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1.
Eur J Epidemiol ; 2019 Sep 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31559554

RESUMO

Background Statins have previously been shown to have protective effects for other cancers, but no prospective studies of statin use and glioma have been conducted. Methods We evaluated the association between statin use and risk of glioma in the female Nurses' Health Study (NHS, n = 114,419) and Nurses' Health Study II (NHSII, n = 115,813) and the male Health Professionals Follow-up Study (HPFS, n = 50,223). Glioma cases were confirmed by medical record review. Age and multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios of glioma by statin use were estimated using Cox proportional hazards models. Results In 4,430,700 person-years of follow-up, we confirmed 483 incident cases of glioma. Compared with never-users, ever statin use was associated with borderline increased risk of glioma in the combined cohorts (age-adjusted HR = 1.23, 95% CI 0.99-1.54), as was longer duration of statin use (HR = 1.48, 95% CI 1.08-2.03 comparing > 8 years of use to never use, p-trend = 0.01). We also observed a significant inverse association between hyperlipidemia and glioma in multivariable models (HR = 0.74, 95% CI 0.59-0.93 in combined cohorts), which was attenuated in lagged analyses. Compared to never use, in multivariable-adjusted models, ever statin use (HR = 1.43, 95% CI 1.10-1.86) and statin use duration (HR = 1.72, 95% CI 1.21-2.45, for > 8 years of use, p-trend = 0.003) were each significantly associated with increased glioma risk. Conclusion In contrast to case-control studies reporting inverse associations, we found borderline increased risk of glioma with statin use. Results were strengthened after adjustment for cardiovascular risk factors due to an unexpected inverse association between hyperlipidemia and glioma risk. Further studies of statin use, hyperlipidemia, and glioma risk are warranted.

2.
Ann Epidemiol ; 38: 11-21.e6, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31481293

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) is a marker of systemic inflammation with established prognostic value in patients with cancer. Although high NLR is associated with poorer clinical outcomes, factors that influence the magnitude of NLR independently of disease are poorly understood. METHODS: We identified 48,023 adults who participated in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1999-2016). Demographic, socioeconomic, and lifestyle factors associated with the magnitude of NLR after adjusting for comorbidities including heart disease, cancer, diabetes, and hypertension, and medications including aspirin, were identified. Effect modification by comorbidity status and demographics was explored. RESULTS: Female gender, age less than 60 years, and non-Hispanic black race/ethnicity were associated with lower NLR. Marital statuses of widowed, separated, or never married demonstrated increased NLR as compared with those who were currently married. Never-smoking and moderate alcohol consumption were associated with lower NLR. Participation in physical activity was associated with decreased NLR after adjustment for potential confounders, primarily among non-Hispanic whites. CONCLUSIONS: Multiple demographic and lifestyle factors are independently associated with NLR. Sex, age, race, marital status, body mass index, physical activity, smoking history, and alcohol consumption should all be routinely collected and adjusted for to improve the accuracy of assessment of the prognostic power of NLR.

3.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 10861, 2019 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31350461

RESUMO

Methylmercury (MeHg) is an environmental neurotoxin with human exposure mainly from dietary intake of contaminated fish. Exposure to MeHg has been implicated in neurological damage, but research on its role in cancers, specifically glioma, is limited. In a glioma case-control study, we examined associations between toenail mercury (Hg) and glioma risk. We also examined genetic polymorphisms in 13 genes related to MeHg metabolism for association with glioma risk; genetic associations were also studied in the UK Biobank cohort. Median toenail Hg in cases and controls, respectively, was 0.066 µg/g and 0.069 µg/g (interquartile range (IQR): 0.032-0.161 and 0.031-0.150 µg/g). Toenail Hg was not found to be significantly associated with glioma risk (Odds Ratio: 1.02; 95% Confidence Interval: 0.91, 1.14; p = 0.70 in analysis for ordinal trend with increasing quartile of toenail MeHg). No genetic variant was statistically significant in both of the studies; one variant, rs11859163 (MMP2) had a combined p-value of 0.02 though it was no longer significant after adjustment for multiple testing (Bonferroni corrected p = 1). This study does not support the hypothesis that exposure to MeHg plays a role in the development of glioma at levels of exposure found in this study population.

