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J Gastrointest Oncol ; 10(1): 155-160, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30788171


Secondary esophageal cancers from prior thoracic radiation therapy are rare but challenging cases to deliver standard combined modality therapy as part of a curative approach. In patients with prior exposure to cardiopulmonary-toxic chemotherapy or radiotherapy, management requires meticulous multidisciplinary evaluation given the morbidity associated with surgery in the previously irradiated thorax and re-irradiation of the spinal cord, heart, and lungs. Oftentimes, suboptimal treatment regimens, either with compromised radiation coverage, attenuated chemotherapy doses, or exclusion of surgery, are required to avoid significant toxicity. The physical properties inherent to protons allow for optimal coverage of tumor while achieving remarkably low dose to surrounding normal tissue compared to standard photon treatment. Proton therapy has been studied across various disease sites and may facilitate treatment intensification for radiation-associated esophageal tumors. While no comparative studies have evaluated the efficacy and safety of protons versus photons for esophageal cancer, three cases of radiation-associated esophageal cancer presented in this series are exemplary to highlight the benefit of protons in this unique clinical circumstance. The technical considerations in planning, including passively scattered versus pencil-beam scanning technique, as well as the clinical course and tolerance to treatment, are discussed, which may guide consideration of this advanced treatment modality in this disease site.

Breast Cancer Res Treat ; 174(1): 179-185, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30478787


PURPOSE: Patients with Her2-positive breast cancer treated with trastuzumab have higher rates of cardiotoxicity (CT). Left-breast radiation might increase the risk for CT from cardiac exposure to radiation. The goal of our study is to evaluate the contribution of radiotherapy (RT) in the development of CT in breast cancer patients receiving trastuzumab. METHODS: Two hundred and two patients were treated with RT and trastuzumab from 2000 to 2014. The RT plans for left-side disease were recalled from archives. The heart, each chamber, and left anterior descending artery (LAD) were independently contoured. New dose-volume histograms (DVH) were generated. Their serial left-ventricular ejection fractions (LVEF) were studied. CT for left and right side were compared using Fisher's exact test. The DVH data were correlated with the predefined cardiac events using actuarial Cox regression analysis. RESULTS: Compared to the right sided, the left-side cases showed statistically significant development of arrhythmia (14.2%) versus (< 1%) (p < 0.001). Cardiac ischemia was found in 10 patients in left and one patient in right side (p = 0.011). The equivalent uniform dose (EUD) to the left ventricle (LV), right ventricle (RV), and LAD was significantly associated with decrease in LVEF by > 10% (p = 0.037, p = 0.023 and p = 0.049, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Among patients treated for left-sided lesions, there were no significant differences in EF decline. However, there was a higher rate of ischemia and arrhythmia compared to those with right-sided disease. The EUD index of LV, RV, and LAD could be considered as a parameter to describe the risk of radiation-induced CT.

Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Mama/radioterapia , Cardiotoxicidade/etiologia , Quimiorradioterapia/efeitos adversos , Quimiorradioterapia/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/efeitos adversos , Cardiotoxicidade/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Órgãos em Risco , Radioterapia/efeitos adversos , Trastuzumab/efeitos adversos
Radiother Oncol ; 113(1): 77-83, 2014 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25443861


BACKGROUND: Pediatric rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is highly curable, however, cure may come with significant radiation related toxicity in developing tissues. Proton therapy (PT) can spare excess dose to normal structures, potentially reducing the incidence of adverse effects. METHODS: Between 2005 and 2012, 54 patients were enrolled on a prospective multi-institutional phase II trial using PT in pediatric RMS. As part of the protocol, intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) plans were generated for comparison with clinical PT plans. RESULTS: Target coverage was comparable between PT and IMRT plans with a mean CTV V95 of 100% for both modalities (p=0.82). However, mean integral dose was 1.8 times higher for IMRT (range 1.0-4.9). By site, mean integral dose for IMRT was 1.8 times higher for H&N (p<0.01) and GU (p=0.02), 2.0 times higher for trunk/extremity (p<0.01), and 3.5 times higher for orbit (p<0.01) compared to PT. Significant sparing was seen with PT in 26 of 30 critical structures assessed for orbital, head and neck, pelvic, and trunk/extremity patients. CONCLUSIONS: Proton radiation lowers integral dose and improves normal tissue sparing when compared to IMRT for pediatric RMS. Correlation with clinical outcomes is necessary once mature long-term toxicity data are available.

Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/radioterapia , Neoplasias Pélvicas/radioterapia , Terapia com Prótons/métodos , Radioterapia de Intensidade Modulada/métodos , Rabdomiossarcoma/radioterapia , Neoplasias Torácicas/radioterapia , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Tratamentos com Preservação do Órgão/métodos , Estudos Prospectivos , Radiometria , Dosagem Radioterapêutica , Planejamento da Radioterapia Assistida por Computador/métodos