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1.
Clin Epigenetics ; 13(1): 30, 2021 Feb 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33541417

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Whereas duplications in 11p15.5 covering both imprinting centers (ICs) and their subordinated genes account for up to 1% of Beckwith-Wiedemann and Silver-Russell syndrome patients (BWS, SRS), the deletions in 11p15.5 reported so far only affect one of the ICs. In these cases, not only the size and gene content had an impact on the phenotype, but also the sex of the contributing parent influences the clinical signs of the deletion carrier. RESULTS: We here report on the first case with a heterozygous deletion within the maternal allele affecting genes which are regulated by both ICs in 11p15.5 in a BWS patient, and describe the molecular and clinical consequences in case of its maternal or paternal inheritance. CONCLUSIONS: The identification of a unique deletion affecting both 11p15.5 imprinting domains in a BWS patient illustrates the complexity of the regulation mechanisms in these key imprinting regions.

2.
Orphanet J Rare Dis ; 16(1): 42, 2021 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33482836

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Silver-Russell syndrome (SRS) is an imprinting disorder which is characterised by severe primordial growth retardation, relative macrocephaly and a typical facial gestalt. The clinical heterogeneity of SRS is reflected by a broad spectrum of molecular changes with hypomethylation in 11p15 and maternal uniparental disomy of chromosome 7 (upd(7)mat) as the most frequent findings. Monogenetic causes are rare, but a clinical overlap with numerous other disorders has been reported. However, a comprehensive overview on the contribution of mutations in differential diagnostic genes to phenotypes reminiscent to SRS is missing due to the lack of appropriate tests. With the implementation of next generation sequencing (NGS) tools this limitation can now be circumvented. MAIN BODY: We analysed 75 patients referred for molecular testing for SRS by a NGS-based multigene panel, whole exome sequencing (WES), and trio-based WES. In 21/75 patients a disease-causing variant could be identified among them variants in known SRS genes (IGF2, PLAG1, HMGA2). Several patients carried variants in genes which have not yet been considered as differential diagnoses of SRS. CONCLUSIONS: WES approaches significantly increase the diagnostic yield in patients referred for SRS testing. Several of the identified monogenetic disorders have a major impact on clinical management and genetic counseling.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33428302

RESUMO

AIMS: MICU1 encodes the gatekeeper of the mitochondrial Ca2+ uniporter, MICU1 and biallelic loss-of-function mutations cause a complex, neuromuscular disorder in children. Although the role of the protein is well understood, the precise molecular pathophysiology leading to this neuropaediatric phenotype has not been fully elucidated. Here we aimed to obtain novel insights into MICU1 pathophysiology. METHODS: Molecular genetic studies along with proteomic profiling, electron-, light- and Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy and immuno-based studies of protein abundances and Ca2+ transport studies were employed to examine the pathophysiology of MICU1 deficiency in humans. RESULTS: We describe two patients carrying MICU1 mutations, two nonsense (c.52C>T; p.(Arg18*) and c.553C>T; p.(Arg185*)) and an intragenic exon 2-deletion presenting with ataxia, developmental delay and early onset myopathy, clinodactyly, attention deficits, insomnia and impaired cognitive pain perception. Muscle biopsies revealed signs of dystrophy and neurogenic atrophy, severe mitochondrial perturbations, altered Golgi structure, vacuoles and altered lipid homeostasis. Comparative mitochondrial Ca2+ transport and proteomic studies on lymphoblastoid cells revealed that the [Ca2+ ] threshold and the cooperative activation of mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake were lost in MICU1-deficient cells and that 39 proteins were altered in abundance. Several of those proteins are linked to mitochondrial dysfunction and/or perturbed Ca2+ homeostasis, also impacting on regular cytoskeleton (affecting Spectrin) and Golgi architecture, as well as cellular survival mechanisms. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings (i) link dysregulation of mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake with muscle pathology (including perturbed lipid homeostasis and ER-Golgi morphology), (ii) support the concept of a functional interplay of ER-Golgi and mitochondria in lipid homeostasis and (iii) reveal the vulnerability of the cellular proteome as part of the MICU1-related pathophysiology.