4.
Am J Clin Oncol ; 42(8): 655-661, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31343422

RESUMO

Although glioblastoma (GBM) is a fatal primary brain cancer with short median survival of 15 months, a small number of patients survive >5 years after diagnosis; they are known as extreme survivors (ES). Because of their rarity, very little is known about what differentiates these outliers from other patients with GBM. For the purpose of identifying unknown drivers of extreme survivorship in GBM, the ENDURES consortium (ENvironmental Dynamics Underlying Responsive Extreme Survivors of GBM) was developed. This consortium is a multicenter collaborative network of investigators focused on the integration of multiple types of clinical data and the creation of patient-specific models of tumor growth informed by radiographic and histologic parameters. Leveraging our combined resources, the goals of the ENDURES consortium are 2-fold: (1) to build a curated, searchable, multilayered repository housing clinical and outcome data on a large cohort of ES patients with GBM; and (2) to leverage the ENDURES repository for new insights into tumor behavior and novel targets for prolonging survival for all patients with GBM. In this article, the authors review the available literature and discuss what is already known about ES. The authors then describe the creation of their consortium and some preliminary results.

5.
J Palliat Med ; 22(10): 1202-1207, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31081711

RESUMO

Background: Glioma is a devastating primary tumor of the central nervous system with difficult-to-manage symptoms. Cannabis products have been postulated to potentially benefit glioma patients. Recent state legalization allowed investigators an opportunity to study glioma patients' adoption of medical marijuana (MM). Objective: Our goals were to: (1) determine the prevalence of marijuana use, both through physician recommendation and self-medication, and (2) evaluate its perceived risks and benefits in glioma patients. Design: Self-report data were collected and descriptive analyses were conducted. Setting/Subjects: Participants were adult, English-speaking patients undergoing treatment for primary non-recurrent malignant glioma in neuro-oncology clinics at an NCI-designated Comprehensive Cancer Center. Measurements: The survey on MM was adapted from previous research and included questions on knowledge and attitudes toward MM; use, frequency, type, and sourcing of MM; and reasons for use of MM and perceived symptom relief among users. Results: A total of 73 patients were surveyed. The majority of participants were aware that MM was legal in the state, and most reported learning of this through the media. Over 70% of participants reported having considered using MM, and a third reported using marijuana products after their diagnosis. Most received recommendations from friends/family rather than a medical provider, and only half of the users had obtained a physician's recommendation. Users generally reported benefits. Conclusions: With the increasing national conversation that accompanies legalization, glioma patients are pursuing marijuana for the treatment for their symptoms. More research and education is needed to bring health care providers into the conversation.

6.
Int J Cancer ; 2019 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30963577

RESUMO

Glioma incidence is highest in non-Hispanic Whites, and to date, glioma genome-wide association studies (GWAS) to date have only included European ancestry (EA) populations. African Americans and Hispanics in the US have varying proportions of EA, African (AA) and Native American ancestries (NAA). It is unknown if identified GWAS loci or increased EA is associated with increased glioma risk. We assessed whether EA was associated with glioma in African Americans and Hispanics. Data were obtained for 832 cases and 675 controls from the Glioma International Case-Control Study and GliomaSE Case-Control Study previously estimated to have <80% EA, or self-identify as non-White. We estimated global and local ancestry using fastStructure and RFMix, respectively, using 1,000 genomes project reference populations. Within groups with ≥40% AA (AFR≥0.4 ), and ≥15% NAA (AMR≥0.15 ), genome-wide association between local EA and glioma was evaluated using logistic regression conditioned on global EA for all gliomas. We identified two regions (7q21.11, p = 6.36 × 10-4 ; 11p11.12, p = 7.0 × 10-4 ) associated with increased EA, and one associated with decreased EA (20p12.13, p = 0.0026) in AFR≥0.4 . In addition, we identified a peak at rs1620291 (p = 4.36 × 10-6 ) in 7q21.3. Among AMR≥0.15 , we found an association between increased EA in one region (12q24.21, p = 8.38 × 10-4 ), and decreased EA in two regions (8q24.21, p = 0. 0010; 20q13.33, p = 6.36 × 10-4 ). No other significant associations were identified. This analysis identified an association between glioma and two regions previously identified in EA populations (8q24.21, 20q13.33) and four novel regions (7q21.11, 11p11.12, 12q24.21 and 20p12.13). The identifications of novel association with EA suggest regions to target for future genetic association studies.

