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1.
J Neurol ; 2020 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32193596

RESUMO

Functional neurological disorder (FND) is a common cause of persistent and disabling neurological symptoms. These symptoms are varied and include abnormal control of movement, episodes of altered awareness resembling epileptic seizures and abnormal sensation and are often comorbid with chronic pain, fatigue and cognitive symptoms. There is increasing evidence for the role of neurologists in both the assessment and management of FND. The aim of this review is to discuss strategies for the management of FND by focusing on the diagnostic discussion and general principles, as well as specific treatment strategies for various FND symptoms, highlighting the role of the neurologist and proposing a structure for an interdisciplinary FND service.

2.
J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry ; 91(6): 638-649, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32111637

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We aimed to identify existing outcome measures for functional neurological disorder (FND), to inform the development of recommendations and to guide future research on FND outcomes. METHODS: A systematic review was conducted to identify existing FND-specific outcome measures and the most common measurement domains and measures in previous treatment studies. Searches of Embase, MEDLINE and PsycINFO were conducted between January 1965 and June 2019. The findings were discussed during two international meetings of the FND-Core Outcome Measures group. RESULTS: Five FND-specific measures were identified-three clinician-rated and two patient-rated-but their measurement properties have not been rigorously evaluated. No single measure was identified for use across the range of FND symptoms in adults. Across randomised controlled trials (k=40) and observational treatment studies (k=40), outcome measures most often assessed core FND symptom change. Other domains measured commonly were additional physical and psychological symptoms, life impact (ie, quality of life, disability and general functioning) and health economics/cost-utility (eg, healthcare resource use and quality-adjusted life years). CONCLUSIONS: There are few well-validated FND-specific outcome measures. Thus, at present, we recommend that existing outcome measures, known to be reliable, valid and responsive in FND or closely related populations, are used to capture key outcome domains. Increased consistency in outcome measurement will facilitate comparison of treatment effects across FND symptom types and treatment modalities. Future work needs to more rigorously validate outcome measures used in this population.

3.
J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci ; 32(1): 79-84, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31587627

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: A growing interest in functional neurological disorders (FND) has led to the development of specialized clinics. This study aimed to better understand the structure and role of such clinics. METHODS: Data were retrospectively collected from clinical records at three national referral centers, two specifically for motor FND and one for FND in general. Data were for 492 consecutive patients referred over a 9- to 15-month period: 100 from the United Kingdom clinic, 302 from the Swiss clinic, and 90 from the Canadian clinic. Data included symptom subtype and duration, comorbid pain and fatigue, disability, and treatment recommendations. RESULTS: The mean age of the 492 patients was 44 years, and most (73%) were female. Most had a prolonged motor FND (mean symptom duration of 6 years); 35% were not working because of ill health, 26% received disability benefits, and up to 38% required a care giver for personal care. In the Swiss cohort, 39% were given a diagnosis of another somatic symptom disorder rather than an FND diagnosis. Pain was common in the United Kingdom (79%) and Canada (56%), as was fatigue (48% and 47%, respectively). Most patients (61%) were offered physiotherapy; referral to neuropsychiatry or psychology differed across centers (32%-100%). CONCLUSIONS: FND specialty clinics have an important role in ensuring correct diagnosis and appropriate treatment. Most patients with motor FND require specialized neurophysiotherapy. Patients readily accepted an integrated neuropsychiatric approach. Close collaboration between FND clinics and acute neurology facilities might improve early detection of FND and could improve outcomes.

4.
J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci ; 32(1): 33-42, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31865871

RESUMO

The development and selection of optimal outcome measures is increasingly recognized as a key component of evidence-based medicine, particularly the need for the development of a standardized set of measures for use in clinical trials. This process is particularly complex for functional neurological disorder (FND) for several reasons. FND can present with a wide range of symptoms that resemble the full spectrum of other neurological disorders. Additional physical (e.g., pain, fatigue) and psychological (e.g., depression, anxiety) symptoms are commonly associated with FND, which also can be highly disabling with implications for prognosis, and warrant concurrent assessment, despite an unclear etiological relationship with FND. Furthermore, several unique clinical aspects of FND make it likely that the usual prioritization of "objective" (or clinician-rated) over "subjective" (or patient-rated) measures might not be appropriate. Self-report measures may be more clinically meaningful in this patient population. Despite being a common and disabling disorder, there has been little research into outcome measures in FND, and to date trials have largely used measures designed for the assessment of other disorders. An international FND Core Outcome Measure group (FND-COM) has been established to develop a consensus battery of outcomes for FND: a "core outcome set." In this perspective article, the authors reviewed the process of outcome measure development and selection before considering the specific features of FND affecting the development of a core outcome set, as well as a research agenda to optimize outcome measurement in this complex neuropsychiatric disorder.