4.
Genes (Basel) ; 11(12)2020 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33287348

RESUMO

Prenatal detection of uniparental disomy (UPD) is a methodological challenge, and a positive testing result requires comprehensive considerations on the clinical consequences as well as ethical issues. Whereas prenatal testing for UPD in families which are prone to UPD formation (e.g., in case of chromosomal variants, imprinting disorders) is often embedded in genetic counselling, the incidental identification of UPD is often more difficult to manage. With the increasing application of high-resolution test systems enabling the identification of UPD, an increase in pregnancies with incidental detection of UPD can be expected. This paper will cover the current knowledge on uniparental disomies, their clinical consequences with focus on prenatal testing, genetic aspects and predispositions, genetic counselling, as well as methods (conventional tests and high-throughput assays).

5.
Clin Genet ; 98(4): 418-419, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33294970

RESUMO

The clinical impact of duplications affecting the 11p15.5 region is difficult to predict, and depends on the parent-of-origin of the affected allele as well as on the type (deletion, duplication), the extent and genomic content of the variant. Three unrelated families with inheritance of duplications affecting the IC1 region in 11p15.5 through two generations but different phenotypes (Beckwith-Wiedemann and Silver-Russell syndromes, normal phenotype) are reported. The inconsistent phenotypic patterns of carriers of the same variant strongly indicate the impact of cis- and/or trans-acting modifiers on the clinical outcome of IC1 duplication carriers.

6.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 2020 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33221824

RESUMO

The term multilocus imprinting disturbance (MLID) describes the aberrant methylation of multiple imprinted loci in the genome, and MLID occurs in patients suffering from imprinting disorder carrying methylation defects. First data indicate that functional variants in factors expressed from both the fetal as well as the maternal genome cause MLID. Molecular changes in such genes of the maternal genome are called maternal effect variants, they affect members of the subcortical maternal complex (SCMC) in the oocyte which plays an important role during early embryonic development. Whereas the contribution of variants in the SCMC genes NLRP2, NLRP5, NLRP7, and KHDC3L to the etiology of reproductive failure and aberrant imprinting is widely accepted, the involvement of PADI6 variants in the formation of MLID is in discussion. We now report on the identification of biallelic variants in a woman suffering from different miscarriages and giving birth to two children with MLID. Thereby the role of PADI6 in maintaining the proper imprinting status during early development is confirmed. Thus, PADI6 variants do not only cause (early) pregnancy losses, but maternal effect variants in this gene cause the same spectrum of pregnancy outcomes as variants in other SCMC encoding genes, including chromosomal aberrations and disturbed imprinting. The identification of maternal effect variants requires genetic and reproductive counseling as carriers of these variants are at high risks for reproductive failure.

7.
Clin Epigenetics ; 12(1): 152, 2020 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33076988

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pathogenic CDKN1C gain-of-function variants on the maternal allele were initially reported as a cause of IMAGe syndrome characterized by intrauterine growth retardation, metaphyseal dysplasia, primary adrenal insufficiency and genital anomalies. Recently, a maternally inherited CDKN1C missense mutation (p.Arg279Leu) was identified in several members of a single family clinically diagnosed with Silver-Russell syndrome (SRS) but without adrenal insufficiency. Thereafter, two half siblings from UK with familial SRS were described who carried the same mutation. This specific amino acid change is located within a narrow functional region containing the mutations previously associated with IMAGe syndrome. RESULTS: Here, we describe a third familial case with maternally inherited SRS due to a missense variant affecting the same amino acid position 279 but leading to a different amino acid substitution (p. (Arg279Ser)). The two affected family members (mother and son) presented with the complete SRS phenotype (both Netchine-Harbison CSS score 5 of 6) but without body asymmetry or adrenal insufficiency. CONCLUSIONS: In comparison with loss-of-function genomic IGF2 mutations, CDKN1C gain-of-function mutations are a less frequent cause of SRS and seem to affect a cluster of few amino acids.

