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1.
Eur J Cancer ; 2021 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34823982

RESUMO

The ability to exploit the immune system as a weapon against cancer has revolutionised the treatment of cancer patients, especially through immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs). However, ICIs demonstrated a modest benefit in treating breast cancer (BC), with the exception of certain subsets of triple-negative BCs. An immune-suppressive tumour microenvironment (TME), typically present in BC, is an important factor in the poor response to immunotherapy. After almost two decades of poor clinical trial results, cancer vaccines (CVs), an active immunotherapy, have come back in the spotlight because of some technological advancements, ultimately boosted by coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic. In particular, neoantigens are emerging as the preferred targets for CVs, with gene-based and viral vector-based platforms in development. Moreover, lipid nanoparticles proved to be immunogenic and efficient delivery vehicles. Past clinical trials investigating CVs focused especially on the metastatic disease, where the TME is more likely compromised by inhibitory mechanisms. In this sense, favouring the use of CVs as monotherapy in premalignant or in the adjuvant setting and establishing combination treatments (i.e. CV plus ICI) in late-stage disease are promising strategies. This review provides a full overview of the past and current breast cancer vaccine landscape.

2.
Eur J Cancer ; 157: 81-93, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34492587

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This is the first national study on trends in cancer survival and mortality for children and young adolescents in the Netherlands including unique information on stage at diagnosis. METHODS: All neoplasms in patients <18 years, diagnosed between 1990 and 2015 (N = 14,060), were derived from the Netherlands Cancer Registry. Cohort and period survival analyses were used to estimate observed survival (OS). Time trends in OS and mortality rates were evaluated by parametric survival models and average annual percentage change, respectively. RESULTS: Between 1990 and 2015, 5-year OS and 10-year OS of childhood and young adolescent cancer have improved significantly by 9 percent points, reaching 81% and 78%, respectively. Favourable trends in survival were observed for all age groups and most diagnostic (sub)groups, being particularly pronounced for advanced disease. Non-Hodgkin lymphomas Ann Arbor stage III, metastatic neuroblastomas (age ≥18 months) and Ewing bone sarcomas showed significant improvements in 5-year OS. Compared with 1990-99, the risk of dying within five years of diagnosis was decreased significantly during 2000-09 (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.8) and 2010-15 (HR = 0.6), after adjustment for age, gender and follow-up time. Nonetheless, the prognosis of young patients suffering from central nervous system tumours, neuroblastoma and osteosarcomas remained modest, with 5-year OS <70% and 10-year OS <65%. Childhood and young adolescent cancer mortality decreased by an average of 2.0% annually between 1990 and 2018. CONCLUSIONS: Significant progress has been realised in the prognosis of childhood and young adolescent cancer in the Netherlands since the 1990s. Survival improvements were especially evident for patients with advanced stages and were also reflected in the declining mortality rates.


Assuntos
Neoplasias/mortalidade , Adolescente , Neoplasias Ósseas/mortalidade , Neoplasias do Sistema Nervoso Central/mortalidade , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Neoplasias Embrionárias de Células Germinativas/mortalidade , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Sarcoma/mortalidade
4.
Eur J Cancer ; 155: 268-280, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34392069

RESUMO

Forty to 60% of patients with advanced or metastatic melanoma respond to first-line immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) and half of all patients in the metastatic setting eventually progress. This review evaluated the latest long-term data from clinical trials. It also considered data from recent retrospective studies, as these address important questions for clinical practice. 'Retreatment' defined as 'repeated treatment with the same therapeutic class following relapse after adjuvant treatment has ended' and showed activity in selected patients with recurrence after regular completion of adjuvant PD-1 treatment. In melanoma patients with adjuvant PD-1 monotherapy who recur during adjuvant treatment, further treatment with PD-1 monotherapy seems to have no clinical utility, indicating the need for a therapy switch or escalation in these patients. Targeted therapy with BRAF/MEK inhibitors and ipilimumab-based therapy (alone or combined with PD-1 blockade) show clinical activity in patients who recur during and after adjuvant treatment. 'Rechallenge', defined as 'repeated treatment with the same therapeutic class following disease progression in patients who had clinical benefit with prior treatment for unresectable or metastatic disease', with pembrolizumab at progression in the advanced setting achieving additional disease control. If possible, 'escalation' (PD-1 inhibitors combined with additional agents) should be preferred to PD-1 inhibitor monotherapy rechallenge as higher response rates were demonstrated. The combination of PD-1 plus CTLA-4 was found to be more effective but not more toxic than CTLA-4 alone. Promising antitumor activity was observed for escalation to lenvatinib plus pembrolizumab, entinostat plus pembrolizumab, and relatlimab plus nivolumab. Retreatment, rechallenge and escalation are available options for patients with melanoma who relapse in the adjuvant or advanced setting.

