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1.
Am J Hypertens ; 2019 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31545351

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Only a handful of genetic discovery efforts in apparent treatment resistant hypertension (aTRH) have been described. METHODS: We conducted a case-control genome-wide association study (GWAS) of aTRH among persons treated for hypertension, using data from 10 cohorts of European ancestry (EA) and 5 cohorts of African ancestry (AA). Cases were treated with 3 different antihypertensive medication classes and had blood pressure (BP) above goal (systolic (SBP)≥140 mm Hg and/or diastolic (DBP)≥90 mm Hg) or 4 or more medication classes regardless of BP control (nEA =931, nAA= 228). Both a normotensive control group and a treatment-responsive control group were considered in separate analyses. Normotensive controls were untreated (nEA = 14210, nAA= 2480) and had SBP/DBP <140/90 mm Hg. Treatment-responsive controls (nEA = 5266, nAA= 1817) had BP at goal (<140/90 mm Hg) while treated with one antihypertensive medication class. Individual cohorts used logistic regression with adjustment for age, sex, study site and principal components for ancestry to examine the association of SNPs with case-control status. Inverse variance-weighted fixed-effects meta-analyses were carried out using METAL. RESULTS: The known hypertension locus, CASZ1, was a top finding among EAs (P=1.1*10-8) and in the race-combined analysis (P=1.5*10-9) using the normotensive control group (rs12046278 OR=0.71[95% CI 0.6-0.8]). SNPs in this locus were robustly replicated in the Million Veterans Program (MVP) study in consideration of a treatment-responsive control group. There were no statistically significant findings for the discovery analyses including treatment-responsive controls. CONCLUSION: This genomic discovery effort for aTRH identified CASZ1 as an aTRH risk locus.

2.
Br J Cancer ; 121(9): 796-804, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31543516

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We aimed to evaluate the associations between calcium and various stages of colorectal carcinogenesis and whether these associations are modified by the calcium to magnesium (Ca:Mg) ratio. METHODS: We tested our hypotheses in the prostate lung, colorectal and ovarian cancer screening trial. RESULTS: Calcium intake did not show a dose-response association with incident adenoma of any size/stage (P-trend = 0.17), but followed an inverse trend when restricted to synchronous/advanced adenoma cases (P-trend = 0.05). This inverse trend was mainly in participants with Ca:Mg ratios between 1.7 and 2.5 (P-trend = 0.05). No significant associations were observed for metachronous adenoma. Calcium intake was inversely associated with CRC (P-trend = 0.03); the association was primarily present for distal CRC (P-trend = 0.01). The inverse association between calcium and distal CRC was further modified by the Ca:Mg ratio (P-interaction < 0.01); significant dose-response associations were found only in participants with a Ca:Mg ratio between 1.7 and 2.5 (P-trend = 0.04). No associations for calcium were found in the Ca:Mg ratio above 2.5 or below 1.7. CONCLUSION: Higher calcium intake may be related to reduced risks of incident advanced and/or synchronous adenoma and incident distal CRC among subjects with Ca:Mg intake ratios between 1.7 and 2.5.

3.
Hum Hered ; : 1-9, 2019 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31480066

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Heritability estimates (including twin and single nucleotide polymorphism [SNP]-based heritability studies) for fibroids have been inconsistent across prior studies ranging between 9 and 69%. These inconsistencies are due to variations in study design and included populations. A major design issue has been lack of imaging confirmation to identify controls, where asymptomatic women without imaging confirmation may be misclassified as controls leading to an attenuation of heritability estimates. To reconcile the differences in prior heritability estimates and the impact of misclassification of controls on heritability, we determined SNP-based heritability and characterized the genetic architecture of pelvic image-confirmed fibroid cases and controls. METHODS: Analyses were performed among women of European American descent using genome-wide SNP data from BioVU, a clinical database composed of DNA linked to de-identified electronic health records. We estimated the genetic variance explained by all SNPs using Genome-Wide Complex Trait Analysis on imputed data. Fibroid cases and controls were identified using a previously reported phenotyping algorithm that required pelvic imaging confirmation. RESULTS: In total, we used 1,067 image-confirmed fibroid cases and 1,042 image-confirmed fibroid controls. The SNP-based heritability estimate for fibroid risk was h2 = 0.33 ± 0.18 (p = 0.040). We investigated the relationship between heritability per chromosome and chromosome length (r2 < 1%), with chromosome 8 explaining the highest proportion of variance for fibroid risk. There was no enrichment for intergenic or genic SNPs for the fibroid SNP-based heritability. Excluding loci previously associated with fibroid risk from genome-wide association study did not attenuate fibroid heritability suggesting that loci associating with fibroid risk are yet to be discovered. CONCLUSIONS: We observed that fibroid SNP-based heritability was higher than the previous estimate using genome-wide SNP data that relied on self-reported outcomes, but within the range of prior twin pair studies. Furthermore, these data support that imprecise phenotyping can significantly affect the ability to estimate heritability using genotype data.

