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1.
N Z Med J ; 132(1500): 12-24, 2019 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31415495

RESUMO

AIM: Cannabis use declined in New Zealand adolescents between 2001 and 2012. We investigated i) whether changes in adolescent cannabis use occurred across all demographic groups, and ii) whether declining cannabis use was accompanied by increasing use of other psychoactive drugs. METHOD: We conducted secondary analysis of repeat cross-sectional data from nationally representative surveys of secondary school students (2001, 2007, 2012) to determine trends in never-use of cannabis and other psychoactive drugs by age, sex, ethnicity, deprivation, school decile and urban/rural locale. Logistic regression was used to test whether changes in cannabis non-use over time varied between demographic groups. RESULTS: Never-use of cannabis and of other psychoactive substances increased between 2001 and 2012 in all included age, ethnic, sex and socioeconomic groups. Maori, younger students and those in low decile schools demonstrated the greatest reductions in cannabis use over the study period. CONCLUSION: The decline in adolescent cannabis use between 2001 and 2012 occurred across all main demographic groups and was not accompanied by a rise in the use of other psychoactive drugs. Ethnic and socioeconomic inequities in adolescent cannabis use decreased over the study period.

2.
Hum Brain Mapp ; 40(16): 4732-4747, 2019 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31361075

RESUMO

The cerebellum is involved in a wide range of behaviours. A key organisational principle from animal studies is that somatotopically corresponding sensory input and motor output reside in the same cerebellar cortical areas. However, compelling evidence for a similar arrangement in humans and whether it extends to cognitive functions is lacking. To address this, we applied cerebellar optimised whole-brain functional MRI in 20 healthy subjects. To assess spatial overlap within the sensorimotor and cognitive domains, we recorded activity to a sensory stimulus (vibrotactile) and a motor task; the Sternberg verbal working memory (VWM) task; and a verb generation paradigm. Consistent with animal data, sensory and motor activity overlapped with a somatotopic arrangement in ipsilateral areas of the anterior and posterior cerebellum. During the maintenance phase of the Sternberg task, a positive linear relationship between VWM load and activity was observed in right Lobule VI, extending into Crus I bilaterally. Articulatory movement gave rise to bilateral activity in medial Lobule VI. A conjunction of two independent language tasks localised activity during verb generation in right Lobule VI-Crus I, which overlapped with activity during VWM. These results demonstrate spatial compartmentalisation of sensorimotor and cognitive function in the human cerebellum, with each area involved in more than one aspect of a given behaviour, consistent with an integrative function. Sensorimotor localisation was uniform across individuals, but the representation of cognitive tasks was more variable, highlighting the importance of individual scans for mapping higher order functions within the cerebellum.

3.
Addict Behav ; 98: 106024, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31233951

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore the prevalence of e-cigarette use in New Zealand in a nationally representative sample aged 15 years and over. METHODS: The Health and Lifestyles Survey (HLS) is a biennial face-to-face in-house survey of New Zealand adults aged 15 years or over. The HLS was completed by 3854 participants in 2016. RESULTS: 17% of adults have tried e-cigarettes, while only 2% reported current use. The prevalence of ever use of e-cigarettes was greater in young and middle-aged adults, compared with older adults, Maori compared with NZ European, and current and former smokers, compared to never smokers. Current smokers and recent quitters displayed the highest levels of e-cigarette use, with never smokers reporting low ever use (2.8%) and no regular use. Following adjusted analyses only current smokers and recent quitters were more likely to report current or daily e-cigarette use. CONCLUSION: Although 17% of adults report having tried e-cigarettes, very few report current use. It is possible that difficulty of use, compounded by lack of support, is preventing conversion to regular use or successful use as a quitting aid. Public health initiatives should inform individuals how to correctly use e-cigarettes optimally for smoking cessation, ideally targeting this messaging toward younger and middle-aged adults, Maori, current smokers, and recent quitters.