7.
Eur J Cancer ; 152: 155-164, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34107449

RESUMO

The Italian Network for Tumor Biotherapy (Network Italiano per la Bioterapia dei Tumori [NIBIT]) Foundation hosted its annual 2020 Think Tank meeting virtually, at which representatives from academic, clinical, industry, philanthropic, and regulatory organisations discussed the role of neoadjuvant immunotherapy for the treatment of cancer. Although the number of neoadjuvant immunotherapeutic trials is increasing across all malignancies, the Think Tank focused its discussion on the status of neoadjuvant trials in cutaneous melanoma (CM), muscle-invasive urothelial bladder cancer (MIBC), head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), and pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PDAC). Neoadjuvant developments in CM are nothing short of trailblazing. Pathologic Complete Response (pCR), pathologic near Complete Response, and partial Pathologic Responses reduce 90-100% of recurrences. This is in sharp contrast to targeted therapies in neoadjuvant CM trials, where only a pCR seems to reduce recurrence. The pCR rate after neoadjuvant immunotherapy varies among the different malignancies of CM, MIBC, HNSCC, and PDAC and may be associated with different reductions of recurrence rates. In CM, emerging evidence suggests that neoadjuvant immunotherapy with anti-CTLA-4 plus anti-PD1 is a game changer in patients with palpable nodal Stage III or resectable Stage IV disease by curing more patients, reducing recurrences and the need for surgical interventions, such as lymph node dissections and metastasectomies. The Think Tank panel discussed future approaches on how to optimise results across different tumour types. Future approaches should include reducing monocyte-mediated (tumour-associated macrophages) and fibroblast-mediated (cancer-associated fibroblasts) barriers in the tumour microenvironment to facilitate the recruitment of immune cells to the tumour site, to reduce immune-suppressive mediators, and to increase antigen presentation at the site of the tumour.


Assuntos
Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/uso terapêutico , Terapia Neoadjuvante/métodos , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/terapia , Antígeno CTLA-4/antagonistas & inibidores , Quimioterapia Adjuvante/métodos , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Humanos , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/farmacologia , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/prevenção & controle , Neoplasias/imunologia , Neoplasias/mortalidade , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/antagonistas & inibidores , Microambiente Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos , Microambiente Tumoral/imunologia
8.
Lancet Oncol ; 22(5): 643-654, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33857412

