus pneumoniae/imunologia , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/métodos , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/normas , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/administração & dosagem , Técnicas Imunológicas/métodos , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Potência de Vacina
4.
Front Immunol ; 9: 543, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29599784

RESUMO

Activated phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) δ Syndrome (APDS), caused by autosomal dominant mutations in PIK3CD (APDS1) or PIK3R1 (APDS2), is a heterogeneous primary immunodeficiency. While initial cohort-descriptions summarized the spectrum of clinical and immunological manifestations, questions about long-term disease evolution and response to therapy remain. The prospective European Society for Immunodeficiencies (ESID)-APDS registry aims to characterize the disease course, identify outcome predictors, and evaluate treatment responses. So far, 77 patients have been recruited (51 APDS1, 26 APDS2). Analysis of disease evolution in the first 68 patients pinpoints the early occurrence of recurrent respiratory infections followed by chronic lymphoproliferation, gastrointestinal manifestations, and cytopenias. Although most manifestations occur by age 15, adult-onset and asymptomatic courses were documented. Bronchiectasis was observed in 24/40 APDS1 patients who received a CT-scan compared with 4/15 APDS2 patients. By age 20, half of the patients had received at least one immunosuppressant, but 2-3 lines of immunosuppressive therapy were not unusual before age 10. Response to rapamycin was rated by physician visual analog scale as good in 10, moderate in 9, and poor in 7. Lymphoproliferation showed the best response (8 complete, 11 partial, 6 no remission), while bowel inflammation (3 complete, 3 partial, 9 no remission) and cytopenia (3 complete, 2 partial, 9 no remission) responded less well. Hence, non-lymphoproliferative manifestations should be a key target for novel therapies. This report from the ESID-APDS registry provides comprehensive baseline documentation for a growing cohort that will be followed prospectively to establish prognostic factors and identify patients for treatment studies.


Assuntos
Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/tratamento farmacológico , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Sistema de Registros , Sirolimo/uso terapêutico , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Classe I de Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sociedades Médicas , Adulto Jovem
6.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 139(4): 1282-1292, 2017 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27697500

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: X-linked hyper-IgM syndrome (XHIGM) is a primary immunodeficiency with high morbidity and mortality compared with those seen in healthy subjects. Hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) has been considered a curative therapy, but the procedure has inherent complications and might not be available for all patients. OBJECTIVES: We sought to collect data on the clinical presentation, treatment, and follow-up of a large sample of patients with XHIGM to (1) compare long-term overall survival and general well-being of patients treated with or without HCT along with clinical factors associated with mortality and (2) summarize clinical practice and risk factors in the subgroup of patients treated with HCT. METHODS: Physicians caring for patients with primary immunodeficiency diseases were identified through the Jeffrey Modell Foundation, United States Immunodeficiency Network, Latin American Society for Immunodeficiency, and Primary Immune Deficiency Treatment Consortium. Data were collected with a Research Electronic Data Capture Web application. Survival from time of diagnosis or transplantation was estimated by using the Kaplan-Meier method compared with log-rank tests and modeled by using proportional hazards regression. RESULTS: Twenty-eight clinical sites provided data on 189 patients given a diagnosis of XHIGM between 1964 and 2013; 176 had valid follow-up and vital status information. Sixty-seven (38%) patients received HCT. The average follow-up time was 8.5 ± 7.2 years (range, 0.1-36.2 years). No difference in overall survival was observed between patients treated with or without HCT (P = .671). However, risk associated with HCT decreased for diagnosis years 1987-1995; the hazard ratio was significantly less than 1 for diagnosis years 1995-1999. Liver disease was a significant predictor of overall survival (hazard ratio, 4.9; 95% confidence limits, 2.2-10.8; P < .001). Among survivors, those treated with HCT had higher median Karnofsky/Lansky scores than those treated without HCT (P < .001). Among patients receiving HCT, 27 (40%) had graft-versus-host disease, and most deaths occurred within 1 year of transplantation. CONCLUSION: No difference in survival was observed between patients treated with or without HCT across all diagnosis years (1964-2013). However, survivors treated with HCT experienced somewhat greater well-being, and hazards associated with HCT decreased, reaching levels of significantly less risk in the late 1990s. Among patients treated with HCT, treatment at an early age is associated with improved survival. Optimism remains guarded as additional evidence accumulates.


