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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32633454

RESUMO

Achieving control over the size distribution of metal-organic-framework (MOF) nanoparticles is key to biomedical applications and seeding techniques. Electrochemical control over the nanoparticle synthesis of the MOF, HKUST-1, is achieved using a nanopipette injection method to locally mix Cu2+ salt precursor and benzene-1,3,5-tricarboxylate (BTC3- ) ligand reagents, to form MOF nanocrystals, and collect and characterise them on a TEM grid. In situ analysis of the size and translocation frequency of HKUST-1 nanoparticles is demonstrated, using the nanopipette to detect resistive pulses as nanoparticles form. Complementary modelling of mass transport in the electric field, enables particle size to be estimated and explains the feasibility of particular reaction conditions, including inhibitory effects of excess BTC3- . These new methods should be applicable to a variety of MOFs, and scaling up synthesis possible via arrays of nanoscale reaction centres, for example using nanopore membranes.

2.
Langmuir ; 2020 May 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32374169

RESUMO

The electrochemical reduction of deuterons (2D+ + 2e- → D2) at Pt nanodisk electrodes (radius = 15-100 nm) in D2O solutions containing deuterium chloride (DCl) results in the formation of a single gas nanobubble at the electrode surface. Analogous to that previously observed for the electrochemical generation of H2 nanobubbles, the nucleation and growth of a stable D2 nanobubble is characterized in voltammetric experiments by a highly reproducible and well-resolved sudden drop in the faradaic current, a consequence of restricted mass transport of D+ to the electrode surface following the liquid-to-gas phase transition. D2 nanobubbles are stable under potential control due to a dynamic equilibrium existing between D2 gas dissolution and electrochemical generation of D2 at the circumference of the Pt nanodisk electrode. Remarkably, within the error of the experimental measurement (<6%), the electrochemical current required to nucleate a D2 gas phase in a D2O solution is identical to that for the H2 gas phase in a H2O solutions, indicating that the concentration required for nucleating a D2 nanobubble in D2O (0.29 M) is ∼1.25 times larger than that for a H2 nanobubble (0.23 M), while the supersaturation is ∼300 in each case. We further demonstrate that individual nanobubbles can be electrogenerated in mixed D2O/H2O solutions containing both D+ and H+ at respective individual concentrations well below those required to nucleate a gas phase containing either pure D2 or H2. This latter finding indicates that the resulting nanobubbles comprise a mixture of D2, H2, and HD molecules with the chemical composition of a nanobubble determined by the concentrations and diffusivities of D+ and H+ in the mixed D2O/H2O solutions.

3.
Anal Chem ; 92(9): 6408-6414, 2020 05 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32281788

RESUMO

Gas bubble evolution is present in many electrochemical and photoelectrochemical processes. We previously reported the formation of individual H2, N2, and O2 nanobubbles generated from electrocatalytic reduction of H+ and oxidation of N2H4 and H2O2, respectively, at Pt nanodisk electrodes in an aqueous solution. All the nanobubbles formed display a dynamic stationary state of a three-phase boundary with an invariant residual current. Here, we test the hypothesis that gas nanobubbles can also be electrogenerated in a nonaqueous medium. Interestingly, we found oscillating bubble behavior corresponding to nucleation, growth, and dissolution in dimethyl sulfoxide and methanol. One possible explanation of the oscillation mechanism is provided by the instable dynamic equilibrium between the gas influx due to supersaturation and outflux due to Laplace pressure. Furthermore, the critical gas concentrations for N2 nanobubble nucleation are estimated to be 148, 386, 200, and 16 times supersaturation and the contact angles of the critical nuclei to be 164°, 151°, 160°, and 174° in water, dimethyl sulfoxide, ethylene glycol, and methanol, respectively. This is the first report on electrochemical nucleation of gas bubbles in nonaqueous solvents. Our electrochemical gas bubble study based on a nanoelectrode platform has proven to be a prototypical example of single-entity electrochemistry.

