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1.
Pathogens ; 8(4)2019 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31756946

RESUMO

Mikrocytids are a widespread but rather neglected group of parasites of aquatic invertebrates. One such parasite is Paramikrocytos canceri-discovered to infect the antennal gland of the juvenile edible crab, Cancer pagurus, taken from several intertidal sites across the United Kingdom. To determine if this parasite is also present in other species of decapod crustaceans, we surveyed crabs (n = 330) across two contrasting sites in Pembrokeshire (UK). Using a histopathological approach, P. canceri infection was confirmed in variable numbers of edible crabs from both survey sites, 7%-44%. No measurable signs of infection were encountered in four other co-located species, including European shore crabs (Carcinus maenas), Montagu's crabs (Xantho hydrophilus), velvet swimming crabs (Necora puber) and broad-clawed porcelain crabs (Porcellana platycheles). These data imply that P. canceri has a more limited host range than suggested by molecular diagnosis alone.

2.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 4759, 2019 10 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31628313

RESUMO

A rapid transition away from unabated coal use is essential to fulfilling the Paris climate goals. However, many countries are actively building and operating coal power plants. Here we use plant-level data to specify alternative trajectories for coal technologies in an integrated assessment model. We then quantify cost-effective retirement pathways for global and country-level coal fleets to limit long-term temperature change. We present our results using a decision-relevant metric: the operational lifetime limit. Even if no new plants are built, the lifetimes of existing units are reduced to approximately 35 years in a well-below 2 °C scenario or 20 years in a 1.5 °C scenario. The risk of continued coal expansion, including the near-term growth permitted in some Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs), is large. The lifetime limits for both 2 °C and 1.5 °C are reduced by 5 years if plants under construction come online and 10 years if all proposed projects are built.

3.
Med Teach ; 41(3): 282-296, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29703088

RESUMO

PURPOSE AND METHOD: We conducted a scoping review of tools designed to add structure to clinical teaching, with a thematic analysis to establish definitional clarity. RESULTS: Six thousand and forty nine citations were screened, 434 reviewed for eligibility, and 230 identified as meeting study inclusion criteria. Eighty-nine names and 51 definitions were identified. Based on a post facto thematic analysis, we propose that these tools be named "deliberate teaching tools" (DTTs) and defined as "frameworks that enable clinicians to have a purposeful and considered approach to teaching encounters by incorporating elements identified with good teaching practice." We identified 46 DTTs in the literature, with 38 (82.6%) originally described for the medical setting. Forty justification articles consisted of 16 feedback surveys, 13 controlled trials, seven pre-post intervention studies with no control group, and four observation studies. Current evidence of efficacy is not entirely conclusive, and many studies contain methodology flaws. Forty-nine clarification articles comprised 12 systematic reviews and 37 narrative reviews. The most number of DTTs described by any review was four. A common design theme was identified in approximately three-quarters of DTTs. CONCLUSIONS: Applicability of DTTs to specific alternate settings should be considered in context, and appropriately designed justification studies are warranted to demonstrate efficacy.


Assuntos
Competência Clínica/normas , Currículo/estatística & dados numéricos , Avaliação Educacional/métodos , Prática Clínica Baseada em Evidências/educação , Comunicação , Educação de Graduação em Medicina , Humanos , Aprendizagem
5.
Faraday Discuss ; 200: 453-474, 2017 08 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28649687

RESUMO

Evaluating technology options to mitigate the climate impacts of road transportation can be challenging, particularly when they involve a tradeoff between long-lived emissions (e.g., carbon dioxide) and short-lived emissions (e.g., methane or black carbon). Here we present trends in short- and long-lived emissions for light- and heavy-duty transport globally and in the U.S., EU, and China over the period 2000-2030, and we discuss past and future changes to vehicle technologies to reduce these emissions. We model the tradeoffs between short- and long-lived emission reductions across a range of technology options, life cycle emission intensities, and equivalency metrics. While short-lived vehicle emissions have decreased globally over the past two decades, significant reductions in CO2 will be required by mid-century to meet climate change mitigation targets. This is true regardless of the time horizon used to compare long- and short-lived emissions. The short-lived emission intensities of some low-CO2 technologies are higher than others, and thus their suitability for meeting climate targets depends sensitively on the evaluation time horizon. Other technologies offer low intensities of both short-lived emissions and CO2.

6.
Microsc Microanal ; 21(6): 1573-1581, 2015 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26492872

RESUMO

Apart from their effector functions in allergic disorders, tissue-resident mast cells (MC) are gaining recognition as initiators of inflammatory events through their distinctive ability to secrete many bioactive molecules harbored in cytoplasmic granules. Activation triggers mediator release through a regulated exocytosis named degranulation. MC activation is still substantiated by measuring systemic levels of MC-restricted mediators. However, identifying the anatomical location of MC activation is valuable for disease diagnosis. We designed a computer-assisted morphometric method based on image analysis of methylene blue (MB)-stained normal mouse skin tissue sections that quantitates actual in situ MC activation status. We reasoned MC cytoplasm could be viewed as an object featuring unique relative mass values based on activation status. Integrated optical density and area (A) ratios were significantly different between intact and degranulated MC (p<0.001). The examination of fractal characteristics is of translational diagnostic/prognostic value in cancer and readily applied to quantify cytoskeleton morphology and vasculature. Fractal dimension (D), a measure of their comparative space filling capacity and structural density, also differed significantly between intact and degranulated MC (p<0.001). Morphometric analysis provides a reliable and reproducible method for in situ quantification of MC activation status.

7.
J Invertebr Pathol ; 128: 1-5, 2015 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25892036

RESUMO

The prevalence of disease in edible crabs (Cancer pagurus) was assessed at two sites in South West Wales; one estuarine (Pembroke Ferry) and another facing open water (Freshwater East). Diseases included pink crab disease caused by Hematodinium sp., an infection of the antennal gland caused by Paramikrocytos canceri and an idiopathic inflammatory condition of the connective tissue surrounding the anterior ganglionic masses. This latter condition was only found in crabs from Pembroke Ferry. There was a significantly higher prevalence of pink crab disease at Freshwater East than Pembroke Ferry, although both sites had similar levels of infection by P. canceri.


Assuntos
Braquiúros , Frutos do Mar , Envelhecimento , Animais , Doença , Prevalência , País de Gales
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