Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 92
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Base de dados
Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32199847

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this retrospective cohort study was to compare remodeling of left ventricular (LV) structure and function after transcatheter stent therapy with remodeling of LV structure and function after surgical therapy for COA. BACKGROUND: Transcatheter stent therapy is as effective as surgery in producing acute hemodynamic improvement in patients with coarctation of aorta (COA). However, LV remodeling after transcatheter COA intervention has not been systematically investigated. METHODS: LV remodeling was assessed at 1, 3, and 5 years post-intervention by using LV mass index (LVMI), LV end-diastolic dimension, LV ejection fraction, LV global longitudinal strain (LVGLS), LV mitral annular tissue Doppler early velocity (LVe'), and ratio of mitral inflow pulsed wave Doppler early velocity and e' (E/e') ratio. RESULTS: There were 44 patients in the transcatheter group and 128 patients in the surgical group. Compared to the surgical group, the transcatheter group had less regression of LVMI (-4.6; 95% confidence interval [CI]: -5.5 to -3.7 vs. -7.3; 95% CI: -8.4 to -6.6 g/m2; p < 0.001), less improvement in LVGLS (2.1; 95% CI: 1.8 to 2.4 vs. 2.9; 95% CI: 2.6 to 3.2%; p = 0.024), and in e' (1.0 ; 95% CI: 0.7 to 1.2 vs. 1.5 ; 95% CI: 1.3 to 1.7 cm/s; p = 0.009) at 5 years post-intervention. Exploratory analysis showed a correlation between change in LVMI and LVGLS, and between change in LVMI and mitral annular tissue Doppler early velocity (e'), and this correlations were independent of the type of intervention received. CONCLUSIONS: Transcatheter stent therapy was associated with less remodeling of LV structure and function during mid-term follow-up. As transcatheter stent therapy becomes more widely used in the adult COA population, there is a need for ongoing clinical monitoring to determine if these observed differences in LV remodeling translate to differences in clinical outcomes.

2.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 75(8): 857-866, 2020 Mar 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32130920

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Early in the prevention and treatment of bioprosthetic valve thrombosis (BPVT), anticoagulation is effective, but the long-term outcome after BPVT is unknown. OBJECTIVES: The goal of this study was to assess the long-term outcomes of patients with BPVT treated with anticoagulation. METHODS: This analysis was a matched cohort study of patients treated with warfarin for suspected BPVT at the Mayo Clinic between 1999 and 2017. RESULTS: A total of 83 patients treated with warfarin for suspected BPVT (age 57 ± 18 years; 45 men [54%]) were matched to 166 control subjects; matching was performed according to age, sex, year of implantation, and prosthesis type and position. Echocardiography normalized in 62 patients (75%) within 3 months (interquartile range [IQR]: 1.5 to 6 months) of anticoagulation; 21 patients (25%) did not respond to warfarin. Median follow-up after diagnosis was 34 months (IQR: 17 to 54 months). There was no difference in the primary composite endpoint between the patients with BPVT and the matched control subjects (log-rank test, p = 0.79), but the former did have a significantly higher rate of major bleeding (12% vs. 2%; p < 0.0001). BPVT recurred (re-BPVT) in 14 (23%) responders after a median of 23 months (IQR: 11 to 39 months); all but one re-BPVT patient responded to anticoagulant therapy. Patients with BPVT had a higher probability of valve re-replacement (68% vs. 24% at 10 years' post-BPVT; log-rank test, p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: BPVT was associated with re-BPVT and early prosthetic degeneration in a significant number of patients. Indefinite warfarin anticoagulation should be considered after a confirmed BPVT episode, but this strategy must be balanced against an increased risk of bleeding.