7.
Tomography ; 5(1): 135-144, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30854451

RESUMO

Standard-of-care multiparameter magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans of the brain were used to objectively subdivide glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) tumors into regions that correspond to variations in blood flow, interstitial edema, and cellular density. We hypothesized that the distribution of these distinct tumor ecological "habitats" at the time of presentation will impact the course of the disease. We retrospectively analyzed initial MRI scans in 2 groups of patients diagnosed with GBM, a long-term survival group comprising subjects who survived >36 month postdiagnosis, and a short-term survival group comprising subjects who survived ≤19 month postdiagnosis. The single-institution discovery cohort contained 22 subjects in each group, while the multi-institution validation cohort contained 15 subjects per group. MRI voxel intensities were calibrated, and tumor voxels clustered on contrast-enhanced T1-weighted and fluid-attenuated inversion-recovery (FLAIR) images into 6 distinct "habitats" based on low- to medium- to high-contrast enhancement and low-high signal on FLAIR scans. Habitat 6 (high signal on calibrated contrast-enhanced T1-weighted and FLAIR sequences) comprised a significantly higher volume fraction of tumors in the long-term survival group (discovery cohort, 35% ± 6.5%; validation cohort, 34% ± 4.8%) compared with tumors in the short-term survival group (discovery cohort, 17% ± 4.5%, P < .03; validation cohort, 16 ± 4.0%, P < .007). Of the 6 distinct MRI-defined habitats, the fractional tumor volume of habitat 6 at diagnosis was significantly predictive of long- or short-term survival. We discuss a possible mechanistic basis for this association and implications for habitat-driven adaptive therapy of GBM.

8.
Cancer Causes Control ; 29(8): 707-719, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29943102

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Recent studies have suggested height as a risk factor for glioma, but less is known regarding body mass index (BMI) or other anthropomorphic measures. We evaluated the association between body habitus and risk of glioma. METHODS: We evaluated the association of measures of height, BMI, waist circumference, and somatotypes with risk of glioma in two prospective cohorts, the Nurses' Health Study and the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study. RESULTS: We documented 508 incident cases of glioma (321 glioblastoma [GBM]). In both cohorts, we found no significant association between adult BMI or waist circumference and risk of glioma, with pooled HR for BMI of 1.08 (95% CI 0.85-1.38 comparing ≥ 30 to < 25 kg/m2) and for waist circumference of 1.05 (95% CI 0.80-1.37 highest vs. lowest quintile). Higher young adult BMI (at age 18 in NHS and 21 in HPFS) was associated with modestly increased risk of glioma in the pooled cohorts (pooled HR 1.35, 95% CI 1.06-1.72 comparing ≥ 25 kg/m2 vs. less; HR 1.34 for women and 1.37 for men). Analysis of body somatotypes suggested reduced risk of glioma among women with heavier body types at all ages this measure was assessed (HRs ranging from 0.52 to 0.65 comparing highest tertile to lowest tertile), but no significant association among men. Height was associated with increased risk of glioma among women (HR 1.09, 95% CI 1.04-1.14 per inch), but not significantly among men. Within the 8 years prior to diagnosis, cases had no material weight loss compared to non-cases. All results were similar when limited to GBM. CONCLUSION: Adult BMI and waist circumference were not associated with glioma. Higher BMI at age 21 for men and at age 18 for women was modestly associated with risk in the pooled cohort. Based on body somatotypes, however, women with heavier body types during childhood and young adulthood may be at lower risk of glioma, although this association was not observed later in life with measurements of BMI. Greater height was associated with increased risk, and the trend was more pronounced in women.

9.
Cancer Epidemiol ; 55: 45-51, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29777993

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Selenium is an essential trace element obtained through diet that plays a critical role in DNA synthesis and protection from oxidative damage. Selenium intake and polymorphisms in selenoproteins have been linked to the risk of certain cancers though data for glioma are sparse. METHODS: In a case-control study of glioma, we examined the associations of selenium in toenails and genetic variants in the selenoenzyme pathway with the risk of glioma and patient survival. A total of 423 genetic variants in 29 candidate genes in the selenoenzyme pathway were studied in 1547 glioma cases and 1014 healthy controls. Genetic associations were also examined in the UK Biobank cohort comprised of 313,868 persons with 322 incident glioma cases. Toenail selenium was measured in a subcohort of 300 glioma cases and 300 age-matched controls from the case-control study. RESULTS: None of the 423 variants studied were consistently associated with glioma risk in the case-control and cohort studies. Moreover, toenail selenium in the case-control study had no significant association with glioma risk (p trend = 0.70) or patient survival among 254 patients with high grade tumors (p trend = 0.70). CONCLUSION: The present study offers no support for the hypothesis that selenium plays a role in the onset of glioma or patient outcome.