4.
J Am Chem Soc ; 142(19): 8890-8896, 2020 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32319772

RESUMO

Electrochemical processes occurring at solid/solid and solid/membrane interfaces govern the behavior of a variety of energy storage devices, including electrocatalytic reactions at electrode/membrane interfaces in fuel cells and ion insertion at electrode/electrolyte interfaces in solid-state batteries. Due to the heterogeneity of these systems, interrogation of interfacial activity at nanometer length scales is desired to understand system performance, yet the buried nature of the interfaces makes localized activity inaccessible to conventional electrochemical techniques. Herein, we demonstrate nanoscale electrochemical imaging of hydrogen evolution at individual Pt nanoparticles (PtNPs) positioned at a buried interface using scanning electrochemical cell microscopy (SECCM). Specifically, we image the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) at individual carbon-supported PtNP electrocatalysts covered by a 100 to 800 nm thick layer of the proton exchange membrane Nafion. The rate of hydrogen evolution at PtNP at this buried interface is shown to be a function of Nafion thickness, with the highest activity observed for ∼200 nm thick films.

5.
ACS Sens ; 5(3): 789-797, 2020 03 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32041399

RESUMO

An electrochemical sensor that contains patterned regions of sp2-carbon in a boron-doped diamond (BDD) matrix is presented for the quantitative detection of hypochlorite (OCl-) at high concentrations in the alkaline, chemically oxidizing environment associated with bleach. As BDD itself is unresponsive to OCl- reduction within the solvent window, by using a laser micromachining process, it is possible to write robust electrochemically active regions of sp2-carbon into the electrochemically inert sp3-BDD electrode. In this work, four different laser patterned BDD electrodes are examined, and their response compared across a range of OCl- concentrations (0.02-1.50 M). A single macrospot (0.37 mm diameter disk) electrode and a closely spaced microspot (46 µm diameter disk) hexagonal array electrode, containing the same surface area of sp2-carbon, are shown to provide the most linear response toward OCl- reduction. Finite element modeling (FEM) is employed to better understand the electrochemical system, due to the complexity of the electrode geometry, as well as the need to include contributions from migration and Ohmic drop at these high concentrations. FEM data suggest that only a small percentage (∼1 × 10-3%) of the total laser-machined sp2 area is active toward the OCl- reduction process and that this process is kinetically very sluggish (∼keff = 1 × 10-12 cm s-1). The sensitivity at the array electrode (-0.127 ± 0.004 mA M-1; R2 = 0.992) is higher than that at the single-spot electrode (-0.075 ± 0.002 mA M-1; R2 = 0.996) due to the enhanced effect of transport to the edges of the microspots, shown via simulation. The electrodes returned a relatively stable response over a greater than 3 month period of use in the OCl- solutions, demonstrating these hybrid sp2-BDD electrodes show promise for long-term monitoring applications in the harsh environments associated with bleaching applications.

6.
J Phys Chem Lett ; : 1291-1296, 2020 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31977230

RESUMO

CO2 is an anodic product of many liquid fuel cells. The nucleation of CO2 nanobubbles during cell operation may block the transport of the fuel to the anode, lowering the overall conversion efficiency. Herein, we report the controlled formation of individual CO2 nanobubbles at Pt nanoelectrodes via the electrooxidation of formate. The electrochemical data are used to extract key parameters of CO2 gas nucleation. We determine that CO2 bubbles nucleate when the concentration of CO2 at the Pt electrode is greater than ∼0.6 M, corresponding to supersaturation of ∼18. The critical nucleus required for the formation of a CO2 bubble is measured to have a radius of curvature of ∼100 nm, a contact angle of 173°, and contains ∼70 CO2 molecules.