8.
Eur J Med Genet ; 63(12): 104077, 2020 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33010492

RESUMO

Temple Syndrome (TS14) is an imprinting disorder caused by molecular disruptions of the imprinted region in 14q32 (MEG3:TSS-DMR). The frequency of the three known TS14 subtypes (deletions, maternal uniparental disomy (upd(14)mat), loss of methylation (LOM)) is currently in discussion, and within the LOM group, the occurrence of Multilocus Imprinting Disturbances (MLID) has been identified. We present 16 TS14 patients with molecular alterations affecting the MEG3:TSS-DMR, comprising seven patients (43.8%) with LOM, six carriers with upd(14)mat (37.5%), and three cases (18.8%) with a deletion affecting the paternal MEG3:TSS-DMR. We did not find any evidence for MLID in the LOM group, including two cases in which different tissues were available. Whole exome sequencing (WES) in the MEG3:TSS-DMR LOM patients and their parents (Trio WES) did not reveal an obvious pathogenic variant which might cause aberrant methylation at imprinted loci. By summarizing our data with those from the literature, we could show that MLID affecting clinically relevant imprinted loci is rare in TS14 and therefore differs markedly from other imprinting disorders associated with MLID, e.g. Silver-Russell syndrome (SRS) and Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS). However, consistent with the clinical overlap with TS14, in SRS patients carrying MLID the MEG3:TSS-DMR is frequently affected. Variants in the known candidate genes for maternal effect variants causing MLID and fetal MLID determinants could not be identified in TS14 patients. Thus, 14q32 epimutations probably have other molecular causes than epimutations in BWS or SRS patients.

9.
Horm Res Paediatr ; 93(3): 182-196, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32756064

RESUMO

Patients affected by pseudohypoparathyroidism (PHP) or related disorders are characterized by physical findings that may include brachydactyly, a short stature, a stocky build, early-onset obesity, ectopic ossifications, and neurodevelopmental deficits, as well as hormonal resistance most prominently to parathyroid hormone (PTH). In addition to these alterations, patients may develop other hormonal resistances, leading to overt or subclinical hypothyroidism, hypogonadism and growth hormone (GH) deficiency, impaired growth without measurable evidence for hormonal abnormalities, type 2 diabetes, and skeletal issues with potentially severe limitation of mobility. PHP and related disorders are primarily clinical diagnoses. Given the variability of the clinical, radiological, and biochemical presentation, establishment of the molecular diagnosis is of critical importance for patients. It facilitates management, including prevention of complications, screening and treatment of endocrine deficits, supportive measures, and appropriate genetic counselling. Based on the first international consensus statement for these disorders, this article provides an updated and ready-to-use tool to help physicians and patients outlining relevant interventions and their timing. A life-long coordinated and multidisciplinary approach is recommended, starting as far as possible in early infancy and continuing throughout adulthood with an appropriate and timely transition from pediatric to adult care.

10.
J Mol Med (Berl) ; 98(10): 1447-1455, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32839827

RESUMO

Molecular diagnostic testing of the 11p15.5-associated imprinting disorders Silver-Russell and Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (SRS, BWS) is challenging due to the broad spectrum of molecular defects and their mosaic occurrence. Additionally, the decision on the molecular testing algorithm is hindered by their clinical heterogeneity. However, the precise identification of the type of defect is often a prerequisite for the clinical management and genetic counselling. Four major molecular alterations (epimutations, uniparental disomies, copy number variants, single nucleotide variants) have been identified, but their frequencies vary between SRS and BWS. Due to their molecular aetiology, epimutations in both disorders as well as upd(11)pat in BWS are particular prone to mosaicism which might additionally complicate the interpretation of testing results. We report on our experience of molecular analysis in a total cohort of 1448 patients referred for diagnostic testing of BWS and SRS, comprising a dataset from 737 new patients and from 711 cases from a recent study. Though the majority of positively tested patients showed the expected molecular results, we identified a considerable number of clinically unexpected molecular alterations as well as not yet reported changes and discrepant mosaic distributions. Additionally, the rate of multilocus imprinting disturbances among the patients with epimutations and uniparental diploidies could be further specified. Altogether, these cases show that comprehensive testing strategies have to be applied in diagnostic testing of SRS and BWS. The precise molecular diagnosis is required as the basis for a targeted management (e.g. ECG (electrocardiogram) and tumour surveillance in BWS, growth treatment in SRS). The molecular diagnosis furthermore provides the basis for genetic counselling. However, it has to be considered that recurrence risk calculation is determined by the phenotypic consequences of each molecular alteration and mechanism by which the alteration arose. KEY MESSAGES: The detection rates for the typical molecular defects of Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome or Silver-Russell syndrome (BWS, SRS) are lower in routine cohorts than in clinically well-characterised ones. A broad spectrum of (unexpected) molecular alterations in both disorders can be identified. Multilocus imprinting disturbances (MLID) are less frequent in SRS than expected. The frequency of MLID and uniparental diploidy in BWS is confirmed. Mosaicism is a diagnostic challenge in BWS and SRS. The precise determination of the molecular defects affecting is the basis for a targeted clinical management and genetic counselling.