Assuntos
Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/mortalidade , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência com Hiper-IgM/mortalidade , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência com Hiper-IgM/terapia , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Lactente , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tempo , Adulto Jovem
7.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 139(2): 597-606.e4, 2017 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27555459

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Activated phosphoinositide 3-kinase δ syndrome (APDS) is a recently described combined immunodeficiency resulting from gain-of-function mutations in PIK3CD, the gene encoding the catalytic subunit of phosphoinositide 3-kinase δ (PI3Kδ). OBJECTIVE: We sought to review the clinical, immunologic, histopathologic, and radiologic features of APDS in a large genetically defined international cohort. METHODS: We applied a clinical questionnaire and performed review of medical notes, radiology, histopathology, and laboratory investigations of 53 patients with APDS. RESULTS: Recurrent sinopulmonary infections (98%) and nonneoplastic lymphoproliferation (75%) were common, often from childhood. Other significant complications included herpesvirus infections (49%), autoinflammatory disease (34%), and lymphoma (13%). Unexpectedly, neurodevelopmental delay occurred in 19% of the cohort, suggesting a role for PI3Kδ in the central nervous system; consistent with this, PI3Kδ is broadly expressed in the developing murine central nervous system. Thoracic imaging revealed high rates of mosaic attenuation (90%) and bronchiectasis (60%). Increased IgM levels (78%), IgG deficiency (43%), and CD4 lymphopenia (84%) were significant immunologic features. No immunologic marker reliably predicted clinical severity, which ranged from asymptomatic to death in early childhood. The majority of patients received immunoglobulin replacement and antibiotic prophylaxis, and 5 patients underwent hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Five patients died from complications of APDS. CONCLUSION: APDS is a combined immunodeficiency with multiple clinical manifestations, many with incomplete penetrance and others with variable expressivity. The severity of complications in some patients supports consideration of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for severe childhood disease. Clinical trials of selective PI3Kδ inhibitors offer new prospects for APDS treatment.


Assuntos
Classe I de Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/genética , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/genética , Transtornos Linfoproliferativos/genética , Mutação/genética , Infecções Respiratórias/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Animais , Antibioticoprofilaxia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Classe I de Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/antagonistas & inibidores , Estudos de Coortes , Inibidores Enzimáticos/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Infecções por Herpesviridae/genética , Infecções por Herpesviridae/mortalidade , Infecções por Herpesviridae/terapia , Humanos , Imunoglobulinas Intravenosas/uso terapêutico , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/mortalidade , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/terapia , Lactente , Cooperação Internacional , Transtornos Linfoproliferativos/mortalidade , Transtornos Linfoproliferativos/terapia , Masculino , Camundongos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva , Infecções Respiratórias/mortalidade , Infecções Respiratórias/terapia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Análise de Sobrevida , Adulto Jovem
8.
J Clin Immunol ; 36(1): 73-84, 2016 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26604104

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Gain-of-function (GOF) mutations in the signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) result in unbalanced STAT signaling and cause immune dysregulation and immunodeficiency. The latter is often characterized by the susceptibility to recurrent Candida infections, resulting in the clinical picture of chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis (CMC). This study aims to assess the frequency of GOF STAT1 mutations in a large international cohort of CMC patients. METHODS: STAT1 was sequenced in genomic DNA from 57 CMC patients and 35 healthy family members. The functional relevance of nine different STAT1 variants was shown by flow cytometric analysis of STAT1 phosphorylation in patients' peripheral blood cells (PBMC) after stimulation with interferon (IFN)-α, IFN-γ or interleukin-27 respectively. Extended clinical data sets were collected and summarized for 26 patients. RESULTS: Heterozygous mutations within STAT1 were identified in 35 of 57 CMC patients (61%). Out of 39 familial cases from 11 families, 26 patients (67%) from 9 families and out of 18 sporadic cases, 9 patients (50%) were shown to have heterozygous mutations within STAT1. Thirteen distinct STAT1 mutations are reported in this paper. Eight of these mutations are known to cause CMC (p.M202V, p.A267V, p.R274W, p.R274Q, p.T385M, p.K388E, p.N397D, and p.F404Y). However, five STAT1 variants (p.F172L, p.Y287D, p.P293S, p.T385K and p.S466R) have not been reported before in CMC patients. CONCLUSION: STAT1 mutations are frequently observed in patients suffering from CMC. Thus, sequence analysis of STAT1 in CMC patients is advised. Measurement of IFN- or IL-induced STAT1 phosphorylation in PBMC provides a fast and reliable diagnostic tool and should be carried out in addition to genetic testing.