4.
Int J Cardiol ; 2020 Feb 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32145939

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous studies have described echocardiographic indices of right ventricular (RV) diastolic function in patients with tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) but these indices have not been validated against invasive hemodynamic data. The purpose of this study was to determine echocardiographic predictors of severe RV diastolic dysfunction, and the impact of severe RV diastolic dysfunction on transplant-free survival. METHODS: Cohort study of TOF patients that underwent non-simultaneous cardiac catheterization and echocardiogram at Mayo Clinic. Based on prior studies we selected these indices for assessment: tricuspid E/A, E/e', deceleration time, pulmonary artery forward flow, dilated inferior vena cava (IVC), and hepatic vein diastolic flow reversal (HVDFR). RV diastolic function classes (normal, mild/moderate and severe dysfunction) were created using arbitrary cut-off points of the median values of right ventricular end-diastolic pressure (RVEDP) and right atrial pressure (RAP) for the cohort. RESULTS: Among 173 patients (age 40 ± 13 years), 68 patients were classified as normal (RVEDP≤14 and RAP≤10), 37 as mild/moderate dysfunction (either RVEDP>14 or RAP>10), and 69 as severe dysfunction (RVEDP>14 and RAP>10). Of the indices assessed, dilated IVC had the best sensitivity of 95% (area under the curve [AUC] 0.689) while HVDFR had the best specificity of 69% (AUC 0.648) for detecting severe RV diastolic dysfunction. Severe RV diastolic dysfunction was an independent risk factor for death/transplant (hazard ratio 2.83, p = 0.009). CONCLUSION: Severe RV diastolic dysfunction, as defined by invasive hemodynamic indices, was associated with poor prognosis. Echocardiographic indices can identify these high risk patients, and hence improve risk stratification in clinical practice.

5.
Circ Cardiovasc Imaging ; 13(2): e009672, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32069118

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with vascular stiffening may display increased arterial afterload that is out of proportion to systolic blood pressure (SBP). Since vascular and endothelial dysfunction develop in patients with coarctation of aorta (COA), we hypothesized that for any SBP, patients with mild COA (COA peak velocity <2 m/s) will have a higher arterial afterload and increased left ventricular mass index (LVMI) compared with controls, and that Doppler-derived arterial load indices would be a better predictor of LVMI compared with SBP alone. METHODS: We studied 204 COA patients (age 35±12 y) and 204 matched controls. Doppler-derived arterial afterload was assessed using effective arterial elastance index and total arterial compliance index. RESULTS: Despite similar SBP, the mild COA group displayed higher arterial afterload as evidenced by a higher elastance index (3.3±0.9 versus 2.9±0.7 mm Hg/mL·m2; P<0.001) and lower total arterial compliance index (0.8±0.3 versus 1.2±0.5 mL/mm Hg·m2; P<0.001). This was associated with higher LVMI in COA (109±35 versus 93±32, g/m2; P<0.001). Compared with SBP (ß=0.24 [95% CI, 0.02-0.45]), elastance index (ß=20.2 [95% CI, 15.8-44.1]) and total arterial compliance index (ß=-32.5 [95% CI, -43.8 to -123.6]) were better predictors of LVMI. Elastance index (but not SBP) was predictive of longitudinal increases in LVMI (r=0.43, P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: COA patients had higher arterial afterload compared with controls with similar SBP. In comparison to SBP, Doppler-derived arterial load indices correlate more strongly with LV hypertrophy. These data suggest that SBP may underestimate LV afterload in this population. This has important clinical implications since titration of antihypertensive therapy is currently based on SBP.