11.
Am J Med Genet A ; 182(11): 2727-2730, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32857899

RESUMO

Pathogenic variants in the MBTPS1 gene encoding the Site 1 protease have been described so far only in one growth retarded patients with skeletal deformities, large ears, a triangular face reminiscent to Silver-Russell syndrome (SRS), and elevated blood lysosomal enzymes. We now report on the identification of a second adult patient homozygous for one of the two published pathogenic MBTPS1 variants (p.Asp365Gly) by Whole Exome Sequencing (WES), and a comparable phenotype. With this case, the association of pathogenic variants in MBTPS1 with a recognizable disorder could be confirmed, and the autosomal recessive inheritance is further established. As the variant was identified after a long diagnostic odyssey of the family, this example illustrates the need to apply WES in the diagnostic workup in case of growth retardation as early as possible. By compiling the clinical data of this new patient with those of the already reported patient, a better prognosis for future patients with MBTPS1 variants can be issued, and clinical management can be adjusted.

12.
Clin Genet ; 98(4): 408-412, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32720325

RESUMO

De novo pathogenic variants in CNOT3 have recently been reported in a developmental delay disorder (intellectual developmental disorder with speech delay, autism, and dysmorphic facies [IDDSADF, OMIM: #618672]). The patients present with a variable degree of developmental delay and behavioral problems. To date, all reported disease-causing variants occurred de novo and no parent-child transmission was observed. We report for the first time autosomal dominant transmissions of the CNOT3-associated developmental disorder in two unrelated families. The clinical characteristics in our patients match the IDDSADF features reported so far and suggest substantial variability of the phenotype within the same family.

13.
Orphanet J Rare Dis ; 15(1): 144, 2020 06 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32513286

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: With the development of molecular high-throughput assays (i.e. next generation sequencing), the knowledge on the contribution of genetic and epigenetic alterations to the etiology of inherited endocrine disorders has massively expanded. However, the rapid implementation of these new molecular tools in the diagnostic settings makes the interpretation of diagnostic data increasingly complex. MAIN BODY: This joint paper of the ENDO-ERN members aims to overview chances, challenges, limitations and relevance of comprehensive genetic diagnostic testing in rare endocrine conditions in order to achieve an early molecular diagnosis. This early diagnosis of a genetically based endocrine disorder contributes to a precise management and helps the patients and their families in their self-determined planning of life. Furthermore, the identification of a causative (epi)genetic alteration allows an accurate prognosis of recurrence risks for family planning as the basis of genetic counselling. Asymptomatic carriers of pathogenic variants can be identified, and prenatal testing might be offered, where appropriate. CONCLUSIONS: The decision on genetic testing in the diagnostic workup of endocrine disorders should be based on their appropriateness to reliably detect the disease-causing and -modifying mutation, their informational value, and cost-effectiveness. The future assessment of data from different omic approaches should be embedded in interdisciplinary discussions using all available clinical and molecular data.