Assuntos
Candidíase Mucocutânea Crônica/diagnóstico , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/diagnóstico , Leucócitos Mononucleares/imunologia , Mutação/genética , Fator de Transcrição STAT1/metabolismo , Adulto , Candidíase Mucocutânea Crônica/genética , Células Cultivadas , Citocinas/metabolismo , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Feminino , Humanos , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/genética , Masculino , Linhagem , Fenótipo , Estrutura Terciária de Proteína/genética , Fator de Transcrição STAT1/genética
11.
Rheumatol Int ; 32(1): 249-51, 2012 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20020131

RESUMO

Hyperimmunoglobulin D and periodic fever syndrome (HIDS) is a rare, hereditary autoinflammatory condition, characterized by recurrent inflammatory episodes. There is no proven treatment for HIDS, but various drugs including, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, colchicine, steroids, statins and thalidomide have all been tried. Recently, some patients have demonstrated a good clinical response to either etanercept or anakinra. We report a case of a 10-year-old girl who experienced prolonged and severe inflammatory attacks, when she was treated with etanercept, and later with anakinra.


Assuntos
Febre/induzido quimicamente , Imunoglobulina G/efeitos adversos , Imunoglobulina G/uso terapêutico , Proteína Antagonista do Receptor de Interleucina 1/efeitos adversos , Proteína Antagonista do Receptor de Interleucina 1/uso terapêutico , Deficiência de Mevalonato Quinase/tratamento farmacológico , Receptores do Fator de Necrose Tumoral/uso terapêutico , Antirreumáticos/efeitos adversos , Antirreumáticos/uso terapêutico , Criança , Etanercepte , Feminino , Febre/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Deficiência de Mevalonato Quinase/fisiopatologia , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/antagonistas & inibidores
13.
BMC Pediatr ; 10: 22, 2010 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20398379

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diagnosis of neonatal infection is difficult, because of it's non-specific clinical presentation and the lack of reliable diagnostic tests. The purpose of this study was to examine the potential diagnostic value of serum soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1), soluble E-selectin (sE-selectin), highly sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and serum amyloid A (SAA) measurements, both individually and in combination in the setting of a neonatal intensive care unit. METHODS: 219 consecutive serum samples were taken from 149 infants undergoing sepsis work up in a neonatal intensive care unit. Clinical diagnosis was established in a prospective manner, blind to the results of the study measurements. Infants were classified by an experienced paediatrician as infected or not-infected, one week after presentation. Classification was based on clinical presentation, routine laboratory and radiological investigations and response to therapy. The infected group were sub-classified as (a) culture positive infection or (b) culture negative infection. sICAM-1, sE-selectin, hsCRP and SAA levels were determined from stored serum samples after diagnosis was established. Further sub-group analysis of results was undertaken according to early or late onset of infection and preterm or term status. Statistical analysis utilised Mann Whitney U test and ROC curve analysis. RESULTS: There were significantly increased serum levels of sICAM-1, hsCRP, E selectin (p < 0.001) and SAA (p = 0.004) in infected infants compared with non-infected. ROC curve analysis indicated area under the curve values of 0.79 (sICAM-1), 0.73 (hsCRP), 0.72 (sE-selectin) and 0.61 (SAA). ROC curve analysis also defined optimum diagnostic cut-off levels for each measurement. The performance characteristics of sICAM-1, hsCRP and sE-selectin included a high negative predictive value (NPV) for culture positive infection and this was enhanced by combination of all 4 measurements. Clinical subgroup analysis suggested particularly high NPV for early onset symptoms, however further studies are required to elucidate this finding. CONCLUSIONS: All four study measurements demonstrated some diagnostic value for neonatal infection however sICAM-1, hsCRP and sE-selectin demonstrated the highest NPV individually. The optimum diagnostic cut off level for hsCRP measurement in this study was much lower than currently used in routine clinical practice. Use of a combination of measurements enhanced diagnostic performance, demonstrating sensitivity of 90.3% and NPV of 91.3%. This study suggests there may be value in use of several of these markers, individually and in combination to assist in excluding neonatal infection. Further work is needed to confirm a specific role in the exclusion of early onset infection.