7.
J Am Chem Soc ; 141(45): 18091-18098, 2019 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31621317

RESUMO

Coupled electron- and phase-transfer reactions are fundamentally important in electrochemical energy conversion and storage, e.g., intercalation of Li+ in batteries and electrochemistry at the three-phase boundary in fuel cells. The mechanism, energetics, and kinetics of these complex reactions play an important role in device performance. Herein, we describe experimental methodology to quantitatively investigate coupled electron- and phase-transfer reactions at an individual, geometrically well-defined, three-phase interface. Specifically, a Pt-Ir wire electrode is placed across a H2O/1,2-dichloroethane (DCE) interface, creating a Pt-Ir/H2O/DCE boundary that is defined mathematically by a line around the surface of the wire. We investigated the oxidation of ferrocene (Fc), initially present in DCE (but essentially insoluble in water), at the three-phase boundary, and the transfer of its charged reaction product ferrocenium (Fc+) across the interface into the aqueous phase. In cyclic voltammetry, a reversible wave at E1/2 ∼ 0.58 V is observed for Fc oxidation in DCE on the first scan. The Fc+ produced near the H2O/DCE interface transfers into the aqueous phase. On the second and subsequent cycles, a second reversible wave at more negative potentials, E1/2 ∼ 0.33 V, is observed, corresponding to the reduction of Fc+ (and reoxidation back to Fc) in the aqueous phase. Finite-element simulations quantitatively capture the voltammetric response of coupled electron and phase transfer at the three-phase interface and indicate that the electrochemical response observed in the aqueous phase occurs within ∼200 µm of the Pt-Ir/H2O/DCE boundary. Finally, we demonstrate that the rate of transfer of Fc+ is strongly dependent on the concentration of supporting electrolyte, reaching a maximum at an intermediate electrolyte concentration, suggesting a critical role of the electric field distribution in determining the reaction rates at the three-phase interface.

8.
Chem Sci ; 10(26): 6404-6422, 2019 Jul 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31367303

RESUMO

Monitoring reactive intermediates can provide vital information in the study of synthetic reaction mechanisms, enabling the design of new catalysts and methods. Many synthetic transformations are centred on the alteration of oxidation states, but these redox processes frequently pass through intermediates with short life-times, making their study challenging. A variety of electroanalytical tools can be utilised to investigate these redox-active intermediates: from voltammetry to in situ spectroelectrochemistry and scanning electrochemical microscopy. This perspective provides an overview of these tools, with examples of both electrochemically-initiated processes and monitoring redox-active intermediates formed chemically in solution. The article is designed to introduce synthetic organic and organometallic chemists to electroanalytical techniques and their use in probing key mechanistic questions.

9.
J Phys Chem A ; 123(38): 8285-8293, 2019 Sep 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31264868

RESUMO

Ion current rectification (ICR) is a transport phenomenon in which an electrolyte conducts unequal currents at equal and opposite voltages. Here, we show that nanoscale fluid vortices and nonlinear electroosmotic flow (EOF) drive ICR in the presence of concentration gradients. The same EOF can yield negative differential resistance (NDR), in which current decreases with increasing voltage. A finite element model quantitatively reproduces experimental ICR and NDR recorded across glass nanopipettes under concentration gradients. The model demonstrates that spatial variations of electrical double layer properties induce the nanoscale vortices and nonlinear EOF. Experiments are performed in conditions directly related to scanning probe imaging and show that quantitative understanding of nanoscale transport under concentration gradients requires accounting for EOF. This characterization of nanopipette transport physics will benefit diverse experimentation, pushing the resolution limits of chemical and biophysical recordings.

10.
Langmuir ; 35(22): 7180-7190, 2019 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31074628

RESUMO

We report the observation of transient bipolar electrochemical coupling on freely moving 40 nm silver nanoparticles. The use of an asymmetric nanoelectrochemical environment at the nanopore orifice, for example, an acid inside the pipette and halide ions in the bulk, enabled us to observe unusually large current blockages of single Ag nanoparticles. We attribute these current blockages to the formation of H2 nanobubbles on the surface of Ag nanoparticles due to the coupled faradaic reactions, in which the reduction of protons and water is coupled to the oxidation of Ag and water under potentials higher than 1 V. The appearance of large current blockages was strongly dependent on the applied voltage and the choice of anions in the bulk solution. The correlation between large current blockages with the oxidation of Ag nanoparticles and their nanopore translocation was further supported by simultaneous fluorescence and electric recordings. This study demonstrates that transient bipolar electrochemistry can take place on small metal nanoparticles below 50 nm when they pass through nanopores where the electric field is highly localized. The use of a nanopore and the resistive-pulse sensing method to study transient bipolar electrochemistry of nanoparticles may be extended to future studies in ultrafast electrochemistry, nanocatalyst screening, and gas nucleation on nanoparticles.

11.
J Am Chem Soc ; 141(15): 6392-6402, 2019 04 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30905151

RESUMO

C-N cross-coupling is one of the most valuable and widespread transformations in organic synthesis. Largely dominated by Pd- and Cu-based catalytic systems, it has proven to be a staple transformation for those in both academia and industry. The current study presents the development and mechanistic understanding of an electrochemically driven, Ni-catalyzed method for achieving this reaction of high strategic importance. Through a series of electrochemical, computational, kinetic, and empirical experiments, the key mechanistic features of this reaction have been unraveled, leading to a second generation set of conditions that is applicable to a broad range of aryl halides and amine nucleophiles including complex examples on oligopeptides, medicinally relevant heterocycles, natural products, and sugars. Full disclosure of the current limitations and procedures for both batch and flow scale-ups (100 g) are also described.