14.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 105(7)2020 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32421827

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Silver-Russell syndrome (SRS) is a clinical and molecular heterogeneous disorder associated with short stature, typical facial gestalt, and body asymmetry. Though molecular causes of SRS can be identified in a significant number of patients, about one-half of patients currently remain without a molecular diagnosis. However, determination of the molecular cause is required for a targeted treatment and genetic counselling. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to corroborate the role of HMGA2 as an SRS-causing gene and reevaluate its mode of inheritance. DESIGN, SETTING, PATIENTS: Patients were part of an ongoing study aiming on SRS-causing genes. They were classified according to the Netchine-Harbison clinical scoring system, and DNA samples were investigated by whole exome sequencing. Common molecular causes of SRS were excluded before. RESULTS: Three novel pathogenic HMGA2 variants were identified in 5 patients from 3 SRS families, and fulfilling diagnostic criteria of SRS. For the first time, homozygosity for a variant in HMGA2 could be identified in a severely affected sibpair, whereas parents carrying heterozygous variants had a mild phenotype. Treatment with recombinant growth hormone led to a catch-up growth in 1 patient, whereas all others did not receive growth hormone and stayed small. One patient developed type 2 diabetes at age 30 years. CONCLUSIONS: Identification of novel pathogenic variants confirms HMGA2 as an SRS-causing gene; thus, HMGA2 testing should be implemented in molecular SRS diagnostic workup. Furthermore, inheritance of HMGA2 is variable depending on the severity of the variant and its consequence for protein function.

15.
Clin Epigenetics ; 12(1): 63, 2020 05 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32393365

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS) is an imprinting disorder caused by disturbances of the chromosomal region 11p15.5. The most frequent molecular finding in BWS is loss of methylation (LOM) of the Imprinting Centre 2 (IC2) region on the maternal allele, which is localised in intron 10 of the KCNQ1 gene. In rare cases, LOM of IC2 has been reported in families with KCNQ1 germline variants which additionally cause long-QT syndrome (LQTS). Thus, a functional link between disrupted KCNQ1 transcripts and altered IC2 methylation has been suggested, resulting in the co-occurrence of LQTS and BWS in case of maternal inheritance. Whereas these cases were identified by chance or in patients with abnormal electrocardiograms, a systematic screen for KCNQ1 variants in IC2 LOM carriers has not yet been performed. RESULTS: We analysed 52 BWS patients with IC2 LOM to determine the frequency of germline variants in KCNQ1 by MLPA and an amplicon-based next generation sequencing approach. We identified one patient with a splice site variant causing premature transcription termination of KCNQ1. CONCLUSIONS: Our study strengthens the hypothesis that proper KCNQ1 transcription is required for the establishment of IC2 methylation, but that KCNQ1 variants cause IC2 LOM only in a small number of BWS patients.

16.
Br J Cancer ; 123(4): 619-623, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32451468

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS) is a cancer predisposition syndrome caused by defects on chromosome 11p15.5. The quantitative cancer risks in BWS patients depend on the underlying (epi)genotype but have not yet been assessed in a population-based manner. METHODS: We identified a group of 321 individuals with a molecularly confirmed diagnosis of BWS and analysed the cancer incidence up to age 15 years and cancer spectrum by matching their data with the German Childhood Cancer Registry. RESULTS: We observed 13 cases of cancer in the entire BWS cohort vs 0.4 expected. This corresponds to a 33-fold increased risk (standardised incidence ratio (SIR) = 32.6; 95% confidence interval = 17.3-55.7). The specific cancers included hepatoblastoma (n = 6); nephroblastoma (n = 4); astrocytoma (n = 1); neuroblastoma (n = 1) and adrenocortical carcinoma (n = 1). The cancer SIR was highest in patients with a paternal uniparental disomy of 11p15.5 (UPDpat). A high cancer risk remained when cases of cancer diagnosed prior to the BWS diagnosis were excluded. CONCLUSIONS: This study confirms an increased cancer risk in children with BWS. Our findings suggest that the highest cancer risk is associated with UPDpat. We were unable to confirm an excessive cancer risk in patients with IC1 gain of methylation (IC1-GOM) and this finding requires further investigation.