5.
Front Neurol ; 10: 1001, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31620072

RESUMO

Background and Aims: Pathological high amplitude of beta oscillations is thought as the underlying mechanism of motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease (PD), in particular with regard to bradykinesia. In addition, abnormality in a neurophysiological phenomenon labeled sensory attenuation has been found in patients with PD. The current study explored the hypothesis that the abnormal sensory attenuation has a causal link with the typical abnormality in beta oscillations in PD. Methods: The study tested sixteen right-handed patients with a diagnosis of PD and 22 healthy participants, which were matched by age and gender. Somatosensory evoked potentials were elicited through electrical stimulation of the median nerve at the wrist. Electrical activity was recorded at the scalp using a 128 channels EEG. Somatosensory evoked potentials were recorded in 2 conditions: at rest and at the onset of a voluntary movement, which was a self-paced abduction movement of the right thumb. Results: Healthy participants showed a reduction of the N20-P25 amplitude at the onset of the right thumb abduction compared to the rest condition (P < 0.05). When patients were OFF medication, they showed mild reduction of the N20-P25 component at movement onset (P < 0.05). On the contrary, they did show greater attenuation of the N20-P25 component at the onset of movement compared to the rest condition when ON medication (P < 0.05). There was no significant evidence of a link between the degree of sensory attenuation and the change in beta oscillations in our cohort of patients. Conclusion: These results confirmed a significant link between dopaminergic modulation and sensory attenuation. However, the sensory attenuation and beta oscillations were found as two independent phenomena.

6.
BMC Neurol ; 19(1): 242, 2019 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31638942

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with functional motor disorder (FMD) experience persistent and disabling neurological symptoms such as weakness, tremor, dystonia and disordered gait. Physiotherapy is usually considered an important part of treatment; however, sufficiently-powered controlled studies are lacking. Here we present the protocol of a randomised controlled trial (RCT) that aims to evaluate the clinical and cost effectiveness of a specialist physiotherapy programme for FMD. METHODS/DESIGN: The trial is a pragmatic, multicentre, single blind parallel arm randomised controlled trial (RCT). 264 Adults with a clinically definite diagnosis of FMD will be recruited from neurology clinics and randomised to receive either the trial intervention (a specialist physiotherapy protocol) or treatment as usual control (referral to a community physiotherapy service suitable for people with neurological symptoms). Participants will be followed up at 6 and 12 months. The primary outcome is the Physical Function domain of the Short Form 36 questionnaire at 12 months. Secondary domains of measurement will include participant perception of change, mobility, health-related quality of life, health service utilisation, anxiety and depression. Health economic analysis will evaluate the cost impact of trial and control interventions from a health and social care perspective as well as societal perspective. DISCUSSION: This trial will be the first adequately-powered RCT of physical-based rehabilitation for FMD. TRIAL REGISTRATION: International Standard Randomised Controlled Trials Number ISRCTN56136713 . Registered 27 March 2018.


Assuntos
Transtornos Motores/reabilitação , Modalidades de Fisioterapia , Projetos de Pesquisa , Adulto , Humanos , Masculino , Método Simples-Cego
7.
Neurology ; 93(17): 750-758, 2019 10 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31551261