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) 1325/KEYNOTE-054 trial assessed pembrolizumab versus placebo in patients with resected high-risk stage III melanoma. At 15-month median follow-up, pembrolizumab improved recurrence-free survival (hazard ratio [HR] 0·57 [98·4% CI 0·43-0·74], p<0·0001) compared with placebo, leading to its approval in the USA and Europe. This report provides the final results for the secondary efficacy endpoint, distant metastasis-free survival and an update of the recurrence-free survival results. METHODS: This double-blind, randomised, controlled, phase 3 trial was done at 123 academic centres and community hospitals across 23 countries. Patients aged 18 years or older with complete resection of cutaneous melanoma metastatic to lymph node, classified as American Joint Committee on Cancer staging system, seventh edition (AJCC-7) stage IIIA (at least one lymph node metastasis >1 mm), IIIB, or IIIC (without in-transit metastasis), and with an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 0 or 1 were eligible. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1) via a central interactive voice response system to receive intravenous pembrolizumab 200 mg or placebo every 3 weeks for up to 18 doses or until disease recurrence or unacceptable toxicity. Randomisation was stratified according to disease stage and region, using a minimisation technique, and clinical investigators, patients, and those collecting or analysing the data were masked to treatment assignment. The two coprimary endpoints were recurrence-free survival in the intention-to-treat (ITT) population and in patients with PD-L1-positive tumours. The secondary endpoint reported here was distant metastasis-free survival in the ITT and PD-L1-positive populations. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02362594, and EudraCT, 2014-004944-37. FINDINGS: Between Aug 26, 2015, and Nov 14, 2016, 1019 patients were assigned to receive either pembrolizumab (n=514) or placebo (n=505). At an overall median follow-up of 42·3 months (IQR 40·5-45·9), 3·5-year distant metastasis-free survival was higher in the pembrolizumab group than in the placebo group in the ITT population (65·3% [95% CI 60·9-69·5] in the pembrolizumab group vs 49·4% [44·8-53·8] in the placebo group; HR 0·60 [95% CI 0·49-0·73]; p<0·0001). In the 853 patients with PD-L1-positive tumours, 3·5-year distant metastasis-free survival was 66·7% (95% CI 61·8-71·2) in the pembrolizumab group and 51·6% (46·6-56·4) in the placebo group (HR 0·61 [95% CI 0·49-0·76]; p<0·0001). Recurrence-free survival remained longer in the pembrolizumab group 59·8% (95% CI 55·3-64·1) than the placebo group 41·4% (37·0-45·8) at this 3·5-year follow-up in the ITT population (HR 0·59 [95% CI 0·49-0·70]) and in those with PD-L1-positive tumours 61·4% (56·3-66·1) in the pembrolizumab group and 44·1% (39·2-48·8) in the placebo group (HR 0·59 [95% CI 0·49-0·73]). INTERPRETATION: Pembrolizumab adjuvant therapy provided a significant and clinically meaningful improvement in distant metastasis-free survival at a 3·5-year median follow-up, which was consistent with the improvement in recurrence-free survival. Therefore, the results of this trial support the indication to use adjuvant pembrolizumab therapy in patients with resected high risk stage III cutaneous melanoma. FUNDING: Merck Sharp & Dohme.


Assuntos
Melanoma/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Cutâneas/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Melanoma/mortalidade , Melanoma/patologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Metástase Neoplásica , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Neoplasias Cutâneas/mortalidade , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia
9.
Lancet Oncol ; 22(5): 655-664, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33857414

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) 1325-MG/KEYNOTE-054 trial in patients with resected, high-risk stage III melanoma demonstrated improved recurrence-free survival with adjuvant pembrolizumab compared with placebo (hazard ratio 0·57 [98·4% CI 0·43-0·74]; p<0·0001). This study reports the results from the health-related quality-of-life (HRQOL) exploratory endpoint. METHODS: This double-blind, randomised, controlled, phase 3 trial was done at 123 academic centres and community hospitals across 23 countries. Patients aged 18 years or older with previously untreated histologically confirmed stage IIIA, IIIB, or IIIC resected cutaneous melanoma, and an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status score of 1 or 0 were eligible. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1) using a central interactive voice-response system on the basis of a minimisation technique stratified for stage and geographic region to receive intravenously 200 mg pembrolizumab or placebo. Treatment was administered every 3 weeks for 1 year, or until disease recurrence, unacceptable toxicity, or death. The primary endpoint of the trial was recurrence-free survival (reported elsewhere). HRQOL was a prespecified exploratory endpoint, with global health/quality of life (GHQ) over 2 years measured by the EORTC QLQ-C30 as the primary analysis. Analyses were done in the intention-to-treat population. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02362594, and EudraCT, 2014-004944-37, and long-term follow-up is ongoing. FINDINGS: Between Aug 26, 2015, and Nov 14, 2016, 1019 patients were assigned to pembrolizumab (n=514) or placebo (n=505). Median follow-up was 15·1 months (IQR 12·8-16·9) at the time of this analysis. HRQOL compliance was greater than 90% at baseline, greater than 70% during the first year, and greater than 60% thereafter for both groups. Because of low absolute compliance numbers at later follow-up, the analysis was truncated to week 84. Baseline GHQ scores were similar between groups (77·55 [SD 18·20] in the pembrolizumab group and 76·54 [17·81] in the placebo group) and remained stable over time. The difference in average GHQ score between the two groups over the 2 years was -2·2 points (95% CI -4·3 to -0·2). The difference in average score during treatment was -1·1 points (95% CI -3·2 to 0·9) and the difference in average score after treatment was -2·2 points (-4·8 to 0·4). These differences are within the 5-point clinical relevance threshold for the QLQ-C30 and are therefore clinically non-significant. INTERPRETATION: Pembrolizumab does not result in a clinically significant decrease in HRQOL compared with placebo when given as adjuvant therapy for patients with resected, high-risk stage III melanoma. These results support the use of adjuvant pembrolizumab in this setting. FUNDING: Merck Sharp & Dohme.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Melanoma/tratamento farmacológico , Qualidade de Vida , Neoplasias Cutâneas/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Melanoma/mortalidade , Melanoma/patologia , Melanoma/psicologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Neoplasias Cutâneas/mortalidade , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/psicologia
10.
Eur J Cancer ; 148: 316-327, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33770576