12.
ACS Nano ; 13(6): 6330-6340, 2019 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30901516

RESUMO

Herein, we report a general voltammetric method to characterize the electrochemical nucleation rate and nuclei of single nanobubbles. Bubble nucleation is indicated by a sharp peak in the current in the voltammetry of gas-evolving reactions. In contrast to expectations based on the stochastic nature of nucleation events, the peak current signifying a stable nucleus is extremely reproducible over hundreds of cycles (∼3% deviation). By applying classical nucleation theory, this seemingly deterministic behavior can be not only understood but also used to quantify the nucleation rate and size of bubble nuclei. A statistical model is developed whereby properties of single critical nuclei (contact angle, the radius of curvature, activation energy, and Arrhenius pre-exponential factor) can be readily measured from the narrow distribution of peak currents (mean, standard deviation) from hundreds of voltammetric cycles at a nanoelectrode. Single nanobubbles formed from gas-evolving reactions (H2 from H+ reduction, N2 from N2H4 oxidation, O2 from H2O2 oxidation) are analyzed to find that their critical nuclei have contact angles of ∼150, ∼160, and ∼154° for H2, N2, and O2, respectively, corresponding to ∼50, ∼40, and ∼90 gas molecules in each nucleus. The energy barriers for heterogeneous nucleation of H2, N2, and O2 bubbles are, respectively, 2, 0.4, and 0.7% of those required for homogeneous nucleation under the same supersaturation.

13.
Faraday Discuss ; 210(0): 189-200, 2018 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29972170

RESUMO

An adjustable width (between 600 nm and 20 µm) gap between two Au microelectrodes is used to probe the electrodissolution dynamics of single Ag nanoparticles. One Au microelectrode is used to drive the oxidation and subsequent dissolution of a single Ag nanoparticle, which displays a multi-peak oxidation behavior, while a second Au microelectrode is used to collect the Ag+ that is produced. Careful analysis of the high temporal resolution current-time traces reveals capacitive coupling between electrodes due to the sudden injection of Ag+ ions into the gap between the electrodes. The current-time traces allow measurement of the effect of citrate concentration on the electrodissolution dynamics of a single Ag nanoparticle, which reveals that the presence of 2 mM citrate significantly slows down the release of Ag+. Intriguingly, these experiments also reveal that only a portion (ca. 50%) of the oxidized Ag nanoparticle is released as free Ag+ regardless of citrate concentration.

14.
Langmuir ; 34(25): 7309-7318, 2018 06 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29847948

RESUMO

Nanobubble nucleation is a problem that affects efficiency in electrocatalytic reactions since those bubbles can block the surface of the catalytic sites. In this article, we focus on the nucleation rate of O2 nanobubbles resulting from the electrooxidation of H2O2 at Pt disk nanoelectrodes. Bubbles form almost instantaneously when a critical peak current, inbp, is applied, but for lower currents, bubble nucleation is a stochastic process in which the nucleation (induction) time, tind, dramatically decreases as the applied current approaches inbp, a consequence of the local supersaturation level, ζ, increasing at high currents. Here, by applying different currents below inbp, nanobubbles take some time to nucleate and block the surface of the Pt electrode at which the reaction occurs, providing a means to measure the stochastic tind. We study in detail the different conditions in which nanobubbles appear, concluding that the electrode surface needs to be preconditioned to achieve reproducible results. We also measure the activation energy for bubble nucleation, Ea, which varies in the range from (6 to 30) kT, and assuming a spherically cap-shaped nanobubble nucleus, we determine the footprint diameter L = 8-15 nm, the contact angle to the electrode surface θ = 135-155°, and the number of O2 molecules contained in the nucleus (50 to 900 molecules).