RESUMO

Within the broad spectrum of movement disorders, tics and functional tic-like movements belong to a particular clinical category. Both types of movements are within the range of normal movement kinematics and muscle synergies, but appear repetitive and without appropriate context embedment. Historically, there have been many attempts to separate the 2 types of movements, but because of their phenomenological overlap, clinical distinction may be prone to error, and misdiagnoses may often occur. Most importantly, the 2 types of movement may coexist. Here, we review the available literature on the 2 types of motor phenomena and demonstrate some of the difficulties in distinguishing tics from functional tic-like movements on clinical grounds. We also highlight similarities and differences in pathophysiologic characteristics, documenting the significance of action monitoring, attentional allocation, and behavioral reinforcement in both types of movements, as well as in their risk factors. We discuss the overlap of current behavioral treatments for tics and functional tic-like movements and emphasize implications of diagnostic mislabeling. Such implications include the need to tailor behavioral treatment approaches to individual phenomenological profiles and guiding decision making for severe patients requiring invasive interventions, such as deep brain stimulation. A deeper insight from clinicians with respect to persisting challenges in classifying and differentiating these motor phenomena could accelerate the development of reliable clinical and physiologic markers (i.e., next generation phenotyping) and a neurobiology-driven therapeutic approach for these motor phenomena.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Tique/diagnóstico , Tiques/diagnóstico , Animais , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Humanos
8.
Brain ; 142(7): 1855-1857, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31505545
9.
Neuroophthalmology ; 43(4): 240-243, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31528188

RESUMO

The diagnosis of functional neurological disorder (FND) relies on the demonstration of positive symptoms and signs, as supported by recent changes in DSM5. We recorded the findings of routine clinical eye movement assessment in 101 consecutive new patients with FND. Clinical examination triggered facial and eye movement disorders in 46% of patients, all with positive characteristics of functional movement disorder. These are useful as supporting features in making a positive diagnosis of FND.

10.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1203, 2019 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31477088

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Few adolescent girls engage in enough physical activity (PA) to meet recommendations and there is a need for new interventions to increase girls PA. We have previously published the results of the PLAN-A cluster randomised feasibility trial which was a peer-led school-based PA intervention, showing that the intervention was feasible and held promise to increase the PA of girls aged 12-13 years. In PLAN-A, pupils nominated by their peers as influential attend training to teach them how to influence, promote and normalise physical activity amongst their peer-group. This paper reports the results of the process evaluation of the PLAN-A feasibility study, specifically focussing on acceptability to key stakeholders, intervention fidelity, receipt/experiences and perceived effect and suggested intervention refinements before proceeding to a definitive RCT. METHODS: A mixed-methods process evaluation triangulated data from qualitative focus groups and interviews with peer-supporter and non peer-supporter pupils (N = 52), parents (N = 12), teachers (N = 6) and intervention training deliverers (N = 5), quantitative questionnaires, and observations of intervention delivery. Quantitative data were analysed descriptively, and qualitative data were analysed with the Framework Method. RESULTS: The duration, timings, content and delivery of the peer-supporter training were acceptable. There was good fidelity to the intervention manual and its underpinning theory including high fulfilment of session objectives and use of an autonomy-supportive motivational style. Peer-supporters engaged with and enjoyed the training and retained key peer-supporter messages (what counts as PA, encouragement, empathy and subtlety). Parents and teachers were supportive of the intervention and reported perceived effects including increased PA and awareness of it, improved peer relationships, and confidence. Suggested intervention refinements included increasing participatory learning, reducing technical jargon, and providing more support to overcome challenges to giving peer support. CONCLUSIONS: PLAN-A can be delivered as planned, is well-received, and appears to be effective in empowering adolescent girls to support their peer group to become more active. The refinements identified can be made within the original intervention structure, before proceeding to a definitive trial. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISCTRN, ISRCTN12543546 , Registered on 28/7/2015.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico/psicologia , Infuência dos Pares , Serviços de Saúde Escolar/organização & administração , Adolescente , Criança , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Humanos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Inquéritos e Questionários
11.
Prog Brain Res ; 249: 251-260, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31325984

RESUMO

Clinical movement disorders are classified by an algorithm implemented by a practising movement disorder specialist based on information extracted during the history and clinical examination of a patient. Most simply, dystonia, is a classifier which is reached when a predominant abnormality of posture is noted. In this chapter we summarize studies that have used a variety of techniques to probe beyond the clinical examination and study kinematic features experimentally. We also outline our experimental work in DYT1 dystonia, a group of patients that share a genetically homogenous etiology and can be considered a prototypical dystonic disorder. Our results build on previous studies, confirming that motor variability on a trial-by-trial basis is selectively increased and provide evidence that increases in variability are negatively related to forms of motor learning essential for healthy motor control. Potential neural correlates of increased motor variability are discussed and the implications such work has for the rehabilitation of patients with dystonia are also highlighted.