4.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 3842, 2019 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31451708

RESUMO

Chronic kidney disease (CKD), defined by low estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), contributes to global morbidity and mortality. Here we conduct a transethnic Genome-Wide Association Study of eGFR in 280,722 participants of the Million Veteran Program (MVP), with replication in 765,289 participants from the Chronic Kidney Disease Genetics (CKDGen) Consortium. We identify 82 previously unreported variants, confirm 54 loci, and report interesting findings including association of the sickle cell allele of betaglobin among non-Hispanic blacks. Our transcriptome-wide association study of kidney function in healthy kidney tissue identifies 36 previously unreported and nine known genes, and maps gene expression to renal cell types. In a Phenome-Wide Association Study in 192,868 MVP participants using a weighted genetic score we detect associations with CKD stages and complications and kidney stones. This investigation reinterprets the genetic architecture of kidney function to identify the gene, tissue, and anatomical context of renal homeostasis and the clinical consequences of dysregulation.

5.
Cancer Med ; 8(5): 2503-2513, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31001917

RESUMO

An association between genetic variants in the vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene and epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) was previously reported in women of African ancestry (AA). We sought to examine associations between genetic variants in VDR and additional genes from vitamin D biosynthesis and pathway targets (EGFR, UGT1A, UGT2A1/2, UGT2B, CYP3A4/5, CYP2R1, CYP27B1, CYP24A1, CYP11A1, and GC). Genotyping was performed using the custom-designed 533,631 SNP Illumina OncoArray with imputation to the 1,000 Genomes Phase 3 v5 reference set in 755 EOC cases, including 537 high-grade serous (HGSOC), and 1,235 controls. All subjects are of African ancestry (AA). Logistic regression was performed to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). We further evaluated statistical significance of selected SNPs using the Bayesian False Discovery Probability (BFDP). A significant association with EOC was identified in the UGT2A1/2 region for the SNP rs10017134 (per allele OR = 1.4, 95% CI = 1.2-1.7, P = 1.2 × 10-6 , BFDP = 0.02); and an association with HGSOC was identified in the EGFR region for the SNP rs114972508 (per allele OR = 2.3, 95% CI = 1.6-3.4, P = 1.6 × 10-5 , BFDP = 0.29) and in the UGT2A1/2 region again for rs1017134 (per allele OR = 1.4, 95% CI = 1.2-1.7, P = 2.3 × 10-5 , BFDP = 0.23). Genetic variants in the EGFR and UGT2A1/2 may increase susceptibility of EOC in AA women. Future studies to validate these findings are warranted. Alterations in EGFR and UGT2A1/2 could perturb enzyme efficacy, proliferation in ovaries, impact and mark susceptibility to EOC.

6.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 6077, 2019 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30988330