5.
J Neurosurg ; : 1-12, 2019 May 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31125971

RESUMO

OBJECTIVEThe authors describe the demographics and clinical characteristics of the first 517 patients enrolled in the Adult Hydrocephalus Clinical Research Network (AHCRN) during its first 2 years.METHODSAdults ≥ 18 years were nonconsecutively enrolled in a registry at 6 centers. Four categories of adult hydrocephalus were defined: transition (treated before age 18 years), unrecognized congenital (congenital pattern, not treated before age 18 years), acquired (secondary to known risk factors, treated or untreated), and suspected idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) (≥ age 65 years, not previously treated). Data include etiology, symptoms, examination findings, neuropsychology screening, comorbidities, treatment, complications, and outcomes. Standard evaluations were administered to all patients by trained examiners, including the Montreal Cognitive Assessment, the Symbol Digit Modalities Test, the Beck Depression Inventory-II, the Overactive Bladder Questionnaire Short Form symptom bother, the 10-Meter Walk Test, the Boon iNPH gait scale, the Lawton Activities of Daily Living/Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (ADL/IADL) questionnaire, the iNPH grading scale, and the modified Rankin Scale.RESULTSOverall, 517 individuals were enrolled. Age ranged from 18.1 to 90.7 years, with patients in the transition group (32.7 ± 10.0 years) being the youngest and those in the suspected iNPH group (76.5 ± 5.2 years) being the oldest. The proportion of patients in each group was as follows: 16.6% transition, 26.5% unrecognized congenital, 18.2% acquired, and 38.7% suspected iNPH. Excluding the 86 patients in the transition group, who all had received treatment, 79.4% of adults in the remaining 3 groups had not been treated at the time of enrollment. Patients in the suspected iNPH group had the poorest performance in cognitive evaluations, and those in the unrecognized congenital group had the best performance. The same pattern was seen in the Lawton ADL/IADL scores. Gait velocity was lowest in patients in the suspected iNPH group. Categories that had the most comorbidities (suspected iNPH) or etiologies of hydrocephalus that directly cause neurological injury (transition, acquired) had greater degrees of impairment compared to unrecognized congenital, which had the fewest comorbidities or etiologies associated with neurological injury.CONCLUSIONSThe clinical spectrum of hydrocephalus in adults comprises more than iNPH or acquired hydrocephalus. Only 39% of patients had suspected iNPH, whereas 43% had childhood onset (i.e., those in the transition and unrecognized congenital groups). The severity of symptoms and impairment was worsened when the etiology of the hydrocephalus or complications of treatment caused additional neurological injury or when multiple comorbidities were present. However, more than half of patients in the transition, unrecognized congenital, and acquired hydrocephalus groups had minimal or no impairment. Excluding the transition group, nearly 80% of patients in the AHCRN registry were untreated at the time of enrollment. A future goal for the AHCRN is to determine whether patients with unrecognized congenital and acquired hydrocephalus need treatment and which patients in the suspected iNPH cohort actually have possible hydrocephalus and should undergo further diagnostic testing. Future prospective research is needed in the diagnosis, treatment, outcomes, quality of life, and macroeconomics of all categories of adult hydrocephalus.

6.
Mar Genomics ; 2019 May 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31129166

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: High-quality, completed genomes are important to understand the functions of marine bacteria. PacBio sequencing technology provides a powerful way to obtain high-quality completed genomes. However individual library production is currently still costly, limiting the utility of the PacBio system for high-throughput genomics. Here we investigate how to generate high-quality genomes from pooled marine bacterial genomes. RESULTS: Pooled genomic DNA from 10 marine bacteria were subjected to a single library production and sequenced with eight SMRT cells on the PacBio RS II sequencing platform. In total, 7.35 Gbp of long-read data was generated, which is equivalent to an approximate 168× average coverage for the input genomes. Genome assembly showed that eight genomes with average nucleotide identities (ANI) lower than 91.4% can be assembled with high-quality and completion using standard assembly algorithms (e.g. HGAP or Canu). A reference-based reads phasing step was developed and incorporated to assemble the complete genomes of the remaining two marine bacteria that had an ANI > 97% and whose initial assemblies were highly fragmented. CONCLUSIONS: Ten complete high-quality genomes of marine bacteria were generated. The findings and developments made here, including the reference-based read phasing approach for the assembly of highly similar genomes, can be used in the future to design strategies to sequence pooled genomes using long-read sequencing.