6.
Circ Heart Fail ; 13(2): e006651, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32059629

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Coarctation of aorta (COA) results in chronic left ventricular (LV) pressure overload and subsequently leads to LV diastolic dysfunction and heart failure over time. The goal of COA intervention is to prevent these complications. The timing of COA interventions is based on the presence of these COA severity indices: doppler mean COA gradient, systolic blood pressure, upper-to-lower-extremity SBP gradient, aortic isthmus ratio, presence of collaterals, and exercise-induced hypertension. Although these indices are physiologically intuitive, the relationship between these indices and LV diastolic dysfunction and exertional symptoms has not been studied. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association between the indices of COA severity and LV diastolic function and symptoms. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, multivariate linear and logistic regression analyses were used to assess the correlation between indices of COA severity, LV diastolic function (average e' and E/e'), and exertional symptoms (NYHA II-IV and peak oxygen consumption). RESULTS: Of all the COA indices analyzed in 546 adult COA patients, aortic isthmus ratio had the strongest correlation with e' (ß [95% CI]: 3.11 [2.02-4.31]; P=0.014) per 1 cm/second; E/e' (-13.4 [-22.3 to -4.81]; P=0.009) per 1 unit; peak oxygen consumption (4.05 [1.97-6.59] per 1% change, P=0.019), and NYHA II to IV symptoms (odds ratio, 2.16 [1.65-3.18]; P=0.006). CONCLUSIONS: Of all the COA severity indices stipulated in the guidelines, aortic isthmus ratio had the strongest correlation with LV diastolic function and exertional symptoms. As LV diastolic dysfunction typically precede heart failure symptoms, we anticipate that the results of this study will improve and simplify patient selection for COA intervention and potentially improve long-term outcomes.

7.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 22(3): 489-498, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31908127

RESUMO

AIMS: Mild to moderate functional mitral regurgitation (MR) is common in patients with heart failure and preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) where it is usually considered as an innocent bystander. We hypothesized that MR in HFpEF reflects greater left atrial (LA) myopathy, leading to more adverse haemodynamics and poorer exercise reserve. METHODS AND RESULTS: Patients with HFpEF (n = 280) with and without MR underwent echocardiography, invasive haemodynamic exercise testing, and expired gas analysis. As compared to non-MR-HFpEF (n = 163), patients with MR-HFpEF (n = 117; 78 mild and 39 moderate, central jet in 90%) were older, more likely female, with lower body mass and higher prevalence of atrial fibrillation (AF). HFpEF patients with MR displayed greater LA volume, reduced LA strain and compliance, and greater mitral annular dilatation, which was strongly correlated with LA dilatation (r = 0.63, P < 0.0001) but was only weakly related to left ventricular remodelling (r = 0.37). Patients with MR-HFpEF displayed worse biventricular function, more adverse pulmonary haemodynamics, impaired pulmonary vasodilatation, blunted right ventricular reserve, and reduced cardiac output with exercise as compared to non-MR-HFpEF. Importantly, these findings were maintained after excluding patients with HFpEF and AF, suggesting a role for LA myopathy in contributing to MR in HFpEF, independent of rhythm. CONCLUSIONS: Functional MR in patients with HFpEF reflects LA myopathy, even in the absence of AF, and is associated with greater haemodynamic severity of disease and poorer functional capacity. Further study is required to better define causal mechanisms and potential treatments for MR and LA dysfunction in patients with HFpEF.

8.
Cardiol Young ; 30(1): 19-23, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31910919

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The risk of endocarditis varies with CHD complexity and the presence of prosthetic valves. The purpose of the study was therefore to describe incidence and outcomes of prosthetic valve endocarditis in adults with repair tetralogy of Fallot. METHODS: Retrospective review of adult tetralogy of Fallot patients who underwent prosthetic valve implantation, 1990-2017. We defined prosthetic valve endocarditis-related complications as prosthetic valve dysfunction, perivalvular extension of infection such abscess/aneurysm/fistula, heart block, pulmonary/systemic embolic events, recurrent endocarditis, and death due to sepsis. RESULTS: A total of 338 patients (age: 37 ± 15 years) received 352 prosthetic valves (pulmonary [n = 308, 88%], tricuspid [n = 13, 4%], mitral [n = 9, 3%], and aortic position [n = 22, 6%]). The annual incidence of prosthetic valve endocarditis was 0.4%. There were 12 prosthetic valve endocarditis-related complications in six patients, and these complications were prosthetic valve dysfunction (n = 4), systemic/pulmonary embolic events (n = 2), heart block (n = 1), aortic root abscess (n = 1), recurrent endocarditis (n = 2), and death due to sepsis (n = 1). Three (50%) patients required surgery at 2 days, 6 weeks, and 23 weeks from the time of prosthetic valve endocarditis diagnosis. Altogether three of the six (50%) patients died, and one of these deaths was due to sepsis. CONCLUSIONS: The incidence, complication rate, and outcomes of prosthetic valve endocarditis in tetralogy of Fallot patients underscore some of the risks of having a prosthetic valve. It is important to educate the patients on the need for early presentation if they develop systemic symptoms, have a high index of suspicion for prosthetic valve endocarditis, and adopt a multi-disciplinary care approach in this high-risk population.