17.
J Med Genet ; 2020 May 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32447323

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The chromosomal region 11p15.5 harbours two imprinting centres (H19/IGF2:IG-DMR/IC1, KCNQ1OT1:TSS-DMR/IC2). Molecular alterations of the IC2 are associated with Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS), whereas only single patients with growth retardation and Silver-Russell syndrome (SRS) features have been reported. CNVs in 11p15.5 account for less than 1% of patients with BWS and SRS, and they mainly consist of duplications of both ICs either affecting the maternal (SRS) or the paternal (BWS) allele. However, this correlation does not apply to smaller CNVs, which are associated with diverse clinical outcomes. METHODS AND RESULTS: We identified a family with a 132 bp deletion within the KCNQ1OT1 gene, associated with growth retardation in case of paternal transmission but a normal phenotype when maternally inherited. Comparison of molecular and clinical data with cases from the literature helped to delineate its functional relevance. CONCLUSION: Microdeletions within the paternal IC2 affecting the KCNQ1OT1 gene have been described in only five families, and they all include the differentially methylated region KCNQ1OT1:TSS-DMR/IC2 and parts of the KCNQ1 gene. However, these deletions have different impacts on the expression of both genes and the cell-cycle inhibitor CDKN1C. They thereby cause different phenotypes. The 132 bp deletion is the smallest deletion in the IC2 reported so far. It does not affect the IC2 methylation in general and the coding sequence of the KCNQ1 gene. Thus, the deletion is only associated with a growth retardation phenotype when paternally transmitted but not with other clinical features in case of maternal inheritance as observed for larger deletions.

18.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0230003, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32155193

RESUMO

Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) is an inherited neuromuscular disease which results from an expansion of repetitive DNA elements within the 3' untranslated region of the DMPK gene. Some patients develop multiple pilomatricomas as well as malignant tumors in other tissues. Mutations of the catenin-ß gene (CTNNB1) could be demonstrated in most non-syndromic pilomatricomas. In order to gain insight into the molecular mechanisms which might be responsible for the occurrence of multiple pilomatricomas and cancers in patients with DM1, we have sequenced the CTNNB1 gene of four pilomatricomas and of one pilomatrical carcinoma which developed in one patient with molecularly proven DM1 within 4 years. We further analyzed the pilomatrical tumors for microsatellite instability as well as by NGS for mutations in 161 cancer-associated genes. Somatic and independent point-mutations were detected at typical hotspot regions of CTNNB1 (S33C, S33F, G34V, T41I) while one mutation within CTNNB1 represented a duplication mutation (G34dup.). Pilomatricoma samples were analyzed for microsatellite instability and expression of mismatch repair proteins but no mutated microsatellites could be detected and expression of mismatch repair proteins MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, PMS2 was not perturbed. NGS analysis only revealed one heterozygous germline mutation c.8494C>T; p.(Arg2832Cys) within the ataxia telangiectasia mutated gene (ATM) which remained heterozygous in the pilomatrical tumors. The detection of different somatic mutations in different pilomatricomas and in the pilomatrical carcinoma as well as the observation that the patient developed multiple pilomatricomas and one pilomatrical carcinoma over a short time period strongly suggest that the patient displays a hypermutation phenotype. This hypermutability seems to be tissue and gene restricted. Simultaneous transcription of the mutated DMPK gene and the CTNNB1 gene in cycling hair follicles might constitute an explanation for the observed tissue and gene specificity of hypermutability observed in DM1 patients. Elucidation of putative mechanisms responsible for hypermutability in DM1 patients requires further research.


Assuntos
Análise Mutacional de DNA , Doenças do Cabelo/genética , Mutação , Distrofia Miotônica/complicações , Fenótipo , Pilomatrixoma/genética , Neoplasias Cutâneas/genética , Doenças do Cabelo/complicações , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Instabilidade de Microssatélites , Pilomatrixoma/complicações , Neoplasias Cutâneas/complicações , beta Catenina/genética
19.
Stem Cell Res Ther ; 11(1): 105, 2020 03 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32138773