12.
PLoS One ; 14(5): e0216772, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31075156

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dystonia is a neurological syndrome typically resulting in abnormal postures. OBJECTIVES: We tested the role of physical injury as potential risk factor for development of dystonia using The National Health Insurance Research Database of Taiwan. METHODS: We identified 65704 people who were coded in the database as having had peripheral traumatic injuries (ICD-9-CM 807-848 and 860-959) in the year 2000. Patients with traumatic brain or spine injuries were excluded from analysis. We matched them using purposive sampling with 65704 people in the database who had not suffered peripheral trauma. We looked then at the incidence of dystonia occurring at least 1 year from the date of the peripheral trauma until 2011. Psychiatric symptoms (depression and anxiety) and sleeps difficulties have been investigated as potential covariates. RESULTS: We found 189 patients with dystonia (0.28%) in the trauma group, and 52 patients with dystonia (0.08%) in the non-trauma group. Trauma was independently associated with dystonia (adjusted HR = 3.12, 95% CI = 2.30-4.24). The incidence density of dystonia in the trauma group was 2.27 per 10000 person-years, while it was 0.71 per 10000 person-years in the non-trauma group Beyond the peripheral trauma, other variables associated to the incidence of dystonia included female sex, aged 40 years and above, depression and sleep disorders. CONCLUSION: These data from a large population dataset support traumatic injury as a risk factor for the development of dystonia.


Assuntos
Bases de Dados Factuais , Distúrbios Distônicos/complicações , Distúrbios Distônicos/epidemiologia , Seguro Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Ferimentos e Lesões/complicações , Adulto , Distúrbios Distônicos/economia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
13.
Mov Disord ; 34(7): 1022-1030, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31046188

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with functional movement disorders also typically have functional somatic symptoms, including pain, fatigue, and sensory disturbance. A potentially unifying mechanism for such symptoms is a failure in processing of sensory inputs. Prepulse inhibition is a neurophysiological method that allows for the study of preconscious somatosensory processing. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to assess prepulse inhibition in patients with functional movement disorders and healthy control subjects. METHODS: We analyzed the effect of a weak electrical stimulus to the index finger (prepulse) on the magnitude of the R2 response of the blink reflex induced by electrical stimuli delivered to the supraorbital nerve in 22 patients with clinically established functional movement disorders and 22 matched controls. Pain, depression, anxiety, and obsessive-compulsive symptoms were assessed using self-rated questionnaires. In addition, in patients we assessed motor symptom severity. RESULTS: Prepulses suppressed the R2 response of the blink reflex in both groups, by 36.4% (standard deviation: 25.6) in patients and by 67.3% (standard deviation: 16.4) in controls. This difference was significant (P < 0.001). There was no significant correlation between motor and nonmotor symptom measures and prepulse inhibition size. CONCLUSIONS: Impaired prepulse inhibition of the blink reflex suggests an abnormal preconscious processing of somatosensory inputs, which can be interpreted within predictive coding accounts of both functional movement disorders and functional somatic syndromes. Our results, along with previous findings of a reduced prepulse inhibition in fibromyalgia syndrome, support a possible unified pathophysiology across functional neurological and somatic syndromes with noteworthy implications for diagnostic classification and development of novel biomarkers and treatments. © 2019 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

14.
J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci ; 31(4): 361-367, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31117907

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Functional movement and seizure disorders are still widely misunderstood and receive little public and academic attention. This is in stark contrast to their high prevalence and levels of associated disability. In an exploratory observational study, the authors examined whether the relative lack of media coverage of functional neurological disorders is in part due to misidentification in "human interest" news stories. METHODS: Thirteen recent news stories from high-impact English-language media outlets that portrayed patients with complex symptoms either attributed to other diagnoses or presented as medical mysteries were identified using online keyword searches. All selected news stories contained video or still images displaying relevant symptoms. Cases were categorized into movement disorders or seizure disorders and were then independently assessed by 10 respective expert raters. For each category, one story of a patient whose symptoms were due to a well-recognized neurological disease was also included. Both the diagnostic category and the respective confidence level were reported by each rater for each case. The interrater agreement was calculated for each group of disorders. RESULTS: The raters confirmed almost unanimously that all presented news stories except the negative control cases portrayed misidentified functional movement or seizure disorders. The interrater agreement and average diagnostic confidence were high. CONCLUSIONS: Functional neurological disorders are often wrongly considered a rare medical curiosity of the past. However, these findings suggest that, while they are largely absent from public discourse, they often appear in the news incognito, hiding in plain sight.