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has affected more than 96 million people worldwide, leading the World Health Organization (WHO) to declare a pandemic in March 2020. Although an optimal medical treatment of COVID-19 remains uncertain, an unprecedented global effort to develop an effective vaccine hopes to restore pre-pandemic conditions. Since cancer patients as a group have been shown to be at a higher risk of severe COVID-19, the development of safe and effective vaccines is crucial. However, cancer patients may be underrepresented in ongoing phase 3 randomised clinical trials investigating COVID-19 vaccines. Therefore, we encourage stakeholders to provide real-time data about the characteristics of recruited participants, including clearly identifiable subgroups, like cancer patients, with sample sizes large enough to determine safety and efficacy. Moreover, we envisage a prompt implementation of suitable registries for pharmacovigilance reporting, in order to monitor the effects of COVID-19 vaccines and immunisation rates in patients with cancer. That said, data extrapolation from other vaccine trials (e.g. anti-influenza virus) showed a favourable safety and efficacy profile for cancer patients. On the basis of the evidence discussed, we believe that the benefits of the vaccination outweigh the risks. Consequently, healthcare authorities should prioritise vaccinations for cancer patients, with the time-point of administration agreed on a case-by-case basis. In this regard, the American Society of Clinical Oncology and the European Society of Medical Oncology are advocating for cancer patients a high priority status, in the hope of attenuating the consequences of the pandemic in this particularly vulnerable population.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra COVID-19/uso terapêutico , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Neoplasias/terapia , COVID-19/complicações , Aprovação de Drogas , Desenvolvimento de Medicamentos , Humanos , Neoplasias/complicações , SARS-CoV-2 , Vacinas Atenuadas , Vacinas de Produtos Inativados , Vacinas de Subunidades , Vacinas Sintéticas , Vacinas de Partículas Semelhantes a Vírus
11.
Eur J Cancer ; 147: 164-169, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33684876

RESUMO

A group of patients with adult-type soft tissue sarcoma is at high risk of local recurrence and distant metastases. Age, tumour site, histological subtype, tumour size and grade have been identified as the most important independent adverse prognostic factors. Macroscopically complete tumour resection is considered as the mainstay of treatment with the addition of preoperative or postoperative radiotherapy for extremity or trunk localisation. Retroperitoneal localisation requires compartmental resection and is associated with a worse prognosis. Here, radiotherapy is of no proven value. Perioperative chemotherapy is considered to treat micrometastatic disease not detectable at the time of diagnosis. The neoadjuvant application gives the risk of distant metastasis the greatest importance as therapy is carried out at the earliest possible time, whereas adjuvant chemotherapy is delayed by surgery and the necessary wound healing. With reported response rates up to 30%, both the operability may be improved and the risk of intraoperative tumour cell dissemination may be reduced, resulting also in reduced local relapse rates. However, the potential risk of early tumour progression may counteract this benefit. Optimised strategies with multimodality approaches including chemotherapy, regional hyperthermia (RHT) and immunotherapeutic agents have been shown to improve survival in high-risk patients. Here, we focus on the data from available randomised studies investigating the use of perioperative chemotherapy in patients with high-risk adult-type soft tissue sarcoma, including the use of RHT for local enhancement of chemotherapy effect and immune induction.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Hipertermia Induzida , Terapia Neoadjuvante , Sarcoma/terapia , Neoplasias de Tecidos Moles/terapia , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Quimioterapia Adjuvante , Ensaios Clínicos Fase III como Assunto , Progressão da Doença , Humanos , Hipertermia Induzida/efeitos adversos , Terapia Neoadjuvante/efeitos adversos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Sarcoma/imunologia , Sarcoma/mortalidade , Sarcoma/patologia , Neoplasias de Tecidos Moles/imunologia , Neoplasias de Tecidos Moles/mortalidade , Neoplasias de Tecidos Moles/patologia , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
Surg Oncol Clin N Am ; 30(1): 103-123, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33220800