7.
Lancet Child Adolesc Health ; 3(7): 455-462, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31047843

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Selective dorsal rhizotomy (SDR) is an irreversible surgical procedure involving the division of selected sensory nerve roots, followed by intensive physiotherapy. The aim is to improve function and quality of life in children with cerebral palsy and a Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) level of II or III (walks with or without assistive devices, respectively). We assessed gross motor function before and after SDR and postoperative quality of life in a study commissioned by NHS England. METHODS: We did a prospective observational study in five hospitals in England who were commissioned to perform SDR on children aged 3-9 years with spastic diplegic cerebral palsy. The primary outcome was score changes in the 66-item Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM-66) and seven domains of the Cerebral Palsy Quality of Life Questionnaire ([CP-QoL] social wellbeing and acceptance, feelings about functioning, participation and physical health, emotional wellbeing and self-esteem, access to services, family health, and pain and impact of disability) from before to 24 months after SDR. FINDINGS: From Sept 4, 2014, to March 21, 2016, 137 children underwent SDR. The mean age was 6·0 years (SD 1·8). The mean GMFM-66 score increased after SDR with an annual change of 3·2 units (95% CI 2·9 to 3·5, n=137). Of the seven CP-QoL domains, five showed significant improvements over time: feelings about functioning mean annual change 3·0 units (95% CI 2·0 to 4·0, n=133), participation and physical health 3·9 units (2·5 to 5·3, n=133), emotional wellbeing and self-esteem 1·3 units (0·2 to 2·3, n=133), family health 2·0 units (0·7 to 3·3, n=132), and pain and impact of disability -2·5 units (-3·9 to -1·2, n=133). 17 adverse events were reported in 15 children, of which none were severe and 15 (88%) resolved. INTERPRETATION: SDR improved function and quality of life in the 24 months after surgery in children with cerebral palsy classified as GMFCS levels II and III. On the basis of these findings, an interim national policy decision was made that SDR would be funded for eligible children in England from 2018. FUNDING: National Institute for Health and Care Excellence, National Institute for Health Research Biomedical Research Centre, NHS England.

8.
Aging Cell ; 18(3): e12934, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30938056

RESUMO

Age-related tendon degeneration (tendinosis) is characterized by a phenotypic change in which tenocytes display characteristics of fibrochondrocytes and mineralized fibrochondrocytes. As tendon degeneration has been noted in vivo in areas of decreased tendon vascularity, we hypothesized that hypoxia is responsible for the development of the tendinosis phenotype, and that these effects are more pronounced in aged tenocytes. Hypoxic (1% O2 ) culture of aged, tendinotic, and young human tenocytes resulted in a mineralized fibrochondrocyte phenotype in aged tenocytes, and a fibrochondrocyte phenotype in young and tendinotic tenocytes. Investigation of the molecular mechanism responsible for this phenotype change revealed that the fibrochondrocyte phenotype in aged tenocytes occurs with decreased Rac1 activity in response to hypoxia. In young hypoxic tenocytes, however, the fibrochondrocyte phenotype occurs with concomitant decreased Rac1 activity coupled with increased RhoA activity. Using pharmacologic and adenoviral manipulation, we confirmed that these hypoxic effects on the tenocyte phenotype are linked directly to the activity of RhoA/Rac1 GTPase in in vitro human cell culture and tendon explants. These results demonstrate that hypoxia drives tenocyte phenotypic changes, and provide a molecular insight into the development of human tendinosis that occurs with aging.

9.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 346, 2019 Mar 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30922286

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Racial discrimination is recognised as a key social determinant of health and driver of racial/ethnic health inequities. Studies have shown that people exposed to racism have poorer health outcomes (particularly for mental health), alongside both reduced access to health care and poorer patient experiences. Most of these studies have used cross-sectional designs: this prospective cohort study (drawing on critical approaches to health research) should provide substantially stronger causal evidence regarding the impact of racism on subsequent health and health care outcomes. METHODS: Participants are adults aged 15+ sampled from 2016/17 New Zealand Health Survey (NZHS) participants, sampled based on exposure to racism (ever exposed or never exposed, using five NZHS questions) and stratified by ethnic group (Maori, Pacific, Asian, European and Other). Target sample size is 1680 participants (half exposed, half unexposed) with follow-up survey timed for 12-24 months after baseline NZHS interview. All exposed participants are invited to participate, with unexposed participants selected using propensity score matching (propensity scores for exposure to racism, based on several major confounders). Respondents receive an initial invitation letter with choice of paper or web-based questionnaire. Those invitees not responding following reminders are contacted for computer-assisted telephone interview (CATI). A brief questionnaire was developed covering current health status (mental and physical health measures) and recent health-service utilisation (unmet need and experiences with healthcare measures). Analysis will compare outcomes between those exposed and unexposed to racism, using regression models and inverse probability of treatment weights (IPTW) to account for the propensity score sampling process. DISCUSSION: This study will add robust evidence on the causal links between experience of racism and subsequent health. The use of the NZHS as a baseline for a prospective study allows for the use of propensity score methods during the sampling phase as a novel approach to recruiting participants from the NZHS. This method allows for management of confounding at the sampling stage, while also reducing the need and cost of following up with all NZHS participants.