10.
Cancer Causes Control ; 29(6): 519-525, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29651651

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We investigated the association of coffee consumption with postmenopausal breast cancer risk, overall and by the status of postmenopausal hormone therapy (PMH). METHODS: This study included 126,182 postmenopausal women (2,636 with breast cancer and 123,546 without) from UK Biobank. Cancer diagnoses were ascertained through the linkage to the UK National Health Service Central Registers. Information on breast cancer risk factors and coffee consumption was collected at baseline and updated during follow-up. We used Cox proportional hazards regression to evaluate associations between coffee consumption and breast cancer, overall and in stratified analyses by woman's PMH status (none, past, current). RESULTS: In the overall analysis, coffee consumption was not associated with breast cancer risk (Hazard Ratio [HR] 1.00, 95% CI 0.91-1.11 for 2-3 cups/day, and HR 0.98, 95% CI 0.87-1.10 for ≥ 4 cups/day, p-trend = 0.69). Women with no PMH history who consumed ≥ 4 cups/day had a 16% reduced risk of breast cancer as compared to women who consumed < 7 cups/week (HR 0.84, 95% CI 0.71-1.00). Among women with past PMH, those consuming ≥ 4 cups/day had a 22% greater risk of breast cancer than women consuming < 7 cups/week (HR 1.22, 95% CI 1.01-1.47). No association was found among current PMH users. We found no significant interaction between PMH and coffee consumption (p = 0.24). CONCLUSIONS: Coffee consumption might be associated with increased breast cancer risk in women who used hormones in the past. Further studies are warranted to confirm these findings and elucidate potential biological mechanisms underlying the observed associations.

11.
J Neurooncol ; 137(3): 639-644, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29332185

RESUMO

Gliomas are the most common type of malignant primary brain tumor and few risk factors have been linked to their development. Handedness has been associated with several pathologic neurological conditions such as schizophrenia, autism, and epilepsy, but few studies have evaluated a connection between handedness and risk of glioma. In this study, we examined the relationship between handedness and glioma risk in a large case-control study (1849 glioma cases and 1354 healthy controls) and a prospective cohort study (326,475 subjects with 375 incident gliomas). In the case-control study, we found a significant inverse association between left handedness and glioma risk, with left-handed persons exhibiting a 35% reduction in the risk of developing glioma [odds ratio (OR) = 0.65, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.51-0.83] after adjustment for age, gender, race, education, and state of residence; similar inverse associations were observed for GBM (OR = 0.69, 95% CI 0.52-0.91), and non-GBM (OR = 0.59, 95% CI 0.42-0.82) subgroups. The association was consistent in both males and females, and across age strata, and was observed in both glioblastoma and in lower grade tumors. In the prospective cohort study, we found no association between handedness and glioma risk (hazards ratio = 0.92, 95% CI 0.67-1.28) adjusting for age, gender, and race. Further studies on this association may help to elucidate mechanisms of pathogenesis in glioma.

12.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 26(12): 1753-1760, 2017 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28986348