RESUMO

An overview of all liver-directed locoregional therapies, including surgical resection for melanoma liver metastases (MLMs), is provided. MLM patients are divided by their primary melanoma location; cutaneous, uvea (eye), and mucosal melanoma. If patients with isolated cutaneous MLMs are considered for surgical resection, treatment with systemic therapy should be part of the treatment course. For uveal MLMs, complete surgical or ablative treatment of all MLMs suggests superior results compared with other liver-directed or systemic therapies, based on current evidence, no recommendations for any liver-directed regional therapy in the treatment of mucosal MLMs can be made.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Hepáticas , Melanoma , Neoplasias Uveais , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/terapia , Melanoma/terapia
14.
Eur J Cancer ; 140: 11-18, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33032086

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Patients with stage I/IIA cutaneous melanoma (CM) are currently not eligible for adjuvant therapies despite uncertainty in relapse risk. Here, we studied the ability of a recently developed model which combines clinicopathologic and gene expression variables (CP-GEP) to identify stage I/IIA melanoma patients who have a high risk for disease relapse. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Archival specimens from a cohort of 837 consecutive primary CMs were used for assessing the prognostic performance of CP-GEP. The CP-GEP model combines Breslow thickness and patient age, with the expression of eight genes in the primary tumour. Our specific patient group, represented by 580 stage I/IIA patients, was stratified based on their risk of relapse: CP-GEP High Risk and CP-GEP Low Risk. The main clinical end-point of this study was five-year relapse-free survival (RFS). RESULTS: Within the stage I/IIA melanoma group, CP-GEP identified a high-risk patient group (47% of total stage I/IIA patients) which had a considerably worse five-year RFS than the low-risk patient group; 74% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 67%-80%) versus 89% (95% CI: 84%-93%); hazard ratio [HR] = 2.98 (95% CI: 1.78-4.98); P < 0.0001. Of patients in the high-risk group, those who relapsed were most likely to do so within the first 3 years. CONCLUSION: The CP-GEP model can be used to identify stage I/IIA patients who have a high risk for disease relapse. These patients may benefit from adjuvant therapy.


Assuntos
Expressão Gênica/genética , Melanoma/genética , Melanoma/patologia , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/genética , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/patologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/genética , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Intervalos de Confiança , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Adulto Jovem
15.
J Clin Oncol ; 38(33): 3925-3936, 2020 11 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32946353