Assuntos
Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , Selectina E/sangue , Doenças do Recém-Nascido/sangue , Molécula 1 de Adesão Intercelular/sangue , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Inglaterra , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Doenças do Recém-Nascido/diagnóstico , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal , Masculino , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Prospectivos , Curva ROC , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Sepse/diagnóstico , Proteína Amiloide A Sérica/metabolismo
14.
Cases J ; 2(1): 99, 2009 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19178696

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A seventy nine year old lady presented with acute bilateral foot drop and paraesthesia of her lower limbs as a presenting feature of Wegener's Granulomatosis (WG). CASE PRESENTATION: There was no evidence of pulmonary involvement and her renal function was normal. WG can masquerade as very diverse pathology. It is recognised that neuropathy can occur early and often in the absence of more classical pulmonary and renal findings, often resulting in a delay in diagnosis. CONCLUSION: Anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA) testing was particularly useful in this case permitting early diagnosis.

15.
Cases J ; 1(1): 348, 2008 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19025621

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Schnitzler Syndrome is an uncommon, inflammatory condition that presents with a constellation of chronic unremitting urticaria, fever, bone pain, arthralgia or arthritis, and a monoclonal IgM gammopathy. There is usually neutrophilia and raised inflammatory markers. Delayed diagnosis is common and treatment often unsuccessful. CASE PRESENTATION: We report the case of a 43-year-old caucasian man who presented with urticaria unresponsive to conventional therapy. There was considerable delay in recognition of this as Schnitzler Syndrome, and symptoms were unresponsive to conventional immunosuppressive therapy.Commencement of anakinra was associated with a rapid and sustained clinical response. CONCLUSION: Schnitzler Syndrome is a rare disorder that mimics chronic idiopathic urticaria. This diagnosis should be considered in patients with urticaria unresponsive to antihistamines and conventional immunosuppressive therapy. Anakinra is an effective treatment although further studies are required, to determine long term therapeutic requirements and assess any potential adverse effects.

16.
Mol Cell Proteomics ; 7(10): 1863-75, 2008 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18622029

RESUMO

Infection is a leading cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality worldwide. Premature neonates are particularly susceptible to infection because of physiologic immaturity, comorbidity, and extraneous medical interventions. Additionally premature infants are at higher risk of progression to sepsis or severe sepsis, adverse outcomes, and antimicrobial toxicity. Currently initial diagnosis is based upon clinical suspicion accompanied by nonspecific clinical signs and is confirmed upon positive microbiologic culture results several days after institution of empiric therapy. There exists a significant need for rapid, objective, in vitro tests for diagnosis of infection in neonates who are experiencing clinical instability. We used immunoassays multiplexed on microarrays to identify differentially expressed serum proteins in clinically infected and non-infected neonates. Immunoassay arrays were effective for measurement of more than 100 cytokines in small volumes of serum available from neonates. Our analyses revealed significant alterations in levels of eight serum proteins in infected neonates that are associated with inflammation, coagulation, and fibrinolysis. Specifically P- and E-selectins, interleukin 2 soluble receptor alpha, interleukin 18, neutrophil elastase, urokinase plasminogen activator and its cognate receptor, and C-reactive protein were observed at statistically significant increased levels. Multivariate classifiers based on combinations of serum analytes exhibited better diagnostic specificity and sensitivity than single analytes. Multiplexed immunoassays of serum cytokines may have clinical utility as an adjunct for rapid diagnosis of infection and differentiation of etiologic agent in neonates with clinical decompensation.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/sangue , Doenças do Prematuro/sangue , Doenças do Prematuro/diagnóstico , Recém-Nascido Prematuro/sangue , /diagnóstico , Proteínas Sanguíneas/análise , Análise por Conglomerados , Demografia , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Imunoensaio , Recém-Nascido , Análise Multivariada
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