Assuntos
Grupos Étnicos/psicologia , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Transtornos Mentais/etnologia , Racismo/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Grupos Étnicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nova Zelândia , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/etnologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Racismo/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
10.
Am J Phys Anthropol ; 168(4): 750-763, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30784057

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Previous researchers have assumed that the Late Prehistoric Oneota were less reliant on maize agriculture than their Middle Mississippian neighbors to the south. This assumption is based on the idea that intensive maize agriculture is related to sociopolitical complexity, and that the climate of the Great Lakes region was less conducive to full-scale agriculture than that of the American Bottom. Here, we assess the diet of the Oneota using dental pathology to test the hypothesis that the Oneota in Eastern Wisconsin were highly reliant on maize agriculture. MATERIALS AND METHODS: To test our hypothesis, skeletal remains representing 187 individuals and 1,102 teeth were examined from nine Oneota sites from the Middle Fox and Koshkonong Localities, as well as the Late Woodland/Middle Mississippian site of Aztalan. Dental caries, antemortem tooth loss (AMTL), and dental abscesses were assessed for each individual in the sample. Dental pathologies in the Oneota groups were compared to each other based on Locality and to the Aztalan population using chi-squared tests. RESULTS: Dental caries rates for the Oneota, based on the tooth count approach, were observed at 16.8% for the Middle Fox Locality, and 49% for the Koshkonong Locality. Comparatively, the Late Woodland/Middle Mississippian population from Aztalan had a tooth count rate of 19.5%. AMTL rates were similar across samples. Dental abscessing was universally low. DISCUSSION: The relatively high rate of dental caries among the Oneota is comparable to Middle Mississippian populations from throughout the Midwest, suggesting similar reliance on maize between the groups.

12.
World Neurosurg ; 125: e60-e66, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30659965

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Selective dorsal rhizotomy (SDR) is used to improve spasticity, gait, and pain in children with spastic diplegia. There is growing evidence supporting its long-term benefits in terms of functional outcomes, independence, and quality of life. There is, however, little contemporary work describing the surgical morbidity of this irreversible procedure. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the surgical outcomes and complications of SDR at a single United Kingdom center. METHODS: Demographics, surgical, postoperative, and follow-up data for all patients undergoing SDR between 2011 and 2016 were collected from medical records. RESULTS: Preoperative Gross Motor Function Classification System levels in 150 consecutive patients were II (35%), III (65%), and IV (1%). Median age was 6 years and 58% were male patients. There were no deaths, cerebrospinal fluid leaks, returns to theater, or readmissions within 30 days. There were no new motor or sphincter deficits. Postoperative neuropathic pain was reported by 5.3% and sensory symptoms by 8.7%. Other complications included: postoperative nausea and vomiting (19.3%), superficial wound infection (3.3%), urinary retention (1.3%), headache (6.7%), and urine or chest infection (4.7%). Follow-up data were available for all patients (93% to 12 months, 72% to 24 months). Persistent neuropathic symptoms were reported in 6.5% at 24 months. CONCLUSIONS: SDR using a single-level approach is a safe procedure with low surgical morbidity. This study complements the growing evidence base in support of SDR for spastic diplegia and should help inform decisions when considering treatment options.