RESUMO

Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) results in a significant public health burden due to the morbidity caused by the disease and many of the available remedies. As much as 70% of men over 70 will develop BPH. Few studies have been conducted to discover the genetic determinants of BPH risk. Understanding the biological basis for this condition may provide necessary insight for development of novel pharmaceutical therapies or risk prediction. We have evaluated SNP-based heritability of BPH in two cohorts and conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of BPH risk using 2,656 cases and 7,763 controls identified from the Electronic Medical Records and Genomics (eMERGE) network. SNP-based heritability estimates suggest that roughly 60% of the phenotypic variation in BPH is accounted for by genetic factors. We used logistic regression to model BPH risk as a function of principal components of ancestry, age, and imputed genotype data, with meta-analysis performed using METAL. The top result was on chromosome 22 in SYN3 at rs2710383 (p-value = 4.6 × 10-7; Odds Ratio = 0.69, 95% confidence interval = 0.55-0.83). Other suggestive signals were near genes GLGC, UNCA13, SORCS1 and between BTBD3 and SPTLC3. We also evaluated genetically-predicted gene expression in prostate tissue. The most significant result was with increasing predicted expression of ETV4 (chr17; p-value = 0.0015). Overexpression of this gene has been associated with poor prognosis in prostate cancer. In conclusion, although there were no genome-wide significant variants identified for BPH susceptibility, we present evidence supporting the heritability of this phenotype, have identified suggestive signals, and evaluated the association between BPH and genetically-predicted gene expression in prostate.

7.
JAMA Cardiol ; 4(2): 136-143, 2019 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30673079

RESUMO

Importance: Thyroid hormone levels are tightly regulated through feedback inhibition by thyrotropin, produced by the pituitary gland. Hyperthyroidism is overwhelmingly due to thyroid disorders and is well recognized to contribute to a wide spectrum of cardiovascular morbidity, particularly the increasingly common arrhythmia atrial fibrillation (AF). Objective: To determine the association between genetically determined thyrotropin levels and AF. Design, Setting, and Participants: This phenome-wide association study scanned 1318 phenotypes associated with a polygenic predictor of thyrotropin levels identified by a previously published genome-wide association study that included participants of European ancestry. North American individuals of European ancestry with longitudinal electronic health records were analyzed from May 2008 to November 2016. Analysis began March 2018. Main Outcomes and Measures: Clinical diagnoses associated with a polygenic predictor of thyrotropin levels. Exposures: Genetically determined thyrotropin levels. Results: Of 37 154 individuals, 19 330 (52%) were men. The thyrotropin polygenic predictor was positively associated with hypothyroidism (odds ratio [OR], 1.10; 95% CI, 1.07-1.14; P = 5 × 10-11) and inversely associated with diagnoses related to hyperthyroidism (OR, 0.64; 95% CI, 0.54-0.74; P = 2 × 10-8 for toxic multinodular goiter). Among nonthyroid associations, the top association was AF/flutter (OR, 0.93; 95% CI, 0.9-0.95; P = 9 × 10-7). When the analyses were repeated excluding 9801 individuals with any diagnoses of a thyroid-related disease, the AF association persisted (OR, 0.91; 95% CI, 0.88-0.95; P = 2.9 × 10-6). To replicate this association, we conducted an inverse-variance weighted average meta-analysis using AF single-nucleotide variant weights from a genome-wide association study of 17 931 AF cases and 115 142 controls. As in the discovery analyses, each SD increase in predicted thyrotropin was associated with a decreased risk of AF (OR, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.79-0.93; P = 4.7 × 10-4). In a set of AF cases (n = 745) and controls (n = 1680) older than 55 years, directly measured thyrotropin levels that fell within the normal range were inversely associated with AF risk (OR, 0.91; 95% CI, 0.83-0.99; P = .04). Conclusions and Relevance: This study suggests a role for genetically determined variation in thyroid function within a physiologically accepted normal range as a risk factor for AF. The clinical decision to treat subclinical thyroid disease should incorporate the risk for AF as antithyroid medications to treat hyperthyroidism may reduce AF risk and thyroid hormone replacement for hypothyroidism may increase AF risk.

