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Pharmacotherapy ; 2021 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34662448


Data regarding the use of corticosteroids for treatment of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) are conflicting. As the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic progresses, more literature supporting the use of corticosteroids for COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 ARDS have emerged. Glucocorticoids are proposed to attenuate the inflammatory response and prevent progression to the fibroproliferative phase of ARDS through their multiple mechanisms and anti-inflammatory properties. The purpose of this systematic review was to comprehensively evaluate the literature surrounding corticosteroid use in ARDS (non-COVID-19 and COVID-19) in addition to a narrative review of clinical considerations of corticosteroid use in these patient populations. OVID Medline and EMBASE were searched. Randomized controlled trials evaluating the use of corticosteroids for COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 ARDS in adult patients on mortality outcomes were included. Risk of bias was assessed with the Risk of Bias 2.0 tool. There were 388 studies identified, 15 of which met the inclusion criteria that included a total of 8877 patients. The studies included in our review reported a mortality benefit in 6/15 (40%) studies with benefit being seen at varying time points of mortality follow up (ICU survival, hospital, 28 and 60 days) in the COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 ARDS studies. The two non-COVID19 trials assessing lung injury score improvements found that corticosteroids led to significant improvements with corticosteroid use. The number of mechanical ventilation free days significantly were found to be increased with the use of corticosteroids in all 4 studies that assessed this outcome. Corticosteroids are associated with improvements in mortality and ventilator-free days in critically ill patients with both COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 ARDS, and evidence suggests their use should be encouraged in these settings. However, due to substantial differences in the corticosteroid regimens utilized in these trials, questions still remain regarding the optimal corticosteroid agent, dose, and duration in patients with ARDS.

Curr Pharm Teach Learn ; 13(7): 862-867, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34074519


BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 restricted student involvement in direct patient care. Virtual learning is an effective education strategy in pharmacy curriculums. This study aimed to evaluate student perceptions of virtual learning advanced pharmacy practice experiences (APPE) utilizing an electronic 12-question survey. EDUCATIONAL ACTIVITY AND SETTING: Virtual learning was developed and implemented, and students were surveyed at the end of the APPE. The survey was comprised of one open-ended and 11 Likert scale questions. It assessed implementation and use of virtual learning in place of a standard on-site APPE. FINDINGS: Responses were attained from 19 students. Questions regarding resources provided and virtual learning enabling autonomous, independent learning had the highest percent of strong agreement. No responses indicated strong disagreement. Three questions solicited >10% response rate of somewhat disagree, 16% associated with virtual learning helping the student become a better member of the healthcare team after graduation. Open-ended responses acknowledged appreciation of the virtual APPE and presented material. One in six students commented on the ability to apply the learned information to direct patient care. Feedback was delivered on consideration for increased utility of patient care-orientated applications to facilitate simulation of real-life patient cases. SUMMARY: Students who completed the virtual APPE were satisfied overall. Virtual teaching modalities may be incorporated into APPEs, particularly when direct patient care access is limited, but should not be used to completely replace the experience gained during direct patient care.

Currículo , Educação à Distância/métodos , Educação em Farmácia/métodos , Aprendizagem Baseada em Problemas/métodos , Competência Profissional , Estudantes de Farmácia , Humanos
Pharmacotherapy ; 40(12): 1180-1191, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33068459


Evidence-based management of analgesia and sedation in COVID-19-associated acute respiratory distress syndrome remains limited. Non-guideline recommended analgesic and sedative medication regimens and deeper sedation targets have been employed for patients with COVID-19 due to exaggerated analgesia and sedation requirements with extended durations of mechanical ventilation. This, coupled with a desire to minimize nurse entry into COVID-19 patient rooms, marked obesity, altered end-organ function, and evolving medication shortages, presents numerous short- and long-term challenges. Alternative analgesic and sedative agents and regimens may pose safety risks and require judicious bedside management for appropriate use. The purpose of this commentary is to provide considerations and solutions for designing safe and effective analgesia and sedation strategies for adult patients with considerable ventilator dyssynchrony and sedation requirements, such as COVID-19.

Analgésicos/uso terapêutico , COVID-19/complicações , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Medicina Baseada em Evidências/métodos , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/uso terapêutico , Respiração Artificial/métodos , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2