15.
ACS Nano ; 12(3): 3010-3019, 2018 03 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29513514

RESUMO

The oxidation of catecholamine at a microelectrode, following its release from individual vesicles, allows interrogation of the content of single nanometer vesicles with vesicle impact electrochemical cytometry (VIEC). Previous to this development, there were no methods available to quantify the chemical load of single vesicles. However, accurate quantification of the content is hampered by uncertainty in the proportion of substituent molecules reaching the electrode surface (collection efficiency). In this work, we use quantitative modeling to calculate this collection efficiency. For all vesicles except those at the very edge of the electrode, modeling shows that ∼100% oxidation efficiency is achieved when employing a 33 µm diameter disk microelectrode for VIEC, independent of the location of the vesicle release pore. We use this to experimentally determine a precise distribution of catecholamine in individual vesicles extracted from PC12 cells. In contrast, we calculate that when a nanotip conical electrode (∼4 µm length, ∼1.5 µm diameter at the base) is employed, as in intracellular VIEC (IVIEC), the current-time response depends strongly on the position of the catecholamine-releasing pore in the vesicle membrane. When vesicle release occurs with the pore opening occurring far from the electrode, lower currents and partial oxidation (∼75%) of the catecholamine are predicted, as compared to higher currents and ∼100% oxidation, when the pore is close to/at the electrode surface. As close agreement is observed between the experimentally measured vesicular content in intracellular and extracted vesicles from the same cell line using nanotip and disk electrodes, respectively, we conclude that pores open at the electrode surface. Not only does this suggest that electroporation of the vesicle membrane is the primary driving force for catecholamine release from vesicles at polarized electrodes, but it also indicates that IVIEC with nanotip electrodes can directly assess vesicular content without correction.

16.
J Am Chem Soc ; 140(11): 4047-4053, 2018 03 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29473415

RESUMO

Electrochemical measurements of the nucleation rate of individual H2 bubbles at the surface of Pt nanoelectrodes (radius = 7-41 nm) are used to determine the critical size and geometry of H2 nuclei leading to stable bubbles. Precise knowledge of the H2 concentration at the electrode surface, CH2surf, is obtained by controlled current reduction of H+ in a H2SO4 solution. Induction times of single-bubble nucleation events are measured by stepping the current, to control CH2surf, while monitoring the voltage. We find that gas nucleation follows a first-order rate process; a bubble spontaneously nucleates after a stochastic time delay, as indicated by a sudden voltage spike that results from impeded transport of H+ to the electrode. Hundreds of individual induction times, at different applied currents and using different Pt nanoelectrodes, are used to characterize the kinetics of phase nucleation. The rate of bubble nucleation increases by four orders of magnitude (0.3-2000 s-1) over a very small relative change in CH2surf (0.21-0.26 M, corresponding to a ∼0.025 V increase in driving force). Classical nucleation theory yields thermodynamic radii of curvature for critical nuclei of 4.4 to 5.3 nm, corresponding to internal pressures of 330 to 270 atm, and activation energies for nuclei formation of 14 to 26 kT, respectively. The dependence of nucleation rate on H2 concentration indicates that nucleation occurs by a heterogeneous mechanism, where the nuclei have a contact angle of ∼150° with the electrode surface and contain between 35 and 55 H2 molecules.

17.
ACS Nano ; 11(10): 10529-10538, 2017 10 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28968077

RESUMO

Controlled three-dimensional positioning of nanoparticles is achieved by delivering single fluorescent nanoparticles from a nanopipette and capturing them at well-defined regions of an electrified substrate. To control the position of single nanoparticles, the force of the pressure-driven flow from the pipette is balanced by the attractive electrostatic force at the substrate, providing a strategy by which nanoparticle trajectories can be manipulated in real time. To visualize nanoparticle motion, a resistive-pulse electrochemical setup is coupled with an optical microscope, and nanoparticle trajectories are tracked in three dimensions using super-resolution fluorescence imaging to obtain positional information with precision in the tens of nanometers. As the particles approach the substrate, the diffusion kinetics are analyzed and reveal either subdiffusive (hindered) or superdiffusive (directed) motion depending on the electric field at the substrate and the pressure-driven flow from the pipette. By balancing the effects of the forces exerted on the particle by the pressure and electric fields, controlled, real-time manipulation of single nanoparticle trajectories is achieved. The developed approach has implications for a variety of applications such as surface patterning and drug delivery using colloidal nanoparticles.


Assuntos
Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Corantes Fluorescentes/química , Nanopartículas/química , Imagem Óptica , Quartzo/química , Difusão , Técnicas Eletroquímicas , Cinética , Tamanho da Partícula , Pressão , Eletricidade Estática , Propriedades de Superfície
18.
J Am Chem Soc ; 139(46): 16923-16931, 2017 11 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29083174

RESUMO

Recent high-bandwidth recordings of the oxidation and dissolution of 35 nm radius Ag nanoparticles at a Au microelectrode show that these nanoparticles undergo multiple collisions with the electrode, generating multiple electrochemical current peaks. In the time interval between observed current peaks, the nanoparticles diffuse in the solution near the electrolyte/electrode interface. Here, we demonstrate that simulations of random nanoparticle motion, coupled with electrochemical kinetic parameters, quantitatively reproduce the experimentally observed multicurrent peak behavior. Simulations of particle diffusion are based on the nanoparticle-mass-based thermal nanoparticle velocity and the Einstein diffusion relations, while the electron-transfer rate is informed by the literature exchange current density for the Ag/Ag+ redox system. Simulations indicate that tens to thousands of particle-electrode collisions, each lasting ∼6 ns or less (currently unobservable on accessible experimental time scales), contribute to each experimentally observed current peak. The simulation provides a means to estimate the instantaneous current density during a collision (∼500-1000 A/cm2), from which we estimate a rate constant between ∼5 and 10 cm/s for the electron transfer between Ag nanoparticles and the Au electrode. This extracted rate constant is approximately equal to the thermal collisional velocity of the Ag nanoparticle (4.6 cm/s), the latter defining the theoretical upper limit of the electron-transfer rate constant. Our results suggest that only ∼1% of the surface atoms on the Ag nanoparticles are oxidized per instantaneous collision. The combined simulated and experimental results underscore the roles of Brownian motion and collision frequency in the interpretation of heterogeneous electron-transfer reactions involving nanoparticles.

19.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 8(11): 2450-2454, 2017 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28516776

RESUMO

Herein, we use Pt nanodisk electrodes (apparent radii from 4 to 80 nm) to investigate the nucleation of individual O2 nanobubbles generated by electrooxidation of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). A single bubble reproducibly nucleates when the dissolved O2 concentration reaches ∼0.17 M at the Pt electrode surface. This nucleation concentration is ∼130 times higher than the equilibrium saturation concentration of O2 and is independent of electrode size. Moreover, in acidic H2O2 solutions (1 M HClO4), in addition to producing an O2 nanobubble through H2O2 oxidation at positive potentials, individual H2 nanobubbles can also be generated at negative potentials. Alternating generation of single O2 and H2 bubbles within the same experiment allows direct comparison of the critical concentrations for nucleation of each nanobubble without knowing the precise size/geometry of the electrode or the exact viscosity/temperature of the solution.

20.
Langmuir ; 33(8): 1845-1853, 2017 02 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28125882

RESUMO

This article describes the dynamic steady state of individual H2 nanobubbles generated by H+ reduction at inlaid and recessed Pt nanodisk electrodes. Electrochemical measurements coupled with finite element simulations allow analysis of the nanobubble geometry at dynamic equilibrium. We demonstrate that a bubble is sustainable at Pt nanodisks due to the balance of nanobubble shrinkage due to H2 dissolution and growth due to H2 electrogeneration. Specifically, simulations are used to predict stable geometries of the H2/Pt/solution three-phase interface and the width of exposed Pt at the disk circumference required to sustain the nanobubble via steady-state H2 electrogeneration. Experimentally measured currents, iss, corresponding to the electrogeneration of H2, at or near the three-phase interface, needed to sustain the nanobubble are between 0.2 and 2.4 nA for Pt nanodisk electrodes with radii between 2.5 and 40 nm. However, simple theoretical analysis shows that the diffusion-limited currents required to sustain such a single nanobubble at an inlaid Pt nanodisk are 1-2 orders larger than the observed values. Finite element simulation of the dynamic steady state of a nanobubble at an inlaid disk also demonstrates that the expected steady-state currents are much larger than the experimental currents. Better agreement between the simulated and experimental values of iss is obtained by considering recession of the Pt disk nanoelectrode below the plane of the insulating surface, which reduces the outward flux of H2 from the nanobubble and results in smaller values of iss.

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