8.
Heart Rhythm ; 16(5): 710-716, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30528449

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Postoperative arrhythmias after pediatric congenital heart disease (CHD) surgery are a known cause of morbidity and are associated with mortality. A comprehensive evaluation of early postoperative ventricular arrhythmias (VAs) after CHD surgery has not been reported. OBJECTIVES: We sought to determine the incidence of in-hospital VAs after CHD surgery and assess the clinical relevance of this arrhythmia during the postoperative hospital course. METHODS: Patients undergoing CHD surgery at our center from September 2007 through December 2016 were prospectively enrolled. Univariate and multivariate analysis was used to assess the association between postoperative VAs and in-hospital mortality, adjusting for postoperative extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and stage 1 single ventricle palliation operations. RESULTS: A total of 2503 postoperative courses in 1835 patients were included. In all, 464 (18.5%) had VAs, of whom 135 (29.1%) received treatment. Monomorphic ventricular tachycardia was the most frequently treated ventricular arrhythmia (TVA; n=91 [62.3%]). TVAs were associated with increased postoperative extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (13.3% vs 5.5%; P < .001) and in-hospital mortality (14.9% vs 4.0%; P < .001). In multivariate analysis, TVA was an independent risk factor for in-hospital mortality (adjusted odds ratio 2.44; 95% confidence interval 1.21-4.92). CONCLUSION: Early postoperative VAs after CHD surgery are more common than previously reported. Postoperative VAs are associated with increased in-hospital mortality, and the subgroup of TVAs is an independent risk factor for in-hospital mortality.

9.
Blood Adv ; 2(22): 3088-3096, 2018 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30442686

RESUMO

Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is associated with high morbidity and mortality and is an established cause of unbalanced hemostasis. A number of hemostatic biomarkers have been associated with AAA; however, the utility of hemostatic biomarkers in AAA diagnosis and prognosis is unclear. The aim of the present study was to characterize the potential prognostic value of D-dimer and markers of altered hemostasis in a large cohort of patients with AAAs characterized by either fast or slow aneurysm growth (frequency matched for baseline diameter) and subaneurysmal dilations. We measured plasma concentrations of thrombin-antithrombin (TAT) complex, platelet factor 4 (PF4), and D-dimer in 352 patients with either fast-growing AAAs (>2 mm/y), slow-growing AAAs (<2 mm/y), subaneurysmal aortic dilations, or nonaneurysmal aortas. Plasma D-dimer and TAT were significantly elevated in both AAA and subaneurysmal dilation patients compared with controls. Individuals with D-dimer levels ≥500 ng/mL had 3.09 times the odds of subaneurysms, 6.23 times the odds of slow-growing AAAs, and 7.19 times the odds of fast-growing AAAs than individuals with D-dimer level <500 ng/mL. However, no differences in D-dimer concentration were noted between fast- and slow-growing aneurysms. Plasma D-dimer and TAT were strong independent predictors of AAA growth rate with multivariate analysis revealing a 500-ng/mL increase in D-dimer or 1-µg/mL increase in TAT led to additional 0.21-mm and 0.24-mm changes in aortic diameter per year, respectively. Rising levels of plasma TAT, in addition to D-dimer, may predict disease progression and aneurysm growth in patients with AAA or subaneurysmal dilation.

10.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 2018 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30262922

RESUMO

High blood pressure (BP) is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and is more prevalent in African Americans as compared to other US groups. Although large, population-based genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified over 300 common polymorphisms modulating inter-individual BP variation, largely in European ancestry subjects, most of them do not localize to regions previously identified through family-based linkage studies. This discrepancy has remained unexplained despite the statistical power differences between current GWAS and prior linkage studies. To address this issue, we performed genome-wide linkage analysis of BP traits in African-American families from the Family Blood Pressure Program (FBPP) and genotyped on the Illumina Human Exome BeadChip v1.1. We identified a genomic region on chromosome 1q31 with LOD score 3.8 for pulse pressure (PP), a region we previously implicated in DBP studies of European ancestry families. Although no reported GWAS variants map to this region, combined linkage and association analysis of PP identified 81 rare and low frequency exonic variants accounting for the linkage evidence. Replication analysis in eight independent African ancestry cohorts (N = 16,968) supports this specific association with PP (P = 0.0509). Additional association and network analyses identified multiple potential candidate genes in this region expressed in multiple tissues and with a strong biological support for a role in BP. In conclusion, multiple genes and rare variants on 1q31 contribute to PP variation. Beyond producing new insights into PP, we demonstrate how family-based linkage and association studies can implicate specific rare and low frequency variants for complex traits.