13.
Addiction ; 114(6): 1060-1073, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30681215

RESUMO

AIMS: This paper presents updated prevalence estimates of awareness, ever-use, and current use of nicotine vaping products (NVPs) from 14 International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation Project (ITC Project) countries that have varying regulations governing NVP sales and marketing. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS AND MEASUREMENTS: A cross-sectional analysis of adult (≥ 18 years) current smokers and ex-smokers from 14 countries participating in the ITC Project. Data from the most recent survey questionnaire for each country were included, which spanned the period 2013-17. Countries were categorized into four groups based on regulations governing NVP sales and marketing (allowable or not), and level of enforcement (strict or weak where NVPs are not permitted to be sold): (1) most restrictive policies (MRPs), not legal to be sold or marketed with strict enforcement: Australia, Brazil, Uruguay; (2) restrictive policies (RPs), not approved for sale or marketing with weak enforcement: Canada, Malaysia, Mexico, New Zealand; (3) less restrictive policies (LRPs), legal to be sold and marketed with regulations: England, the Netherlands, Republic of Korea, United States; and (4) no regulatory policies (NRPs), Bangladesh, China, Zambia. Countries were also grouped by World Bank Income Classifications. Country-specific weighted logistic regression models estimated adjusted NVP prevalence estimates for: awareness, ever/current use, and frequency of use (daily versus non-daily). FINDINGS: NVP awareness and use were lowest in NRP countries. Generally, ever- and current use of NVPs were lower in MRP countries (ever-use = 7.1-48.9%; current use = 0.3-3.5%) relative to LRP countries (ever-use = 38.9-66.6%; current use = 5.5-17.2%) and RP countries (ever-use = 10.0-62.4%; current use = 1.4-15.5%). NVP use was highest among high-income countries, followed by upper-middle-income countries, and then by lower-middle-income countries. CONCLUSIONS: With a few exceptions, awareness and use of nicotine vaping products varied by the strength of national regulations governing nicotine vaping product sales/marketing, and by country income. In countries with no regulatory policies, use rates were very low, suggesting that there was little availability, marketing and/or interest in nicotine vaping products in these countries where smoking populations are predominantly poorer. The higher awareness and use of nicotine vaping products in high income countries with moderately (e.g. Canada, New Zealand) and less (e.g. England, United States) restrictive policies, is likely due to the greater availability and affordability of nicotine vaping products.

14.
N Z Med J ; 131(1487): 30-37, 2018 12 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30543609

RESUMO

AIM: To estimate the numbers of people required to quit smoking in New Zealand to achieve the Smokefree 2025 goal and to compare these with current levels of quitting. METHODS: We used the established BODE3 tobacco forecasting model to project smoking prevalence separately for Maori and non-Maori to 2025 under a business-as-usual (BAU) scenario. We then determined by what factor current annual cessation rates would have to increase to achieve an adult smoking prevalence of under 5% by the year 2025, while annual smoking uptake rates continued to follow BAU patterns. Comparisons were also made in terms of estimated current long-term quitters arising from official reports of smoking cessation service use (Quitline and face-to-face support services). RESULTS: To achieve a below 5% smoking prevalence by 2025, there would need to be additional averages of 8,400 Maori long-term quitters per year (5.2 times the BAU level on average) and 8,800 extra non-Maori quitters per year during 2018 to 2025 (1.9 times the BAU level on average). We estimated that the Quitline and funded face-to-face smoking cessation services are generating 2,000 Maori and 6,100 non-Maori long-term quitters per year. But this represents only 19% of Maori and only 34% of the non-Maori quitters required. CONCLUSIONS: This modelling work suggests that to achieve the Smokefree 2025 goal, there would need to be very major increases in quit rates. To achieve this goal the New Zealand Government will need to massively increase investment in established interventions (smoking cessation support, mass media) while continuing with substantial tobacco tax increases, or else add substantive new strategies into the intervention mix.


Assuntos
Metas , Política Antifumo , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar , Grupos Étnicos , Humanos , Nova Zelândia/epidemiologia , Grupo com Ancestrais Oceânicos , Prevalência , Fumar/epidemiologia , Fumar/tendências
15.
PeerJ ; 6: e5858, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30402352

