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1.
Sci Total Environ ; 775: 145672, 2021 Feb 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33618307

RESUMO

A few researchers have reported enhancing soil physicochemical properties and reducing greenhouse gas emission using biochar-compost mixture as an alternative method to address soil fertility, soil degradation and climate change. However, information about its effects on soil microbiome has rarely been studied. This investigation was on the impact of a combined biochar-compost application on soil physicochemical variables, fungal community composition, function and network patterns in maize at seedling stage (SS), reproductive stage (RS), and maturity stage (MS). The experimental design consists of five treatments: control (CNT), compost (CMP), composted biochar (CMB), compost fortified with biochar (CFWB), biochar (BCH). The results showed that CFWB, CMB, and CMP increased fungal diversity indices (Shannon, Sobs, and Chao) at the RS and MS stages respectively, compared to BCH and CNT. Distance-based redundancy analysis (db-RDA) at genus level indicated that the pH, available nitrogen, and soil organic matter at SS; available phosphorus at RS; Mg, Mn, Fe, and Zn at MS significantly and positively affected the fungi community. Based on the Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) and effect size (LEfSe) analysis, the results revealed that only Cystofilobasidiaceae and Guehomyces were the MS biomarkers; and significantly enriched in CFWB. FUNGuild analysis indicated that organic amendments (CFWB, CMB, CMP, and BCH) suppressed the abundance of plant pathogenic fungi (Edenia and Waitea) compared to CNT. Network analysis showed that CFWB and CMB had a high niche overlap and cross-feeding in their networks compared to other treatments. However, CMP network had more positive links with Saprotroph, Pathotroph-Saprotroph-Symbiotroph, Pathotroph and Pathotroph-Symbiotroph compared with other treatments. This study showed that applying biochar, compost and a mixture of both, positively affected soil fungal communities plus co-occurrence network pattern in a single cropping season. Thus, their application as soil amendments may improve the soil fungi ecosystem, soil health and quality and mitigate climate change.

2.
Sci Total Environ ; 721: 137759, 2020 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32172117

RESUMO

A better understanding of the microbial group influencing nitrogen (N) dynamics and cycling in composting matrix is critical in achieving good management to alleviate N loss and improve final compost quality. This study investigated the bacterial composition, structure, co-occurrence network patterns and topological roles of N transformation in cattle manure-maize straw composting using high-throughput sequencing. The two treatments used in this experiment were cattle manure and maize straw mixture (CM) and CM with 10% biochar addition (CMB). In both treatments, the bacterial community composition varied during composting and the major phyla included Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Chloroflexi. The phyla Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria were more abundant in CMB treatment while Firmicutes was abundant in CM piles. The metabolic functional profiles of bacteria was predicted using the "phylogenetic investigation of communities by reconstruction of unobserved states" (PICRUSt) which revealed that except for cellular processes pathway, CMB had slight higher abundance in metabolism, genetic information processing and environmental information processing than the CM. Pearson correlation revealed more significant relationship between the important bacteria communities and N transformation in CMB piles compared with CM. Furthermore, network pattern analysis revealed that the bacterial networks in biochar amended piles are more complex and harbored more positive links than that of no biochar piles. Corresponding agreement of multivariate analyses (correlation heatmap, stepwise regression, Path and network analyses) revealed that Psychrobacter, Thermopolyspora and Thermobifida in CM while Corynebacterium_1, Thermomonospora and Streptomyces in CMB were key bacterial genera affecting NH4+-N, NO3--N and total nitrogen (TN) transformation respectively during composting process. These results provide insight into nitrogen transformation and co-occurrence patterns mediating microbes and bacterial metabolism which could be useful in enhancing compost quality and mitigating N loss during composting.


Assuntos
Compostagem , Microbiota , Animais , Bovinos , Carvão Vegetal , Esterco , Nitrogênio , Filogenia , Solo , Zea mays
3.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(9): 9658-9668, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31925688

RESUMO

This study examined the influence of biochar addition on fungal community during composting of cow manure using high-throughput sequencing. Two treatments were set up, including compost of cow manure plus 10% biochar (BC) and cow manure compost without biochar (CK). Fungal community composition varied obviously during composting in both treatments, and main fungi included Aspergillus, Myriococcum, Thermomyces, Mycothermus, Scedosporium, Cladosporium, and unclassified Microascaceae. Fungal community composition was altered by biochar during composting, especially during the thermophilic and the cooling phase, promoting Aspergillus and Myriococcum while inhibiting unclassified Microascaceae and Thermomyces. Based on linear discriminant analysis effect size analysis, common indicator groups were detected in both composts; however, specific indicator groups were also found in BC treatment, including Clavicipitaceae, Tremellales, Gibberella, and Coprinopsis. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) indicated that moisture content, organic matter, C/N, and pH had significant correlation (p < 0.05) with fungal composition in both treatments. However, in compost added with biochar, temperature was not an important factor affecting fungal community (p > 0.05).


Assuntos
Compostagem , Micobioma , Animais , Bovinos , Carvão Vegetal , Feminino , Esterco , Solo
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