11.
Fertil Steril ; 110(4): 737-745.e34, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30196971

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To identify, through genome-wide association studies, genetic loci that associate with differences in fibroid size and number in a population of African American and European American women. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Not applicable. PATIENT(S): Using BioVU, a clinical population from the Vanderbilt University Medical Center, and the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults cohort, a prospective cohort, we identified 1520 women (609 African American and 911 European American) with documented fibroid characteristics. INTERVENTION(S): None. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Outcome measurements include volume of largest fibroid, largest fibroid dimension, and number of fibroids (single vs. multiple). RESULT(S): In race-stratified analyses we achieved genome-wide significance at a variant located between MAT2B and TENM2 (rs57542984, ß = 0.13; 95% confidence interval 0.09, 0.17) for analyses of largest fibroid dimension in African Americans. The strongest signal for transethnic analyses was at a variant on 1q31.1 located between PLA2G4A and BRINP3 (rs6605005, ß = 0.24; 95% confidence interval 0.15, 0.33) for fibroid volume. Results from MetaXcan identified an association between predicted expression of the gene ER degradation enhancing alpha-mannosidase like protein 2 (EDEM2) in the thyroid and number of fibroids (Z score = -4.51). CONCLUSION(S): This study identified many novel associations between genetic loci and fibroid size and number in both race-stratified and transethnic analyses. Future studies are necessary to further validate our study findings and to better understand the mechanisms underlying these associations.

12.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 3522, 2018 08 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30166544

RESUMO

Defining the full spectrum of human disease associated with a biomarker is necessary to advance the biomarker into clinical practice. We hypothesize that associating biomarker measurements with electronic health record (EHR) populations based on shared genetic architectures would establish the clinical epidemiology of the biomarker. We use Bayesian sparse linear mixed modeling to calculate SNP weightings for 53 biomarkers from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study. We use the SNP weightings to computed predicted biomarker values in an EHR population and test associations with 1139 diagnoses. Here we report 116 associations meeting a Bonferroni level of significance. A false discovery rate (FDR)-based significance threshold reveals more known and undescribed associations across a broad range of biomarkers, including biometric measures, plasma proteins and metabolites, functional assays, and behaviors. We confirm an inverse association between LDL-cholesterol level and septicemia risk in an independent epidemiological cohort. This approach efficiently discovers biomarker-disease associations.

13.
Maturitas ; 114: 9-13, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29907250

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate individual characteristics of women with fibroids in relation to fibroid size and number. METHODS: This cross-sectional study involved 2302 women (black and white, age range 18-87) with image- or surgery-confirmed fibroids from the Synthetic Derivative, a database of de-identified demographic and clinical information from patient electronic health records (EHRs) from the Vanderbilt University Medical Center. We performed multivariate regression analyses on the following outcomes: volume of largest fibroid, largest dimension of all fibroids, and number of fibroids (single vs multiple). Candidate risk factors included age at diagnosis, body mass index (BMI), race, type 2 diabetes status, and number of living children (a proxy for parity). We assessed potential effect measure modification by race and both age and BMI using a likelihood ratio test. RESULTS: Black race was strongly associated with having multiple fibroids (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 1.83, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.49, 2.24) and larger fibroid volume (adjusted beta: 1.77, 95% CI: 1.38, 2.27) and greater largest dimension (adjusted beta: 1.28, 95% CI: 1.18, 1.38). Having multiple fibroids was most strongly associated with ages 43-47 (aOR = 3.37, 95% CI: 2.55, 4.46) compared with the youngest age group (ages 18-36). Having a larger number of living children was associated with having single a fibroid (aOR: 0.88, 95% CI: 0.78, 0.99). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that different underlying etiologies are involved for women developing single versus multiple fibroids and small versus large fibroids. Studies are needed of the mechanisms by which these characteristics influence fibroid formation and growth.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Leiomioma/patologia , Neoplasias Uterinas/patologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/patologia , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde , Feminino , Humanos , Leiomioma/etiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Neoplasias Uterinas/etiologia , Adulto Jovem
14.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 1825, 2018 05 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29739930

RESUMO

Scalable, integrative methods to understand mechanisms that link genetic variants with phenotypes are needed. Here we derive a mathematical expression to compute PrediXcan (a gene mapping approach) results using summary data (S-PrediXcan) and show its accuracy and general robustness to misspecified reference sets. We apply this framework to 44 GTEx tissues and 100+ phenotypes from GWAS and meta-analysis studies, creating a growing public catalog of associations that seeks to capture the effects of gene expression variation on human phenotypes. Replication in an independent cohort is shown. Most of the associations are tissue specific, suggesting context specificity of the trait etiology. Colocalized significant associations in unexpected tissues underscore the need for an agnostic scanning of multiple contexts to improve our ability to detect causal regulatory mechanisms. Monogenic disease genes are enriched among significant associations for related traits, suggesting that smaller alterations of these genes may cause a spectrum of milder phenotypes.