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We conducted the phase III double-blind European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) 1325/KEYNOTE-054 trial to evaluate pembrolizumab versus placebo in patients with resected high-risk stage III melanoma. On the basis of 351 recurrence-free survival (RFS) events at a 1.25-year median follow-up, pembrolizumab prolonged RFS (hazard ratio [HR], 0.57; P < .0001) compared with placebo. This led to the approval of pembrolizumab adjuvant treatment by the European Medicines Agency and US Food and Drug Administration. Here, we report an updated RFS analysis at the 3.05-year median follow-up. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 1,019 patients with complete lymph node dissection of American Joint Committee on Cancer Staging Manual (seventh edition; AJCC-7), stage IIIA (at least one lymph node metastasis > 1 mm), IIIB, or IIIC (without in-transit metastasis) cutaneous melanoma were randomly assigned to receive pembrolizumab at a flat dose of 200 mg (n = 514) or placebo (n = 505) every 3 weeks for 1 year or until disease recurrence or unacceptable toxicity. The two coprimary end points were RFS in the overall population and in those with programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1)-positive tumors. RESULTS: Pembrolizumab (190 RFS events) compared with placebo (283 RFS events) resulted in prolonged RFS in the overall population (3-year RFS rate, 63.7% v 44.1% for pembrolizumab v placebo, respectively; HR, 0.56; 95% CI, 0.47 to 0.68) and in the PD-L1-positive tumor subgroup (HR, 0.57; 99% CI, 0.43 to 0.74). The impact of pembrolizumab on RFS was similar in subgroups, in particular according to AJCC-7 and AJCC-8 staging, and BRAF mutation status (HR, 0.51 [99% CI, 0.36 to 0.73] v 0.66 [99% CI, 0.46 to 0.95] for V600E/K v wild type). CONCLUSION: In resected high-risk stage III melanoma, pembrolizumab adjuvant therapy provided a sustained and clinically meaningful improvement in RFS at 3-year median follow-up. This improvement was consistent across subgroups.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Melanoma/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Cutâneas/tratamento farmacológico , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/efeitos adversos , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/efeitos adversos , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Antígeno B7-H1/biossíntese , Quimioterapia Adjuvante , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Método Duplo-Cego , Seguimentos , Humanos , Excisão de Linfonodo , Linfonodos/patologia , Linfonodos/cirurgia , Melanoma/patologia , Melanoma/cirurgia , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/genética , Fatores de Risco , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/cirurgia
17.
J Clin Oncol ; 38(22): 2543-2551, 2020 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32530760

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Three new therapies have been approved recently for the adjuvant treatment of stage III melanoma, substantially reducing the risk of tumor recurrences. This study evaluates 3 independent data sets to clarify the survival probabilities of patients with stage III melanoma. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The Central Malignant Melanoma Registry (CMMR) evaluated 1,553 patients with a primary diagnosis of stage III melanoma from 2000 to 2012. Studies from the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC), of 573 patients in the observation arm of the 18991 study and 445 patients in the placebo arm of the 18071 study, were evaluated as reference cohorts. The survival outcomes were compared with the published American Joint Committee on Cancer version 8 (AJCCv8) stage III survival data. RESULTS: For the CMMR stage III cohort versus the AJCCv8 cohort, the melanoma-specific survival (MSS) rates at 5 years were 67% versus 77%, and at 10 years were 56% versus 69%, respectively. For stage IIIA, the MSS rates at 5 years were 80% versus 93%, and at 10 years were 71% versus 88%; for stage IIIB, the MSS rates at 5 years were 75% versus 83%, and at 10 years were 61% versus 77%. The MSS rates of the EORTC studies either overlapped with or were lower than, the CMMR data. CONCLUSION: The MSS rates in the CMMR and EORTC cohorts over the entire stage III are less favorable than those published in AJCCv8. This is particularly true for substages IIIA and IIIB.


Assuntos
Melanoma/classificação , Melanoma/patologia , Estadiamento de Neoplasias/normas , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Taxa de Sobrevida
19.
Eur J Cancer ; 133: 94-103, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32470710