9.
ASAIO J ; 2020 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31977352

RESUMO

Refractory ventricular tachycardia (VT) and electrical storm are frequently associated with hemodynamic compromise requiring mechanical support. This study sought to review the current literature on the use of venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VA-ECMO) for hemodynamic support during VT ablation. This was a systematic review of all published literature from 2000 to 2019 evaluating patients with VT undergoing ablation with VA-ECMO support. Studies that reported mortality, safety, and efficacy outcomes in adult (>18 years) patients were included. The primary outcome was short-term mortality (intensive care unit stay, hospital stay, or ≤30 days). The literature search identified 4,802 citations during the study period, of which seven studies comprising 867 patients met the inclusion criteria. Periprocedural VA-ECMO was used in 129 (15%) patients and all were placed peripherally. Average inducible VTs were 2-3 per procedure and ablation time varied between 34 mins and 4.7 hours. Median ages were between 61 and 68 years with 93% males. Median duration of VA-ECMO varied between 140 minutes and 6 days. Short-term mortality was 15% (19 patients), with the most frequent causes being refractory VT, cardiac arrest, and acute heart failure. All-cause mortality at the longest follow-up was 25%. Major bleeding, vascular/access complications, limb ischemia, stroke, and acute kidney injury were reported with varying frequency of 1-6%. In conclusion, VA-ECMO is used infrequently for hemodynamic support for VT ablation. Further data on patient selection, procedural optimization, and clinical outcomes are needed to evaluate the efficacy of this strategy.

10.
Eur Respir J ; 55(2)2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31771997

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Identification of elevated pulmonary artery pressures during exercise has important diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic implications. Stress echocardiography is frequently used to estimate pulmonary artery pressures during exercise testing, but data supporting this practice are limited. This study examined the accuracy of Doppler echocardiography for the estimation of pulmonary artery pressures at rest and during exercise. METHODS: Simultaneous cardiac catheterisation-echocardiographic studies were performed at rest and during exercise in 97 subjects with dyspnoea. Echocardiography-estimated pulmonary artery systolic pressure (ePASP) was calculated from the right ventricular (RV) to right atrial (RA) pressure gradient and estimated RA pressure (eRAP), and then compared with directly measured PASP and RAP. RESULTS: Estimated PASP was obtainable in 57% of subjects at rest, but feasibility decreased to 15-16% during exercise, due mainly to an inability to obtain eRAP during stress. Estimated PASP correlated well with direct PASP at rest (r=0.76, p<0.0001; bias -1 mmHg) and during exercise (r=0.76, p=0.001; bias +3 mmHg). When assuming eRAP of 10 mmHg, ePASP correlated with direct PASP (r=0.70, p<0.0001), but substantially underestimated true values (bias +9 mmHg), with the greatest underestimation among patients with severe exercise-induced pulmonary hypertension (EIPH). Estimation of eRAP during exercise from resting eRAP improved discrimination of patients with or without EIPH (area under the curve 0.81), with minimal bias (5 mmHg), but wide limits of agreement (-14-25 mmHg). CONCLUSIONS: The RV-RA pressure gradient can be estimated with reasonable accuracy during exercise when measurable. However, RA hypertension frequently develops in patients with EIPH, and the inability to noninvasively account for this leads to substantial underestimation of exercise pulmonary artery pressures.