15.
Am Heart J ; 202: 1-4, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29800783

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Atrial tachycardia (AT) after infant congenital heart disease (CHD) surgery is associated with increased mortality. Polymorphisms in PITX2 (rs2200733) and IL6 (rs1800795) are associated with postoperative atrial fibrillation in adults but have not been studied in CHD. The objective was to test the hypothesis that clinical factors and variants in PITX2 and IL6 are associated with postoperative AT in infants with CHD. METHODS: Infants (<1 year of age) undergoing CHD surgery between September 2007 and May 2016 were included. Subjects had daily assessment of telemetry and were genotyped for the 2 variants. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to test for factors independently associated with AT. RESULTS: Of 1,067 enrolled infants, 164 had postoperative AT (15.4%); 95 required treatment (8.9%). AT was associated with risk for extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, operative mortality, and longer duration of ventilation, as well as intensive care unit and hospital stays. PITX2 and IL6 genotypes were not associated with AT or AT requiring treatment. In multivariate analysis, use of 2 or more inotropes, age ≤ 28 days; Risk Adjusted classification for Congenital Heart Surgery, Version 1, score ≥ 3; and bypass time were all independently associated with AT. Factors independently associated with treated AT include use of 2 or more inotropes; age ≤ 28 days; and Risk Adjusted classification for Congenital Heart Surgery, Version 1, score ≥ 3. CONCLUSION: AT occurs in 15% of infants after CHD surgery and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Risk factors include use of 2 or more inotropes, neonatal age, and higher surgical complexity score. We observed no association between common genetic variants in PITX2 and IL6 and AT in infants after CHD surgery.

16.
Ann Hum Genet ; 82(4): 206-215, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29484647

RESUMO

Keloids are benign dermal tumors occurring approximately 20 times more often in individuals of African descent as compared to individuals of European descent. While most keloids occur sporadically, a genetic predisposition is supported by both familial aggregation of some keloids and large differences in risk among populations. Despite Africans and African Americans being at increased risk over lighter-skinned individuals, little genetic research exists into this phenotype. Using a combination of admixture mapping and exome analysis, we reported multiple common variants within chr15q21.2-22.3 associated with risk of keloid formation in African Americans. Here we describe a gene-based association analysis using 478 African American samples with exome genotyping data to identify genes containing low-frequency variants associated with keloids, with evaluation of genetically-predicted gene expression in skin tissues using association summary statistics. The strongest signal from gene-based association was located in C15orf63 (P-value = 6.6 × 10-6 ) located at 15q15.3. The top result from gene expression was increased predicted DCAF4 expression (P-value = 5.5 × 10-4 ) in non-sun-exposed skin, followed by increased predicted OR10A3 expression in sun-exposed skin (P-value = 6.9 × 10-4 ). Our findings identify variation with putative roles in keloid formation, enhanced by the use of predicted gene expression to support the biological roles of variation identified only though genetic association studies.