RESUMO

Many important cellular processes involve protein-protein interactions (PPIs) mediated by a Short Linear Motif (SLiM) in one protein interacting with a globular domain in another. Despite their significance, these domain-motif interactions (DMIs) are typically low affinity, which makes them challenging to identify by classical experimental approaches, such as affinity pulldown mass spectrometry (AP-MS) and yeast two-hybrid (Y2H). DMIs are generally underrepresented in PPI networks as a result. A number of computational methods now exist to predict SLiMs and/or DMIs from experimental interaction data but it is yet to be established how effective different PPI detection methods are for capturing these low affinity SLiM-mediated interactions. Here, we introduce a new computational pipeline (SLiM-Enrich) to assess how well a given source of PPI data captures DMIs and thus, by inference, how useful that data should be for SLiM discovery. SLiM-Enrich interrogates a PPI network for pairs of interacting proteins in which the first protein is known or predicted to interact with the second protein via a DMI. Permutation tests compare the number of known/predicted DMIs to the expected distribution if the two sets of proteins are randomly associated. This provides an estimate of DMI enrichment within the data and the false positive rate for individual DMIs. As a case study, we detect significant DMI enrichment in a high-throughput Y2H human PPI study. SLiM-Enrich analysis supports Y2H data as a source of DMIs and highlights the high false positive rates associated with naïve DMI prediction. SLiM-Enrich is available as an R Shiny app. The code is open source and available via a GNU GPL v3 license at: https://github.com/slimsuite/SLiMEnrich. A web server is available at: http://shiny.slimsuite.unsw.edu.au/SLiMEnrich/.

16.
17.
Clin Case Rep ; 6(11): 2262-2265, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30455933

RESUMO

Increasing longevity of heart transplantation recipients and aging donor population accompanied by the older age at transplantation led to an increase in the prevalence of degenerative valvular disease in particular aortic stenosis. TAVI is considered a safe and feasible alternative compared to conventional SAVR in this high-risk population.

18.
BMJ Open ; 8(10): e020320, 2018 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30366911

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Adolescent smoking has declined in New Zealand and in many other countries since the late 1990s, yet the reasons for the decline are not well understood. We investigated the extent to which established risk factors for adolescent smoking (parental, sibling and peer smoking, and exposure to smoking in the home) explained the downward trend. DESIGN: Trend analysis of repeat cross-sectional data from an annual nationally representative survey. SETTING: New Zealand. PARTICIPANTS: Secondary school students aged 14-15 (n=398 221). OUTCOME MEASURE: Regular (at least monthly) smoking. METHODS: For each risk factor (parental smoking, best friend smoking, older sibling smoking and past week exposure to smoking in the home) we plotted prevalence of exposure, 2002-2015. Next, using multivariable logistic regression, we modelled the trend in regular smoking (expressed as an OR for year) adjusting for age, sex, ethnicity and socioeconomic position. The risk factors were added to the model-individually and collectively-to test whether they attenuated the OR for year. RESULTS: Exposure to all risk factors except 'past week exposure to smoking in the home' decreased between 2002 and 2015. We observed a strong downward trend in regular smoking among adolescents (OR=0.88 per year, 95% CI 0.88 to 0.88, p<0.001). 'Best friend smoking' was the only risk factor that significantly attenuated the trend. However, due to circularity, this factor provides an unsatisfactory explanation for population level smoking decline. CONCLUSIONS: The established risk factors that we explored do not appear to have contributed to the remarkable decline in adolescent smoking in New Zealand between 2003 and 2015. Further research is needed to assess the possible contribution of factors outside our model, such as changes in the policy context, the social meaning of smoking and broader social and economic conditions.

20.
Gigascience ; 7(9)2018 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30101298

RESUMO

Background: The cane toad (Rhinella marina formerly Bufo marinus) is a species native to Central and South America that has spread across many regions of the globe. Cane toads are known for their rapid adaptation and deleterious impacts on native fauna in invaded regions. However, despite an iconic status, there are major gaps in our understanding of cane toad genetics. The availability of a genome would help to close these gaps and accelerate cane toad research. Findings: We report a draft genome assembly for R. marina, the first of its kind for the Bufonidae family. We used a combination of long-read Pacific Biosciences RS II and short-read Illumina HiSeq X sequencing to generate 359.5 Gb of raw sequence data. The final hybrid assembly of 31,392 scaffolds was 2.55 Gb in length with a scaffold N50 of 168 kb. BUSCO analysis revealed that the assembly included full length or partial fragments of 90.6% of tetrapod universal single-copy orthologs (n = 3950), illustrating that the gene-containing regions have been well assembled. Annotation predicted 25,846 protein coding genes with similarity to known proteins in Swiss-Prot. Repeat sequences were estimated to account for 63.9% of the assembly. Conclusions: The R. marina draft genome assembly will be an invaluable resource that can be used to further probe the biology of this invasive species. Future analysis of the genome will provide insights into cane toad evolution and enrich our understanding of their interplay with the ecosystem at large.

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