11.
Int J Cardiol ; 299: 136-139, 2020 01 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31351788

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pulmonary valve replacement (PVR) is associated with improvement in symptoms and right ventricular remodeling in patients with tetralogy of Fallot (TOF). There are limited population-based data about outcomes after PVR. We therefore hypothesized a temporal increase in annual volume of PVR and decrease in in-hospital mortality after PVR in the United States. METHODS: We reviewed the National Inpatient Sample (NIS) for PVR performed in adults (>18 years) with TOF, 2000-2014. The primary outcome was trends in admissions for PVR, in-hospital mortality after PVR, and age at time of PVR. In order to assess trends, we divided the study period into tertiles: early era (2000-2004), mid era (2005-2009) and late era (2010-2014). RESULTS: There were 18,353 admissions in adults with TOF diagnosis, of which PVR was performed in 1230 (6.7%), and 90 (7.3%) were transcatheter PVRs. The median age at PVR was 34 years and in-hospital mortality was 1.5%. Comparisons by study era showed temporal increase in the proportion of admissions for PVR (3.7% vs 6.3% vs 9.6%, p < 0.001), decrease in in-hospital mortality (4.1% vs 1.2% vs 0.8%, p = 0.002), and a decrease in age at the time of PVR (35.8 vs 33.8 vs 31.0 years, p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The proportion of admissions for PVR increased while in-hospital mortality and age at time of PVR decreased over time. A younger age at the time of PVR highlights important concerns and knowledge gaps about the cumulative lifetime risk of reinterventions and prosthetic valve endocarditis. Further studies are required to address these knowledge gaps.

12.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 8(22): e014148, 2019 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31701796

RESUMO

Background Right atrial pressure (RAP), a composite metric of right ventricular diastolic function, volume status, and right heart compliance, is a predictor of mortality in patients with heart failure due to acquired heart disease. Because patients with tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) might have abnormal right atrial and ventricular mechanics caused by myocardial injury and remodeling, we hypothesized that RAP would be associated with disease severity and cardiovascular adverse events in this population. Methods and Results We performed a cohort study of adults with TOF who underwent right heart catheterization at the Mayo Clinic Rochester between 1990 and 2017. The objective was to determine the association between RAP and multiple domains of disease severity in TOF (percentage of predicted peak oxygen consumption, atrial or ventricular arrhythmia, and heart failure hospitalization), as well as cardiovascular adverse events, defined as sustained ventricular tachycardia, resuscitated or aborted sudden death, heart transplantation, or death. Among 225 patients (113 male; mean age: 39±14 years), mean RAP was 10.7±5.2 mm Hg and median was 10 mm Hg (interquartile range: 7-13 mm Hg). Increasing RAP was associated with atrial or ventricular arrhythmias (odds ratio: 5.01; 95% CI, 1.22-23.49; P<0.001), heart failure hospitalization (odds ratio: 1.47; 95% CI, 1.10-2.39; P=0.033) per 5 mm Hg, and worsening exercise capacity (peak oxygen consumption; R2=0.74, r=-0.86, P<0.001). RAP was a predictor of cardiovascular adverse events (hazard ratio: 1.28; 95% CI, 1.10-1.47; P=0.028) per 5 mm Hg. Conclusions In symptomatic patients with TOF, increasing RAP correlates with multiple domains of disease severity (risk stratification) and predicts future cardiovascular events (prognostication). These data have potential clinical implications in the target population of symptomatic TOF patients.