17.
Fertil Steril ; 108(6): 1034-1042.e26, 2017 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29202956

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the relationship between genetic ancestry and uterine fibroid characteristics. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Not applicable. PATIENT(S): A total of 609 African American participants with image- or surgery-confirmed fibroids in a biorepository at Vanderbilt University electronic health record biorepository and the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults studies were included. INTERVENTION(S): None. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Outcome measures include fibroid number (single vs. multiple), volume of largest fibroid, and largest fibroid dimension of all fibroid measurements. RESULT(S): Global ancestry meta-analyses revealed a significant inverse association between percentage of European ancestry and risk of multiple fibroids (odds ratio: 0.78; 95% confidence interval 0.66, 0.93; P=6.05 × 10-3). Local ancestry meta-analyses revealed five suggestive (P<4.80 × 10-3) admixture mapping peaks in 2q14.3-2q21.1, 3p14.2-3p14.1, 7q32.2-7q33, 10q21.1, 14q24.2-14q24.3, for number of fibroids and one suggestive admixture mapping peak (P<1.97 × 10-3) in 10q24.1-10q24.32 for volume of largest fibroid. Single variant association meta-analyses of the strongest associated region from admixture mapping of fibroid number (10q21.1) revealed a strong association at single nucleotide polymorphism variant rs12219990 (odds ratio: 0.41; 95% confidence interval 0.28, 0.60; P=3.82 × 10-6) that was significant after correction for multiple testing. CONCLUSION(S): Increasing African ancestry is associated with multiple fibroids but not with fibroid size. Local ancestry analyses identified several novel genomic regions not previously associated with fibroid number and increasing volume. Future studies are needed to explore the genetic impact that ancestry plays into the development of fibroid characteristics.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos/genética , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Leiomioma/genética , Leiomioma/patologia , Leiomiomatose/genética , Leiomiomatose/patologia , Carga Tumoral/genética , Neoplasias Uterinas/genética , Neoplasias Uterinas/patologia , Adulto , Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos , Estudos Transversais , Bases de Dados Factuais , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Hereditariedade , Humanos , Leiomioma/etnologia , Leiomiomatose/etnologia , Modelos Lineares , Modelos Logísticos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Uterinas/etnologia
18.
Hum Genet ; 136(11-12): 1497-1498, 2017 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28975356

RESUMO

The article "A multi-stage genome-wide association study of uterine fibroids in African Americans", written by Jacklyn N. Hellwege, was originally published Online First without open access. After publication in volume 136, issue 10, page 1363-1373 the author decided to opt for Open Choice and to make the article an open access publication. Therefore, the copyright of the article has been changed to

19.
Curr Protoc Hum Genet ; 95: 1.22.1-1.22.23, 2017 10 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29044472

RESUMO

Population stratification (PS) is a primary consideration in studies of genetic determinants of human traits. Failure to control for PS may lead to confounding, causing a study to fail for lack of significant results, or resources to be wasted following false-positive signals. Here, historical and current approaches for addressing PS when performing genetic association studies in human populations are reviewed. Methods for detecting the presence of PS, including global and local ancestry methods, are described. Also described are approaches for accounting for PS when calculating association statistics, such that measures of association are not confounded. Many traits are being examined for the first time in minority populations, which may inherently feature PS. © 2017 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.


Assuntos
Estudos de Associação Genética , Genética Populacional , Alelos , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Evolução Molecular , Frequência do Gene , Estudos de Associação Genética/métodos , Genética Populacional/métodos , Humanos , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Modelos Genéticos , Modelos Estatísticos , Característica Quantitativa Herdável
20.
Sci Rep ; 7(1): 11380, 2017 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28900119

RESUMO

Genome-wide association (GWA) studies have identified 19 independent common risk loci for endometriosis. Most of the GWA variants are non-coding and the genes responsible for the association signals have not been identified. Herein, we aimed to assess the potential role of protein-modifying variants in endometriosis using exome-array genotyping in 7164 cases and 21005 controls, and a replication set of 1840 cases and 129016 controls of European ancestry. Results in the discovery sample identified significant evidence for association with coding variants in single-variant (rs1801232-CUBN) and gene-level (CIITA and PARP4) meta-analyses, but these did not survive replication. In the combined analysis, there was genome-wide significant evidence for rs13394619 (P = 2.3 × 10-9) in GREB1 at 2p25.1 - a locus previously identified in a GWA meta-analysis of European and Japanese samples. Despite sufficient power, our results did not identify any protein-modifying variants (MAF > 0.01) with moderate or large effect sizes in endometriosis, although these variants may exist in non-European populations or in high-risk families. The results suggest continued discovery efforts should focus on genotyping large numbers of surgically-confirmed endometriosis cases and controls, and/or sequencing high-risk families to identify novel rare variants to provide greater insights into the molecular pathogenesis of the disease.

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