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Subgroup analyses of two large EORTC adjuvant interferon-alpha2b (IFNα-2b) vs observation randomised trials demonstrated that a treatment benefit was observed only in patients with an ulcerated melanoma without palpable nodes (hazard ratio [HR] for recurrence-free survival [RFS] was 0.69). This was confirmed by a meta-analysis of 15 adjuvant IFN trials (HR: 0.79). PATIENTS AND METHODS: In the EORTC 18081 trial, sentinel node-negative stage II patients with an ulcerated primary melanoma were 1:1 randomised between pegylated (PEG)-IFNα-2b at 3 µg/kg/week subcutaneously and observation, for 2 years, or until disease recurrence or unacceptable toxicity in spite of dose adjustments to maintain an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 0 or 1. Main end-point was RFS. Secondary end-points included distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS), overall survival, and safety (EudraCT Number: 2009-010273-20). RESULTS: Between February 2013 and January 2017, only 112 patients were randomised, 56 in each arm. The trial was stopped early for lack of recruitment. At a 3.4-year median follow-up, the estimated HR for the PEG-IFNα-2b group compared with the observation group regarding RFS was 0.66 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.32-1.37), and the 3-year RFS rate was 80.0% (95% CI: 65.7-88.8%) and 72.9% (95% CI: 58.3-83.0%), respectively. DMFS was prolonged: HR: 0.39 (95% CI: 0.15-0.97), and the 3-year DMFS rate was 90.6% (95% CI: 78.9-96.0%) vs 76.4% (95% CI: 62.1-85.9%). One patient in the PEG-IFNα-2b group died compared with 4 in the observation group. Fifty-four patients started PEG-IFNα-2b treatment, 16 (29%) completed 2 years of treatment, 2 (4%) stopped due to recurrence, 23 (43%) due to toxicity and 14 (25%) due to other reasons. CONCLUSIONS: The EORTC 18081 PEG-IFNα-2b randomised trial, observed a similar HR (0.69) for RFS as the previous EORTC trials (0.69). In countries without access to new drugs, adjuvant (PEG)-IFNα-2b treatment is an option for patients with ulcerated melanomas without palpable nodes.


Assuntos
Interferon alfa-2/administração & dosagem , Interferon-alfa/administração & dosagem , Melanoma/terapia , Polietilenoglicóis/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias Cutâneas/terapia , Úlcera Cutânea/terapia , Conduta Expectante , Adulto , Idoso , Quimioterapia Adjuvante , Terapia Combinada , Esquema de Medicação , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Injeções Subcutâneas , Masculino , Oncologia/organização & administração , Melanoma/complicações , Melanoma/mortalidade , Melanoma/patologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Proteínas Recombinantes/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias Cutâneas/complicações , Neoplasias Cutâneas/mortalidade , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia , Úlcera Cutânea/complicações , Úlcera Cutânea/mortalidade , Úlcera Cutânea/patologia , Sociedades Médicas/organização & administração , Análise de Sobrevida , Conduta Expectante/métodos
20.
Eur J Cancer ; 132: 207-210, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32388064

RESUMO

Adjuvant therapy with PD-1 inhibitors for resected Stage III/IV melanoma reduces the risk of recurrence by 40-50% and is now a standard of care. Immune-related adverse events occurred in approximately 37% of patients in the pivotal trials, 10-15% were severe (grade III-IV). Endocrine toxicities were common and mostly irreversible. Thyroid toxicity occurred in 15-20% of patients, hypophysitis (2.2%), insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (1%) and adrenalitis (1%). Revision of the American Joint Committee on Cancer staging system (version 8) has resulted in a significant improvement in prognosis for patients with Stage III disease. As a result, clinicians may now offer adjuvant immunotherapy to patients with a lower risk of recurrence than those in the pivotal trials. There is a need to balance the relatively small reduction of absolute risk of recurrence against the risk and impact of toxicity. Five-ten percent of biochemically euthyroid patients on levothyroxine report symptoms of depression. Hypogonadism can result from toxicity to the hypothalamic-pituitary axis, and can lead to sexual dysfunction and subfertility. Secondary hypogonadism can be treated by the administration of Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH) and Luteinising Hormone (LH) which induce spermatogenesis/ovulation in a functioning gonad but is not always successful. Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus often presents with rapid onset of hyperglycemia and potentially life-threatening diabetic ketoacidosis. Long-term adverse outcomes are likely to mimic Type 1 DM with a 6-fold increase in cardiovascular disease related mortality and 3-fold in all-cause mortality. These survivorship issues are relevant to all melanoma patients but are particularly pertinent where the absolute benefit is modest.


Assuntos
Adjuvantes Imunológicos/efeitos adversos , Quimioterapia Adjuvante/efeitos adversos , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/etiologia , Imunoterapia/efeitos adversos , Melanoma/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Cutâneas/tratamento farmacológico , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/patologia , Humanos , Melanoma/imunologia , Melanoma/patologia , Prognóstico , Neoplasias Cutâneas/imunologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia , Taxa de Sobrevida
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