13.
Can J Cardiol ; 35(12): 1784-1790, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31732195

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although there are robust data about the pathophysiology and prognostic implications of left ventricular (LV) systolic dysfunction in patients with acquired heart disease, similar prognostic data about LV systolic dysfunction are sparse in the tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) population. The purpose of this study was to perform a meta-analysis of all studies that assessed the relationship between LV ejection fraction (LVEF) and cardiovascular adverse events (CAEs) defined as death, aborted sudden death, or sustained ventricular tachycardia. METHODS: We used random-effects models to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). RESULTS: Of the 1,809 citations, 7 studies with 2,854 patients (age 28 ± 4 years) were included. During 5.6 ± 3.4 years' follow-up, there were 82 deaths, 17 aborted sudden cardiac deaths, and 56 sustained ventricular tachycardia events. Overall, CAEs occurred in 5.1% (144 patients). As a continuous variable, LVEF was a predictor of CAE (HR 1.29, 95% CI, 1.09-1.53, P = 0.001) per 5% decrease in LVEF. Similarly, LVEF < 40% was also a predictor of CAE (HR 3.22, 95% CI, 2.16-4.80, P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: LV systolic dysfunction was an independent predictor of CAE, and we observed a 30% increase in the risk of CAE for every 5% decrease in LVEF, and a 3-fold increase in the risk of CAE in patients with LVEF <40% compared with other patients. These findings underscore the importance of incorporating LV systolic function in clinical risk stratification of patients with TOF and the need to explore new treatment options to address this problem.

14.
Am J Cardiol ; 124(11): 1780-1784, 2019 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31586531

RESUMO

Patients with tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) have abnormal right ventricular (RV) afterload because of residual or recurrent outflow tract obstruction, often with abnormal pulmonary artery (PA) vascular function. The purpose of this study was to determine if RV afterload was independently associated with death and/or heart transplant in patients with TOF. This is a retrospective study of TOF patients that underwent cardiac catheterization for clinical indications at Mayo clinic between 1990 and 2015. Invasively measured RV systolic pressure (RVSP) was used to define RV afterload. To explore clinical utility for echocardiographic estimates of invasive data, correlations between invasive and Doppler-derived indices of RV afterload were examined. Among 266 patients with TOF (age 35 ± 14 years, TOF-pulmonary atresia 117 [44%]), RVSP was 72 ± 28 mm Hg, PA systolic pressure 45 ± 19 mm Hg, mean PA pressure 27 ± 10 mm Hg, pulmonary vascular resistance 4.2 ± 3.1 WU, and PA wedge pressure 14 ± 5 mm Hg. Over a mean follow up of 12.9 years, there were 35 deaths and 4 heart transplants. Invasively measured RVSP (hazard ratio 1.25, 95% confidence interval 1.12 to 1.37; p <0.001) and TOF-pulmonary atresia (hazard ratio 1.18, 95% confidence interval 1.08 to 1.41; p = 0.023) were independent risk factors for death and/or transplant. Doppler-derived RVSP was well-correlated with invasive RVSP (r = 0.92, p <0.001), and was also independently associated with the combined end point. RVSP, a composite measure of RV afterload, is independently prognostic in patients with TOF, and can be reliably assessed using Doppler echocardiography. Further study is required to test whether interventions to reduce RVSP can improve outcomes in patients with TOF.

15.
Am Heart J ; 218: 1-7, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31648061

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Atrial arrhythmia is a late complication after tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) repair, but arrhythmia outcomes data are limited. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of the study was to describe atrial arrhythmia presentations, outcomes of antiarrhythmic therapy, and impact of arrhythmia on transplant-free survival. METHODS: We reviewed the MACHD (Mayo Adult Congenital Heart Disease) Registry and identified 113 patients (age 49 ±â€¯13 years) with documented arrhythmia, and 302 patients without history of arrhythmia, 1990-2017. We classified arrhythmias into atrial fibrillation and atrial flutter/tachycardia based on the rhythm on the first abnormal electrocardiogram. RESULTS: At the time of first documented arrhythmia, 58(51%) had atrial fibrillation while 55(49%) had atrial flutter/tachycardia. Of the 113 patients, 14(12%) received rhythm control with class I/III antiarrhythmic drugs (AAD), 79(70%) had direct current cardioversion, 9(8%) received rate control with class II/IV AAD, and 11(10%) received only anticoagulation. Successful cardioversion occurred in 100(89%) patients, and arrhythmia recurrence rate was 16 per 100 patient-years. The multivariate risk factors for death and/or heart transplant were atrial fibrillation (HR 1.94, CI 1.10-3.15, P = .031) and older age (HR 1.63, CI 1.12-2.43, P = .019) per 5 year increment. CONCLUSIONS: Atrial fibrillation, but not atrial flutter, was associated with reduced survival in our repaired TOF cohort. Further studies are required to determine if more aggressive antiarrhythmic therapy will improve survival in patients with atrial fibrillation.