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The use of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) for research and clinical application is hampered by cellular heterogeneity and replicative senescence. Generation of MSC-like cells from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) may circumvent these limitations, and such iPSC-derived MSCs (iMSCs) are already tested in clinical trials. So far, a comparison of MSCs and iMSCs was particularly addressed in bulk culture. Despite the high hopes in cellular therapy, only little is known how the composition of different subclones changes in these cell preparations during culture expansion. METHODS: In this study, we used multicolor lentiviral genetic barcoding for the marking of individual cells within cell preparations. Based on this, we could track the clonal composition of syngenic MSCs, iPSCs, and iMSCs during culture expansion. Furthermore, we analyzed DNA methylation patterns at senescence-associated genomic regions by barcoded bisulfite amplicon sequencing. The proliferation and differentiation capacities of individual subclones within MSCs and iMSCs were investigated with limiting dilution assays. RESULTS: Overall, the clonal composition of primary MSCs and iPSCs gradually declined during expansion. In contrast, iMSCs became oligoclonal early during differentiation, indicating that they were derived from few individual iPSCs. This dominant clonal outgrowth of iMSCs was not associated with changes in chromosomal copy number variation. Furthermore, clonal dynamics were not clearly reflected by stochastically acquired DNA methylation patterns. Limiting dilution assays revealed that iMSCs are heterogeneous in colony formation and in vitro differentiation potential, while this was even more pronounced in primary MSCs. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that the subclonal diversity of MSCs and iPSCs declines gradually during in vitro culture, whereas derivation of iMSCs may stem from few individual iPSCs. Differentiation regimen needs to be further optimized to achieve homogeneous differentiation of iPSCs towards iMSCs.

20.
Hum Reprod Update ; 26(2): 197-213, 2020 02 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32068234

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Human reproductive issues affecting fetal and maternal health are caused by numerous exogenous and endogenous factors, of which the latter undoubtedly include genetic changes. Pathogenic variants in either maternal or offspring DNA are associated with effects on the offspring including clinical disorders and nonviable outcomes. Conversely, both fetal and maternal factors can affect maternal health during pregnancy. Recently, it has become evident that mammalian reproduction is influenced by genomic imprinting, an epigenetic phenomenon that regulates the expression of genes according to their parent from whom they are inherited. About 1% of human genes are normally expressed from only the maternally or paternally inherited gene copy. Since numerous imprinted genes are involved in (embryonic) growth and development, disturbance of their balanced expression can adversely affect these processes. OBJECTIVE AND RATIONALE: This review summarises current our understanding of genomic imprinting in relation to human ontogenesis and pregnancy and its relevance for reproductive medicine. SEARCH METHODS: Literature databases (Pubmed, Medline) were thoroughly searched for the role of imprinting in human reproductive failure. In particular, the terms 'multilocus imprinting disturbances, SCMC, NLRP/NALP, imprinting and reproduction' were used in various combinations. OUTCOMES: A range of molecular changes to specific groups of imprinted genes are associated with imprinting disorders, i.e. syndromes with recognisable clinical features including distinctive prenatal features. Whereas the majority of affected individuals exhibit alterations at single imprinted loci, some have multi-locus imprinting disturbances (MLID) with less predictable clinical features. Imprinting disturbances are also seen in some nonviable pregnancy outcomes, such as (recurrent) hydatidiform moles, which can therefore be regarded as a severe form of imprinting disorders. There is growing evidence that MLID can be caused by variants in the maternal genome altering the imprinting status of the oocyte and the embryo, i.e. maternal effect mutations. Pregnancies of women carrying maternal affect mutations can have different courses, ranging from miscarriages to birth of children with clinical features of various imprinting disorders. WIDER IMPLICATIONS: Increasing understanding of imprinting disturbances and their clinical consequences have significant impacts on diagnostics, counselling and management in the context of human reproduction. Defining criteria for identifying pregnancies complicated by imprinting disorders facilitates early diagnosis and personalised management of both the mother and offspring. Identifying the molecular lesions underlying imprinting disturbances (e.g. maternal effect mutations) allows targeted counselling of the family and focused medical care in further pregnancies.


Assuntos
Doenças Genéticas Inatas/diagnóstico , Doenças Genéticas Inatas/etiologia , Impressão Genômica/fisiologia , Resultado da Gravidez/genética , Reprodução/genética , Animais , Feminino , Doenças Genéticas Inatas/patologia , Humanos , Masculino , Mutação/fisiologia , Gravidez , Prognóstico
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