15.
Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep ; 19(3): 12, 2019 02 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30747347

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Functional movement disorders are common and disabling causes of abnormal movement control. Here, we review the current state of the evidence on the use of neuroimaging in Functional movement disorders, particularly its role in helping to unravel the pathophysiology of this enigmatic condition. RECENT FINDINGS: In recent years, there has been a shift in thinking about functional movement disorder, away from a focus on high-level psychological precipitants as in Freudian conversion theories, or even an implicit belief they are 'put-on' for secondary gain. New research has emphasised novel neurobiological models incorporating emotional processing, self-representation and agency. Neuroimaging has provided new insights into functional movement disorders, supporting emerging neurobiological theories implicating dysfunctional emotional processing, self-image and sense of agency. Recent studies have also found subtle structural brain changes in patients with functional disorders, arguing against a strict functional/structural dichotomy.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Transtornos dos Movimentos/diagnóstico por imagem , Neuroimagem/métodos , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Discinesias/diagnóstico por imagem , Discinesias/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Transtornos dos Movimentos/fisiopatologia
16.
Neuropsychologia ; 127: 9-18, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30763591

RESUMO

The prolonged reaction times seen in Parkinson's disease (PD) have been linked to a dopaminergic-dependent deficit in using prior information to prepare responses, but also have been explained by an altered temporal processing. However, an underlying cognitive mechanism linking dopamine, temporal processing and response preparation remains elusive. To address this, we studied PD patients, with or without medication, and age-matched healthy individuals using a variable foreperiod task requiring speeded responses to a visual stimulus occurring at variable onset-times, with block-wise changes in the temporal predictability of visual stimuli. Compared with controls, unmedicated patients showed impaired use of prior information to prepare their responses, as reflected by slower reaction times, regardless of the level of temporal predictability. Crucially, after dopamine administration normal performance was restored, with faster responses for high temporal predictability. Using Bayesian hierarchical drift-diffusion modelling, we estimated the parameters that determine temporal preparation. In this theoretical framework, impaired temporal preparation under dopaminergic depletion was driven by inflexibly high decision boundaries (i.e. participants were always extremely cautious). This indexes high levels of uncertainty about temporal predictions irrespectively of stimulus onset predictability. Our results suggest that dopaminergic depletion in PD affects the uncertainty of predictions about the timing of future events (temporal predictions), which are crucial for the anticipatory preparation of responses. Dopamine, which is affected in PD, controls the ability to predict the timing of future events.


Assuntos
Antecipação Psicológica , Dopamina , Transtornos Parkinsonianos/psicologia , Idoso , Cognição , Tomada de Decisões , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estimulação Luminosa , Desempenho Psicomotor , Tempo de Reação , Incerteza
17.
Disabil Rehabil ; : 1-6, 2019 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30669889

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with functional motor disorder are perceived as difficult by health care professionals, but we know very little about the patients' perspective. Understanding the experiences and perceptions of patients could help to improve clinical services and patient outcomes. PURPOSE: To explore the experiences and perspectives of patients with functional motor disorder using qualitative research methods. METHODS: This qualitative study was embedded within a feasibility study of specialist physiotherapy. Eleven patients with functional motor disorder participated in semi-structured qualitative interviews prior to receiving treatment. The interview transcripts were subjected to an inductive thematic analysis. RESULTS: The data were arranged into six themes: (1) the burden of living with functional motor disorder; (2) nobody knew what was wrong; (3) dissatisfaction with psychological explanations; (4) patients feel abandoned; (5) iatrogenic harm; and (6) powerlessness. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: The study participants experienced substantial physical and emotional burdens associated with functional motor disorder. They were generally dissatisfied with psychological explanations for their symptoms and commonly felt misunderstood and abandoned by health care professionals, which appeared to leave them vulnerable to iatrogenic harm. A lack of understanding of functional motor disorder left participants feeling unable to help themselves. This research highlights a number of inadequacies within current clinical services for patients with functional motor disorder. Implications for rehabilitation Careful communication is required to help patients understand and accept the diagnosis of functional motor disorder. It is important to listen to the patient's narrative in order to help them make sense of their illness experience. A nuanced biopsychosocial explanatory model is needed to help patients understand how psychological factors can be relevant to physical symptoms and symptoms that are often perceived to be precipitated by a physical event. A lack of understanding and acceptance of the diagnosis may leave patients vulnerable to iatrogenic harm and powerless to help themselves.

18.
J Psychosom Res ; 115: 32-37, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30470314

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Pain, fatigue, cognitive complaints and psychiatric comorbidities are common in patients with functional movement disorder and may significantly affect their quality of life. The aim of the study was to assess the impact of motor and non-motor symptoms on health-related quality of life in patients with functional movement disorder. METHODS: Sixty-one patients with clinically established functional movement disorder and 61 matched healthy controls completed standardized questionnaires for depression, anxiety, cognitive complaints, fatigue, pain, sleepiness, apathy and health-related quality of life. Motor disorder severity was assessed using The Simplified Functional Movement Disorders Rating Scale. Personality traits were assessed using the 44-Item Big Five Inventory. RESULTS: Compared to controls, patients reported significantly lower health-related quality of life and higher levels of all assessed non-motor symptoms except for apathy. No difference was found in personality traits. In both groups, health-related quality of life scores negatively correlated with depression, anxiety, pain, cognitive complaints, apathy, and neuroticism. No correlation was found between health-related quality of life and motor symptom severity in patients with functional movement disorder. Multiple regression analysis of the predictors of health-related quality of life showed significant impact of trait anxiety and cognitive complaints scores. CONCLUSIONS: Multiple non-motor symptoms but not motor symptom severity correlated with impaired health-related quality of life in patients with functional movement disorder. Impaired health-related quality of life was predicted by anxiety and cognitive complaints. Our results highlight the importance of assessing and treating both motor and non-motor symptoms in patients with functional movement disorder.


Assuntos
Transtornos dos Movimentos/diagnóstico , Transtornos dos Movimentos/psicologia , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
19.
Int Rev Neurobiol ; 143: 163-177, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30473194

RESUMO

Functional (psychogenic) movement disorders are a subtype of functional neurological disorder, a common and disabling cause of neurological symptoms. Abnormal movement in people with functional movement disorders has specific characteristics (e.g., distractibility, variability, incongruence with deficits caused by neurological disease), allowing positive diagnosis and differentiation from other causes of movement disorder. Attempts to understand the pathophysiology of this disorder have previously focused mainly on the psychological level, emphasizing the importance of psychological trauma and adverse life events. However, the last two decades has seen a broadening of this approach to consider the neurobiological level, and brain imaging has formed a key part of this work. Here we review the available imaging evidence in functional movement disorders and explain how this evidence can help us understand more about the underlying pathophysiology of this common cause of abnormal movement control.


Assuntos
Neuroimagem Funcional/métodos , Transtornos dos Movimentos/diagnóstico por imagem , Transtornos dos Movimentos/fisiopatologia , Transtornos Somatoformes/diagnóstico por imagem , Transtornos Somatoformes/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Transtornos dos Movimentos/patologia , Transtornos Somatoformes/patologia
20.
Clin Med (Lond) ; 18(5): 414-417, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30287439

RESUMO

Functional neurological disorders (FND) are common and associated with significant morbidity and healthcare costs. Patients with FND often present acutely, particularly with dissociative seizures (resembling epilepsy) or persistent weakness resembling a stroke. History and careful observation and examination are critical to diagnosis, as investigations will often be normal or non-contributory. The nature of convulsive movements in dissociative seizures often differs from that in epilepsy, and long duration of individual events, waxing and waning, closed eyes and high reported frequency in an apparently well individual are all suggestive. In those with stroke-like episodes, demonstration of normal power even briefly (eg Hoover's sign, 'give way' weakness) together with distractability are positive physical features indicating a functional disorder. A positive diagnosis and clear non-judgemental explanation, backed up by reliable information sources associated with prompt onward referral to a neurologist can greatly reduce distress and ultimately improve outcomes.


Assuntos
Epilepsia , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Epilepsia/classificação , Epilepsia/diagnóstico , Epilepsia/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/classificação , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/diagnóstico , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/etiologia , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/fisiopatologia , Exame Físico
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