16.
Int J Cardiol ; 297: 49-54, 2019 12 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31604657

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although outcomes of arrhythmia diagnosis have been described in ambulatory tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) patients, these have not been studied in hospitalized patients. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence and in-hospital mortality due to arrhythmias in TOF patients based on a review of the National Inpatient Sample database. METHODS: Admissions in adult TOF patients (2000-2014) were categorized as arrhythmia-related admission (ARA) or non-arrhythmia-related admission (NRA) based on arrhythmia diagnostic codes. RESULTS: Of 18,353 admissions, 5071 (27.6%) were ARA. The most common arrhythmias were atrial fibrillation (15.5%), atrial flutter (8.4%) and ventricular tachycardia (8.2%), and the prevalence of overall ARA as well as specific arrhythmia types increased over time. In-hospital mortality for ARA was 5.4%, and decreased over time. Arrhythmia diagnosis was an independent predictor of in-hospital mortality (odds ratio [OR] 1.63, 1.34-2.01, p = 0.001). Similarly, atrial fibrillation (OR 1.49, 1.18-1.89, p = 0.001) and ventricular tachycardia (OR: 2.01, 1.55-2.98, p = 0.001) were independent predictors of in-hospital mortality. Compared to small bed-size hospital, ARA in large hospital bed-size hospital was associated with a lower in-hospital mortality (OR 0.71, 0.53-0.96, p = 0.03). CONCLUSION: Atrial fibrillation was the most common arrhythmia in hospitalized TOF patients, and arrhythmia diagnosis (specifically atrial fibrillation and ventricular tachycardia) was an independent predictor of in-hospital mortality, while admission to a large bed-size hospital was associated with a lower risk of in-hospital mortality. Further studies are required to determine if a more proactive approach to arrhythmia management in the ambulatory TOF population will reduce hospitalizations and mortality.

17.
Hypertension ; 74(6): 1484-1489, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31630577

RESUMO

Exercise-induced hypertension is a predictor of cardiovascular events in patients with coarctation of aorta (COA). However, it is unclear whether mild COA diagnosis is an independent risk factor of exercise-induced hypertension. We hypothesized that for every unit increase in exercise, patients with COA (without hemodynamically significant coarctation) will have a higher rise in systolic blood pressure (SBP) compared with matched controls. One hundred forty-nine patients with COA (aortic coarctation peak velocity <2 m/s) who underwent exercise testing were matched 1:1 to controls using propensity score method based on age, sex, body mass index, hypertension diagnosis, and SBP at rest. We compared exercise-induced change in SBP between patients with COA and controls and also assessed the correlation between Doppler-derived aortic vascular function indices (effective arterial elastance index and total arterial compliance index) and exercise-induced changes in SBP. Compared with controls, patients with COA had a greater change in SBP per unit metabolic equivalent (ß=2.86; 95% CI, 1.96-4.77 versus 1.07, 95% CI, -0.15 to 1.75; P=0.018) and per unit oxygen pulse (ß=4.57; 95% CI, 2.97-7.12 versus 1.45, 95% CI, -0.79 to 2.09, P<0.001). There was a correlation between SBPpeak-SBPrest and elastance index (r=0.38, P=0.032) and between SBPpeak-SBPrest and total arterial compliance index (r=-0.51, P=0.001), suggesting an association between vascular dysfunction and exercise-induced BP changes. Patients with COA, without significant obstruction, had higher exercise-induced changes in SBP after adjustment for other risk factors for hypertension. Considering the already known prognostic importance of exercise-induced hypertension, the current study highlights the potential role of exercise testing for risk stratification of patients with mild COA.