RESUMO

Background: Increase in breast cancer incidence associated with mammography screening diffusion may have attenuated risk associations between family history and breast cancer.Methods: The proportions of women ages 40 to 74 years reporting a first-degree family history of breast cancer were estimated in the Breast Cancer Surveillance Consortium cohort (BCSC: N = 1,170,900; 1996-2012) and the Collaborative Breast Cancer Study (CBCS: cases N = 23,400; controls N = 26,460; 1987-2007). Breast cancer (ductal carcinoma in situ and invasive) relative risk estimates and 95% confidence intervals (CI) associated with family history were calculated using multivariable Cox proportional hazard and logistic regression models.Results: The proportion of women reporting a first-degree family history increased from 11% in the 1980s to 16% in 2010 to 2013. Family history was associated with a >60% increased risk of breast cancer in the BCSC (HR, 1.61; 95% CI, 1.55-1.66) and CBCS (OR, 1.64; 95% CI, 1.57-1.72). Relative risks decreased slightly with age. Consistent trends in relative risks were not observed over time or across stage of disease at diagnosis in both studies, except among older women (ages 60-74) where estimates were attenuated from about 1.7 to 1.3 over the last 20 years (P trend = 0.08 for both studies).Conclusions: Although the proportion of women with a first-degree family history of breast cancer increased over time and by age, breast cancer risk associations with family history were nonetheless fairly constant over time for women under age 60.Impact: First-degree family history of breast cancer remains an important breast cancer risk factor, especially for younger women, despite its increasing prevalence in the mammography screening era. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 26(12); 1753-60. ©2017 AACR.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Carcinoma Intraductal não Infiltrante/epidemiologia , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Sistema de Registros/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Carcinoma Intraductal não Infiltrante/diagnóstico por imagem , Carcinoma Intraductal não Infiltrante/genética , Carcinoma Intraductal não Infiltrante/patologia , Estudos de Coortes , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/métodos , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Mamografia/estatística & dados numéricos , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Programas de Rastreamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Anamnese , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
14.
Cancer Causes Control ; 28(7): 709-716, 2017 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28260177

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To examine the association of age when adult height was attained with glioma risk. METHODS: We analyzed data from a US-based case-control study of glioma risk factors. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) associated between age at attainment of adult height and glioma risk. Multivariate models were adjusted for age, race, sex, education, and state of residence. We examined associations overall, and according to glioma grade, sex, and final adult height. RESULTS: The study set included n = 951 controls and n = 776 cases, with a median age of 56 (18-92); the majority was male (53.8%) and identified as Caucasian. Older age at height completion was associated with an increased risk of glioma. A significant positive trend was observed both for glioblastoma (OR 1.10; 95% CI 1.04-1.17 per 1-year increase in age) and lower grade non-glioblastoma subtypes combined (OR 1.18; 95% CI 1.10-1.28 per year increase in age). The association was observed in men and women, and in all categories of final adult height. CONCLUSIONS: We observed for the first time a positive association between glioma risk and a prolonged adolescent growth phase. Our results suggest a role for factors governing the timing and intensity of growth in adolescence as risk-determining exposures in adult glioma.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento do Adolescente , Estatura , Neoplasias Encefálicas/epidemiologia , Glioma/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
15.
Semin Cancer Biol ; 2017 Dec 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29294371

RESUMO

Gliomas are a highly heterogeneous tumor, refractory to treatment and the most frequently diagnosed primary brain tumor. Although the current WHO grading system (2016) demonstrates promise towards identifying novel treatment modalities and better prediction of prognosis over time, to date, existing targeted and mono therapy approaches have failed to elicit a robust impact on disease progression and patient survival. It is possible that tumor heterogeneity as well as specifically targeted agents fail because redundant molecular pathways in the tumor make it refractory to such approaches. Additionally, the underlying metabolic pathology, which is significantly altered during neoplastic transformation and tumor progression, is unaccounted for. With several molecular and metabolic pathways implicated in the carcinogenesis of CNS tumors, including glioma, we postulate that a systemic, broad spectrum approach to produce robust targeting of relevant and multiple molecular and metabolic regulation of growth and survival pathways, critical to the modulation of hallmarks of carcinogenesis, without clinically limiting toxicity, may provide a more sustained impact on clinical outcomes compared to the modalities of treatment evaluated to date. The objective of this review is to examine the emerging hallmark of reprogramming energy metabolism of the tumor cells and the tumor microenvironment during carcinogenesis, and to provide a rationale for exploiting this hallmark and its biological capabilities as a target for secondary chemoprevention and treatment of glioma. This review will primarily focus on interventions to induce ketosis to target the glycolytic phenotype of many cancers, with specific application to secondary chemoprevention of low grade glioma- to halt the progression of lower grade tumors to more aggressive subtypes, as evidenced by reduction in validated intermediate endpoints of disease progression including clinical symptoms.

16.
Eur J Epidemiol ; 31(9): 917-25, 2016 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26894804

RESUMO

Glioma and meningioma are uncommon tumors of the brain with few known risk factors. Regular use of aspirin has been linked to a lower risk of gastrointestinal and other cancers, though evidence for an association with brain tumors is mixed. We examined the association of aspirin and other analgesics with the risk of glioma and meningioma in a large US case-control study. Cases were persons recently diagnosed with glioma or meningioma and treated at medical centers in the southeastern US. Controls were persons sampled from the same communities as the cases combined with friends and other associates of the cases. Information on past use of analgesics (aspirin, other anti-inflammatory agents, and acetaminophen) was collected in structured interviews. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) for analgesic use adjusted for potential confounders. All associations were considered according to indication for use. A total of 1123 glioma cases, 310 meningioma cases and 1296 controls were included in the analysis. For indications other than headache, glioma cases were less likely than controls to report regular use of aspirin (OR 0.69; CI 0.56, 0.87), in a dose-dependent manner (P trend < 0.001). No significant associations were observed with other analgesics for glioma, or any class of pain reliever for meningioma. Results suggest that regular aspirin use may reduce incidence of glioma.


Assuntos
Analgésicos/uso terapêutico , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/uso terapêutico , Aspirina/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Encefálicas/prevenção & controle , Glioma/prevenção & controle , Acetaminofen/uso terapêutico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neoplasias Encefálicas/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Inibidores de Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Glioma/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Meningioma/epidemiologia , Meningioma/prevenção & controle , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Risco , Adulto Jovem
17.
J Clin Oncol ; 34(12): 1315-22, 2016 Apr 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26811527

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Cigarette smoking increases overall mortality, but it is not established whether smoking is associated with breast cancer prognosis. METHODS: We evaluated the association between smoking status before and after breast cancer diagnosis and mortality in the Collaborative Breast Cancer and Women's Longevity Study, a population-based prospective observational study conducted in Wisconsin, New Hampshire, and Massachusetts. Participants included 20,691 women, ages 20 to 79 years, diagnosed with incident localized or regional invasive breast cancer between 1988 and 2008; a subset of 4,562 of these women were recontacted a median of 6 years after diagnosis. Hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% CIs were calculated according to smoking status for death as a result of breast cancer; cancers of the lung, pharynx, or intrathoracic organs; other cancer; respiratory disease; and cardiovascular disease. RESULTS: During a median of 12 years, 6,778 women died, including 2,894 who died as a result of breast cancer. Active smokers 1 year before breast cancer diagnosis were more likely than never smokers to die of breast cancer (HR, 1.25; 95% CI, 1.13 to 1.37), respiratory cancer (HR, 14.48; 95% CI, 9.89 to 21.21), other respiratory disease (HR, 6.02; 95% CI, 4.55 to 7.97), and cardiovascular disease (HR, 2.08; 95% CI, 1.80 to 2.41). The 10% of women who continued to smoke after diagnosis were more likely than never smokers to die of breast cancer (HR, 1.72; 95% CI, 1.13 to 2.60). When compared with women who continued to smoke after diagnosis, those who quit smoking after diagnosis had lower mortality from breast cancer (HR, 0.67; 95% CI, 0.38 to 1.19) and respiratory cancer (HR, 0.39; 95% CI, 0.16 to 0.95). CONCLUSION: Smoking before or after diagnosis was associated with a higher mortality from breast cancer and several other causes.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/mortalidade , Fumar/mortalidade , Adulto , Idoso , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Mama/terapia , Causas de Morte , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Massachusetts/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , New Hampshire/epidemiologia , Prognóstico , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Proteção , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Comportamento de Redução do Risco , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar , Prevenção do Hábito de Fumar , Fatores de Tempo , Wisconsin/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
18.
J Surg Oncol ; 113(1): 98-102, 2016 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26661407

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Historically dermal melanoma (DM) has been labeled as either stage IIIB (in-transit) or stage IV (M1a) disease. We sought to investigate the natural history of DM and the utility and prognostic significance of sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB). METHODS: Patients with DM undergoing SLNB at a single center from 1998 to 2009 were identified. RESULTS: Eighty-three patients met criteria, 10 (12%) patients had a positive SLNB. Of those, 5 (50%) recurred (all with distant disease). Twenty-one (29%) of the 73 SLNB negative patients recurred and of those, 15 (71%) developed distant metastases, whereas 6 (29%) developed local or regional recurrence, including two false-negative regional nodal recurrences. No in-transit recurrences were recorded. Five-year recurrence-free and disease-specific survival was significantly better for patients with a negative SLNB versus positive SLNB (56.8% vs. 22.2% P = 0.02, 81.1% vs. 61.0%, P = 0.05, respectively). CONCLUSION: SLNB has prognostic significance for RFS and DSS, and should be utilized in the management of DM based on a >10% yield and low false-negative rate. Our data demonstrate patients with DM do not recur in an in-transit fashion, which along with the survival outcomes suggest the behavior of DM is consistent with primary cutaneous melanoma of similar thickness rather than an isolated in-transit or distant dermal metastasis from a regressed cutaneous primary.


Assuntos
Linfonodos/patologia , Melanoma/mortalidade , Melanoma/patologia , Biópsia de Linfonodo Sentinela , Neoplasias Cutâneas/mortalidade , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Florida/epidemiologia , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Metástase Linfática , Masculino , Melanoma/terapia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/mortalidade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/patologia , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Neoplasias Cutâneas/terapia
19.
Neurooncol Pract ; 2(3): 122-126, 2015 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26649185

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Complementary therapy (CAM) is common in cancer patients. We undertook this study to assess the association of complementary therapy usage with mortality in glioblastoma (GBM) patients. METHODS: The analysis was based on 470 patients. Information on current use of CAM was collected in structured interviews conducted a median of 6 weeks following GBM diagnosis. Proportional hazards regression was used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) for GBM-related death according to the use of individual supplements with multivariate adjustment for known prognostic factors including age, KPS, and extent of tumor resection (ESR). RESULTS: Use of CAM agents was common, with 77% of the cohort reporting CAM usage. No mortality association was observed with the use of multivitamins (HR = 0.91; P = .40) or omega-3 fatty acids (HR = 1.07; P = .69). Patients taking vitamin D as an individual supplement (containing higher dosages than in a multivitamin) had reduced mortality when compared with nonusers (age-adjusted HR = 0.68; P = .02). However, the association was diminished after adjustment for KPS and ESR (HR = 0.74; P = .09). Use of herbal supplements was also associated with reduced mortality (HR = 0.58; P = .04). Vitamin E users had a nonsignificantly higher mortality when compared with nonusers (HR = 1.54; P = .09). CONCLUSIONS: Use of CAM is common in GBM patients. These exploratory analyses suggest no mortality association with the use of multivitamins or omega-3 fatty acids. Associations observed with vitamins D and E merit further investigation.

20.
Sci Rep ; 5: 17367, 2015 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26610392

RESUMO

Glioma is the most common malignant primary brain tumor and is associated with poor prognosis. Genetic factors contributing to glioma risk have recently been investigated through genome-wide association studies (GWAS), implicating seven independent glioma risk loci in six chromosomal regions. Here, we performed an in-depth functional analysis of the risk locus proximal to the PHLDB1 gene on 11q23.3. We retrieved all SNPs in linkage disequilibrium (r(2) ≥ 0.2) with the glioma-associated SNP (rs498872) and performed a comprehensive bioinformatics and experimental functional analysis for the region. After testing candidate SNPs for allele-specific activity in a luciferase-based enhancer scanning assay, we established a subset of 10 functional SNPs in the promoters of PHLDB1 and DDX6, and in a putative enhancer element. Chromatin conformation capture (3C) identified a physical interaction between the enhancer element containing a functional SNP (rs73001406) and the promoter of the DDX6 gene. Knockdown experiments in cell culture and 3D assays to evaluate the role of PHLDB1 and DDX6 suggest that both genes may contribute to the phenotype. These studies reveal the functional landscape of the 11q23.3 glioma susceptibility locus and identify a network of functional SNPs in regulatory elements and two target genes as a possible mechanism driving glioma risk association.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas/genética , RNA Helicases DEAD-box/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Glioma/genética , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/genética , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas/genética , Alelos , Neoplasias Encefálicas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Encefálicas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Encefálicas/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Cromatina/química , Cromatina/metabolismo , Cromossomos Humanos Par 11 , Biologia Computacional , RNA Helicases DEAD-box/antagonistas & inibidores , RNA Helicases DEAD-box/metabolismo , Elementos Facilitadores Genéticos , Expressão Gênica , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Loci Gênicos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Glioma/diagnóstico , Glioma/metabolismo , Glioma/patologia , Humanos , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/antagonistas & inibidores , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/metabolismo , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/metabolismo , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Prognóstico , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas/metabolismo , RNA Interferente Pequeno/genética , RNA Interferente Pequeno/metabolismo , Risco
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