19.
Am J Cardiol ; 124(8): 1293-1297, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31439278

RESUMO

Right ventricular (RV) volume overload due to chronic pulmonary regurgitation is the common mechanism for hemodynamic deterioration after tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) repair. As a result, RV volumetric indices are used for clinical risk stratification in this population. Since RV afterload is a determinant of RV hemodynamic performance, we hypothesized that afterload-adjusted RV volumetric indices will have a better correlation with disease severity compared with RV volumetric indices alone in patients with TOF. Cross-sectional study of adults with previous TOF repair that received care at Mayo Clinic, 2002-2015. We defined disease severity as atrial arrhythmia and/or impaired exercise capacity. We created afterload-adjusted RV volumetric indices by indexing these indices to RV systolic pressure (RVSP) as follows: RV end-diastolic volume (RVEDVi)/RVSP, RV end-systolic volume (RVESVi)/RVSP, and RV ejection fraction (RVEF)/RVSP. The RV volumetric indices were: RVEDVi 141 ± 43 ml/m2, RVESVi 79 ± 38 ml/m2, and RVEF 44 ± 10%, and RVSP was 48 ± 9 mm Hg. RVESVi was the only RV volumetric parameter that was associated with disease severity (odds ratio [OR] 1.13, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01 to 1.32, p = 0.041) with area under the curve (AUC) of 0.612. In contrast RVEF/RVSP (OR 0.73, 95% CI 0.38 to 0.92, p = 0.037, AUC 0.649), and RVESVi/RVSP (OR 1.28, 95% CI 1.14-1.55, p = 0.008, AUC 0.798) were associated with disease severity. Compared with RV volumetric indices alone, the combined RV volumetric and afterload indices had better correlation with disease severity as measured by AUC. Afterload-adjusted RV volumetric indices had better correlation with disease severity, and may potentially improve risk stratification in this population.

20.
Cardiol Young ; 29(8): 1078-1081, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31288878

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There are limited outcome data in adults with tetralogy of Fallot and pulmonary atresia. The purpose of this study was to describe re-operations and all-cause mortality in adults with tetralogy of Fallot and pulmonary atresia. METHODS: Retrospective review of adults with repaired tetralogy of Fallot and pulmonary atresia who received care at the Mayo Adult Congenital Heart Disease Clinic, 1990-2016. All-cause mortality was calculated as events per 100 patient-years from the time of first presentation to the Adult Congenital Heart Disease Clinic. RESULTS: Of the 221 patients, the age at initial tetralogy of Fallot repair was 6 (5-13) years, and the age at first presentation to the clinic was 27 - 8 years. All patients had at least one right ventricular to pulmonary artery conduit re-operation. There were 31 deaths (14%) at mean age of 41 - 14 years. The causes of death were end-stage heart failure (n = 17), sudden cardiac death (n=9), post-operative death after cardiac surgery (n = 2), sepsis with multi-system organ failure (n = 2), and unknown (n = 1). All-cause mortality rate was 1.7 per 100 patient-years. The risk factors for all-cause mortality were older age (>12 years) at the time of repair (hazard ratio 1.41, 95 confidence interval 1.06-2.02, p = 0.033), non-sustained ventricular tachycardia (hazard ratio 1.36, 95 confidence interval 1.17-2.47, p = 0.015), and left ventricular ejection fraction <50% (hazard ratio 1.39, 95 confidence interval 1.08-2.31, p = 0.031). CONCLUSION: Based on a review of 221 adults with repaired tetralogy of Fallot and pulmonary atresia, all patients had re-operations and all-cause mortality rate was 1.7 events per 100 patient-years. The current study provides important outcomes data for risk stratification in adults with tetralogy of Fallot and pulmonary atresia.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/efeitos adversos , Atresia Pulmonar/cirurgia , Tetralogia de Fallot/cirurgia , Adulto , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/mortalidade , Causas de Morte , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Minnesota/epidemiologia , Artéria Pulmonar/cirurgia , Atresia Pulmonar/mortalidade , Reoperação/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Tetralogia de Fallot/mortalidade , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Função Ventricular Esquerda , Adulto Jovem
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA