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1.
Sci Total Environ ; 677: 466-473, 2019 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31063889

RESUMO

Mercury (Hg), cadmium (Cd), and lead (Pb) are of great concern for food safety and infants are especially sensitive to exposure to the maternal body burden. We quantified these elements in breast milk from Norwegian mothers and determined their association with dietary habits, maternal amalgam fillings, and smoking. Breast milk (n = 300) from the Norwegian Human Milk Study (HUMIS) was analyzed using triple quadrupole inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, after an acidic decomposition using microwave technique. We used multiple linear regression to examine predictors of Hg and Cd in breast milk, and logistic regression to test predictors of Pb above the quantification limit. The median breast milk concentrations (minimum - maximum) were 0.20 µg Hg/kg (<0.058-0.89), 0.057 µg Cd/kg (0.017-1.2), and <0.67 µg Pb/kg (<0.2-7.5). Cadmium showed no significant relation with any exposure variable investigated. Lead was associated with intake of liver and kidneys from game. For Hg concentration in breast milk, number of amalgam fillings and high fish consumption were significant predictors (p < 0.001). We detected a significant association (p < 0.01) between Hg in breast milk and maternal consumption of Atlantic halibut, lean fish, mussels and scallops and lifetime consumption of crab. Seafood intake alone explained 10% of variance, while together with amalgam explained 46% of variance in Hg concentration in breast milk. Our findings emphasize the importance of following consumer advice with respect to fish and seafood and points to amalgam as an important source for Hg exposure.


Assuntos
Cádmio/metabolismo , Amálgama Dentário/análise , Dieta , Poluentes Ambientais/metabolismo , Chumbo/metabolismo , Mercúrio/metabolismo , Leite Humano/química , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Mães/estatística & dados numéricos , Noruega , Adulto Jovem
2.
JAMA ; 321(17): 1702-1715, 2019 05 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31063572

RESUMO

Importance: Both low and high gestational weight gain have been associated with adverse maternal and infant outcomes, but optimal gestational weight gain remains uncertain and not well defined for all prepregnancy weight ranges. Objectives: To examine the association of ranges of gestational weight gain with risk of adverse maternal and infant outcomes and estimate optimal gestational weight gain ranges across prepregnancy body mass index categories. Design, Setting, and Participants: Individual participant-level meta-analysis using data from 196 670 participants within 25 cohort studies from Europe and North America (main study sample). Optimal gestational weight gain ranges were estimated for each prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) category by selecting the range of gestational weight gain that was associated with lower risk for any adverse outcome. Individual participant-level data from 3505 participants within 4 separate hospital-based cohorts were used as a validation sample. Data were collected between 1989 and 2015. The final date of follow-up was December 2015. Exposures: Gestational weight gain. Main Outcomes and Measures: The main outcome termed any adverse outcome was defined as the presence of 1 or more of the following outcomes: preeclampsia, gestational hypertension, gestational diabetes, cesarean delivery, preterm birth, and small or large size for gestational age at birth. Results: Of the 196 670 women (median age, 30.0 years [quartile 1 and 3, 27.0 and 33.0 years] and 40 937 were white) included in the main sample, 7809 (4.0%) were categorized at baseline as underweight (BMI <18.5); 133 788 (68.0%), normal weight (BMI, 18.5-24.9); 38 828 (19.7%), overweight (BMI, 25.0-29.9); 11 992 (6.1%), obesity grade 1 (BMI, 30.0-34.9); 3284 (1.7%), obesity grade 2 (BMI, 35.0-39.9); and 969 (0.5%), obesity grade 3 (BMI, ≥40.0). Overall, any adverse outcome occurred in 37.2% (n = 73 161) of women, ranging from 34.7% (2706 of 7809) among women categorized as underweight to 61.1% (592 of 969) among women categorized as obesity grade 3. Optimal gestational weight gain ranges were 14.0 kg to less than 16.0 kg for women categorized as underweight; 10.0 kg to less than 18.0 kg for normal weight; 2.0 kg to less than 16.0 kg for overweight; 2.0 kg to less than 6.0 kg for obesity grade 1; weight loss or gain of 0 kg to less than 4.0 kg for obesity grade 2; and weight gain of 0 kg to less than 6.0 kg for obesity grade 3. These gestational weight gain ranges were associated with low to moderate discrimination between those with and those without adverse outcomes (range for area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, 0.55-0.76). Results for discriminative performance in the validation sample were similar to the corresponding results in the main study sample (range for area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, 0.51-0.79). Conclusions and Relevance: In this meta-analysis of pooled individual participant data from 25 cohort studies, the risk for adverse maternal and infant outcomes varied by gestational weight gain and across the range of prepregnancy weights. The estimates of optimal gestational weight gain may inform prenatal counseling; however, the optimal gestational weight gain ranges had limited predictive value for the outcomes assessed.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Ganho de Peso na Gestação , Complicações na Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez , Adulto , Peso ao Nascer , Cesárea/estatística & dados numéricos , Diabetes Gestacional , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão Induzida pela Gravidez , Recém-Nascido , Obesidade , Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro
3.
Microbiome ; 7(1): 34, 2019 02 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30813950

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Early disruption of the microbial community may influence life-long health. Environmental toxicants can contaminate breast milk and the developing infant gut microbiome is directly exposed. We investigated whether environmental toxicants in breastmilk affect the composition and function of the infant gut microbiome at 1 month. We measured environmental toxicants in breastmilk, fecal short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), and gut microbial composition from 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing using samples from 267 mother-child pairs in the Norwegian Microbiota Cohort (NoMIC). We tested 28 chemical exposures: polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated flame retardants (PBDEs), per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), and organochlorine pesticides. We assessed chemical exposure and alpha diversity/SCFAs using elastic net regression modeling and generalized linear models, adjusting for confounders, and variation in beta diversity (UniFrac), taxa abundance (ANCOM), and predicted metagenomes (PiCRUSt) in low, medium, and high exposed groups. RESULTS: PBDE-28 and the surfactant perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) were associated with less microbiome diversity. Some sub-OTUs of Lactobacillus, an important genus in early life, were lower in abundance in samples from infants with relative "high" (> 80th percentile) vs. "low" (< 20th percentile) toxicant exposure in this cohort. Moreover, breast milk toxicants were associated with microbiome functionality, explaining up to 34% of variance in acetic and propionic SCFAs, essential signaling molecules. Per one standard deviation of exposure, PBDE-28 was associated with less propionic acid (- 24% [95% CI - 35% to - 14%] relative to the mean), and PCB-209 with less acetic acid (- 15% [95% CI - 29% to - 0.4%]). Conversely, PFOA and dioxin-like PCB-167 were associated with 61% (95% CI 35% to 87%) and 22% (95% CI 8% to 35%) more propionic and acetic acid, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Environmental toxicant exposure may influence infant gut microbial function during a critical developmental window. Future studies are needed to replicate these novel findings and investigate whether this has any impact on child health.


Assuntos
Bactérias/classificação , Poluentes Ambientais/efeitos adversos , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/análise , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Leite Humano/química , Adulto , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias/genética , Biodiversidade , Estudos de Coortes , DNA Bacteriano/genética , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Fezes/química , Fezes/microbiologia , Retardadores de Chama/efeitos adversos , Retardadores de Chama/análise , Humanos , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/efeitos adversos , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/análise , Recém-Nascido , Idade Materna , Metabolômica , Noruega , Praguicidas/efeitos adversos , Praguicidas/análise , Bifenilos Policlorados/efeitos adversos , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos
4.
Environ Int ; 125: 33-42, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30703609

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Numerous ubiquitous environmental chemicals are established or suspected neurotoxicants, and infants are exposed to a mixture of these during the critical period of brain maturation. However, evidence for associations with the risk of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is sparse. We investigated early-life chemical exposures in relation to ADHD. METHODS: We used a birth cohort of 2606 Norwegian mother-child pairs enrolled 2002-2009 (HUMIS), and studied a subset of 1199 pairs oversampled for child neurodevelopmental outcomes. Concentrations of 27 persistent organic pollutants (14 polychlorinated biphenyls, 5 organochlorine pesticides, 6 brominated flame retardants, and 2 perfluoroalkyl substances) were measured in breast milk, reflecting the child's early-life exposures. We estimated postnatal exposures in the first 2 years of life using a pharmacokinetic model. Fifty-five children had a clinical diagnosis of ADHD (hyperkinetic disorder) by 2016, at a median age of 13 years. We used elastic net penalized logistic regression models to identify associations while adjusting for co-exposure confounding, and subsequently used multivariable logistic regression models to obtain effect estimates for the selected exposures. RESULTS: Breast milk concentrations of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and ß­hexachlorocyclohexane (ß-HCH) were associated with increased odds of ADHD: odds ratio (OR) = 1.77, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.16, 2.72 and OR = 1.75, 95% CI: 1.22, 2.53, per interquartile range increase in ln-transformed concentrations, respectively. Stronger associations were observed among girls than boys for PFOS (pinteraction = 0.025). p,p'­Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (p,p'-DDT) levels were associated with lower odds of ADHD (OR = 0.64, 95% CI: 0.42, 0.97). Hexachlorobenzene (HCB) had a non-linear association with ADHD, with increasing risk in the low-level exposure range that switched to a decreasing risk at concentrations above 8 ng/g lipid. Postnatal exposures showed similar results, whereas effect estimates for other chemicals were weaker and imprecise. CONCLUSIONS: In a multi-pollutant analysis of four classes of chemicals, early-life exposure to ß-HCH and PFOS was associated with increased risk of ADHD, with suggestion of sex-specific effects for PFOS. The unexpected inverse associations between p,p'-DDT and higher HCB levels and ADHD could be due to live birth bias; alternatively, results may be due to chance findings.


Assuntos
Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos/análise , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/epidemiologia , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Retardadores de Chama/análise , Fluorcarbonetos/análise , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/análise , Leite Humano/química , Adolescente , Adulto , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Noruega/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
5.
PLoS Med ; 16(2): e1002744, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30742624

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Maternal obesity and excessive gestational weight gain may have persistent effects on offspring fat development. However, it remains unclear whether these effects differ by severity of obesity, and whether these effects are restricted to the extremes of maternal body mass index (BMI) and gestational weight gain. We aimed to assess the separate and combined associations of maternal BMI and gestational weight gain with the risk of overweight/obesity throughout childhood, and their population impact. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted an individual participant data meta-analysis of data from 162,129 mothers and their children from 37 pregnancy and birth cohort studies from Europe, North America, and Australia. We assessed the individual and combined associations of maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and gestational weight gain, both in clinical categories and across their full ranges, with the risks of overweight/obesity in early (2.0-5.0 years), mid (5.0-10.0 years) and late childhood (10.0-18.0 years), using multilevel binary logistic regression models with a random intercept at cohort level adjusted for maternal sociodemographic and lifestyle-related characteristics. We observed that higher maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and gestational weight gain both in clinical categories and across their full ranges were associated with higher risks of childhood overweight/obesity, with the strongest effects in late childhood (odds ratios [ORs] for overweight/obesity in early, mid, and late childhood, respectively: OR 1.66 [95% CI: 1.56, 1.78], OR 1.91 [95% CI: 1.85, 1.98], and OR 2.28 [95% CI: 2.08, 2.50] for maternal overweight; OR 2.43 [95% CI: 2.24, 2.64], OR 3.12 [95% CI: 2.98, 3.27], and OR 4.47 [95% CI: 3.99, 5.23] for maternal obesity; and OR 1.39 [95% CI: 1.30, 1.49], OR 1.55 [95% CI: 1.49, 1.60], and OR 1.72 [95% CI: 1.56, 1.91] for excessive gestational weight gain). The proportions of childhood overweight/obesity prevalence attributable to maternal overweight, maternal obesity, and excessive gestational weight gain ranged from 10.2% to 21.6%. Relative to the effect of maternal BMI, excessive gestational weight gain only slightly increased the risk of childhood overweight/obesity within each clinical BMI category (p-values for interactions of maternal BMI with gestational weight gain: p = 0.038, p < 0.001, and p = 0.637 in early, mid, and late childhood, respectively). Limitations of this study include the self-report of maternal BMI and gestational weight gain for some of the cohorts, and the potential of residual confounding. Also, as this study only included participants from Europe, North America, and Australia, results need to be interpreted with caution with respect to other populations. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, higher maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and gestational weight gain were associated with an increased risk of childhood overweight/obesity, with the strongest effects at later ages. The additional effect of gestational weight gain in women who are overweight or obese before pregnancy is small. Given the large population impact, future intervention trials aiming to reduce the prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity should focus on maternal weight status before pregnancy, in addition to weight gain during pregnancy.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Análise de Dados , Ganho de Peso na Gestação/fisiologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/epidemiologia , Austrália/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , América do Norte/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/diagnóstico , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/diagnóstico , Gravidez , Fatores de Risco
7.
BMC Med ; 16(1): 201, 2018 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30396358

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gestational weight gain differs according to pre-pregnancy body mass index and is related to the risks of adverse maternal and child health outcomes. Gestational weight gain charts for women in different pre-pregnancy body mass index groups enable identification of women and offspring at risk for adverse health outcomes. We aimed to construct gestational weight gain reference charts for underweight, normal weight, overweight, and grades 1, 2 and 3 obese women and to compare these charts with those obtained in women with uncomplicated term pregnancies. METHODS: We used individual participant data from 218,216 pregnant women participating in 33 cohorts from Europe, North America, and Oceania. Of these women, 9065 (4.2%), 148,697 (68.1%), 42,678 (19.6%), 13,084 (6.0%), 3597 (1.6%), and 1095 (0.5%) were underweight, normal weight, overweight, and grades 1, 2, and 3 obese women, respectively. A total of 138, 517 women from 26 cohorts had pregnancies with no hypertensive or diabetic disorders and with term deliveries of appropriate for gestational age at birth infants. Gestational weight gain charts for underweight, normal weight, overweight, and grade 1, 2, and 3 obese women were derived by the Box-Cox t method using the generalized additive model for location, scale, and shape. RESULTS: We observed that gestational weight gain strongly differed per maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index group. The median (interquartile range) gestational weight gain at 40 weeks was 14.2 kg (11.4-17.4) for underweight women, 14.5 kg (11.5-17.7) for normal weight women, 13.9 kg (10.1-17.9) for overweight women, and 11.2 kg (7.0-15.7), 8.7 kg (4.3-13.4) and 6.3 kg (1.9-11.1) for grades 1, 2, and 3 obese women, respectively. The rate of weight gain was lower in the first half than in the second half of pregnancy. No differences in the patterns of weight gain were observed between cohorts or countries. Similar weight gain patterns were observed in mothers without pregnancy complications. CONCLUSIONS: Gestational weight gain patterns are strongly related to pre-pregnancy body mass index. The derived charts can be used to assess gestational weight gain in etiological research and as a monitoring tool for weight gain during pregnancy in clinical practice.

8.
Nutrients ; 10(9)2018 Aug 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30420587

RESUMO

Human milk provides essential substrates for the optimal growth and development of a breastfed infant. Besides providing nutrients to the infant, human milk also contains metabolites which form an intricate system between maternal lifestyle, such as the mother's diet and the gut microbiome, and infant outcomes. This study investigates the variation of these human milk metabolites from five different countries. Human milk samples (n = 109) were collected one month postpartum from Australia, Japan, the USA, Norway, and South Africa and were analyzed by nuclear magnetic resonance. The partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) showed separation between either maternal countries of origin or ethnicities. Variation between countries in concentration of metabolites, such as 2-oxoglutarate, creatine, and glutamine, in human milk, between countries, could provide insights into problems, such as mastitis and/or impaired functions of the mammary glands. Several important markers of milk production, such as lactose, betaine, creatine, glutamate, and glutamine, showed good correlation between each metabolite. This work highlights the importance of milk metabolites with respect to maternal lifestyle and the environment, and also provides the framework for future breastfeeding and microbiome studies in a global context.

9.
MBio ; 9(5)2018 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30352933

RESUMO

Childhood obesity is a growing problem worldwide. Recent research suggests that the gut microbiota may play an important and potentially causal role in the development of obesity and may be one mechanism that explains the transgenerational transmission of obesity risk. Here we examine the early-life gut microbiota at days 4, 10, 30, 120, 365, and 730 and the association with body mass index (BMI) z-scores at age 12 in a Norwegian prospective cohort (n = 165), and evaluate how these BMI-associated taxa relate to maternal overweight/obesity (Ow/Ob) and excessive gestational weight gain (GWG). We performed 16S rRNA gene sequencing on the gut microbiota samples. Taxonomic phylogeny at days 10 and 730 was significantly associated with childhood BMI, and the gut microbiota taxa at two years of age explained over 50% of the variation in childhood BMI in this cohort. The subset of the early-life taxa within the gut microbiota that best predicted later childhood BMI showed substantial overlap with the maternal taxa most strongly associated with maternal Ow/Ob and excessive GWG. Our results show an association between the infant gut microbiota and later BMI, and they offer preliminary evidence that the infant gut microbiota, particularly at 2 years of age, may have potential to help identify children at risk for obesity.IMPORTANCE Understanding the role of the early-life gut microbiota in obesity is important because there may be opportunities for preventive strategies. We examined the relationships between infant gut microbiota at six times during the first two years of life and BMI at age 12 in a birth cohort of 165 children and their mothers. We found that the gut microbiota from early life to two years shows an increasingly strong association with childhood BMI. This study provides preliminary evidence that the gut microbiome at 2 years of age may offer useful information to help to identify youth who are at risk for obesity, which could facilitate more-targeted early prevention efforts.

10.
Int J Epidemiol ; 47(4): 1082-1097, 2018 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29912347

RESUMO

Background: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is increasing worldwide for reasons largely unknown and environmental chemicals with neurotoxic properties, such as persistent organic pollutants (POPs), have been proposed to play a role. We investigated the association between prenatal and postnatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyl-153 (PCB-153), p-p´-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p-p'-DDE) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and ADHD in childhood. Methods: We pooled seven European birth cohort studies encompassing 4437 mother-child pairs from the general population with concentrations of PCB-153, p-p´-DDE and HCB measured in cord blood, maternal blood or milk. We then calculated prenatal (birth) and postnatal (3, 6, 12 and 24 months) POP concentrations using a pharmacokinetic model. The operational definition of ADHD varied across cohorts and ranged from doctor diagnosis obtained from patient registries to maternal or teachers reports. We used multilevel (mixed) logistic regression models to estimate the associations between exposure to POPs at birth, 3, 6, 12 and 24 months and ADHD. Results: The global prevalence of ADHD in our study was 6%. The mean age at assessment of ADHD was 5.8 years (range: 3.8-9.5 years). We found no association between exposure to PCB-153, p-p´-DDE and HCB at any age point between birth and 24 months and ADHD, in the pooled analyses (pooled odds ratios ranging from 1.00 to 1.01). A number of sensitivity analyses gave basically the same results. Conclusions: In the largest study to date of 4437 children in seven European birth cohorts, we did not observe any association between either pre- or postnatal exposure (up to 24 months) to PCB-153, p-p´-DDE and HCB and the risk of ADHD before the age of 10 years.

11.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 9067, 2018 Jun 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29899542

RESUMO

Iron overload due to environmental or genetic causes have been associated diabetes. We hypothesized that prenatal iron exposure is associated with higher risk of childhood type 1 diabetes. In the Norwegian Mother and Child cohort study (n = 94,209 pregnancies, n = 373 developed type 1 diabetes) the incidence of type 1 diabetes was higher in children exposed to maternal iron supplementation than unexposed (36.8/100,000/year compared to 28.6/100,000/year, adjusted hazard ratio 1.33, 95%CI: 1.06-1.67). Cord plasma biomarkers of high iron status were non-significantly associated with higher risk of type 1 diabetes (ferritin OR = 1.05 [95%CI: 0.99-1.13] per 50 mg/L increase; soluble transferrin receptor: OR = 0.91 [95%CI: 0.81-1.01] per 0.5 mg/L increase). Maternal but not fetal HFE genotypes causing high/intermediate iron stores were associated with offspring diabetes (odds ratio: 1.45, 95%CI: 1.04, 2.02). Maternal anaemia or non-iron dietary supplements did not significantly predict type 1 diabetes. Perinatal iron exposures were not associated with cord blood DNA genome-wide methylation, but fetal HFE genotype was associated with differential fetal methylation near HFE. Maternal cytokines in mid-pregnancy of the pro-inflammatory M1 pathway differed by maternal iron supplements and HFE genotype. Our results suggest that exposure to iron during pregnancy may be a risk factor for type 1 diabetes in the offspring.

12.
Int J Epidemiol ; 47(5): 1658-1669, 2018 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29688458

RESUMO

Background: Preterm infants have low gut microbial diversity and few anaerobes. It is unclear whether the low diversity pertains to prematurity itself or is due to differences in delivery mode, feeding mode or exposure to antibiotics. Methods: The Norwegian Microbiota Study (NoMIC) was established to examine the colonization of the infant gut and health outcomes. 16S rRNA gene Illumina amplicon-sequenced samples from 519 children (160 preterms), collected at 10 days, 4 months and 1 year postnatally, were used to calculate alpha diversity. Short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) were analysed with gas chromatography and quantified using flame ionization detection. We regressed alpha diversity on gestational age, taking into account possible confounding and mediating factors, such as breastfeeding and antibiotics. Taxonomic differences were tested using Analysis of Composition of Microbiomes (ANCOM) and SCFA profile (as a functional indicator of the microbiota) was tested by Wilcoxon rank-sum. Results: Preterm infants had 0.45 Shannon units lower bacterial diversity at 10 days postnatally compared with infants born at term (95% confidence interval: -0.60, -0.32). Breastfeeding status and antibiotic exposure were not significant mediators of the gestational age-diversity association, although time spent in the neonatal intensive care unit was. Vaginally born, exclusively breastfed preterm infantss not exposed to antibiotics at 10 days postnatally had fewer Firmicutes and more Proteobacteria than children born at term and an SCFA profile indicating lower saccharolytic fermentation. Conclusions: Preterm infants had distinct gut microbiome composition and function in the early postnatal period, not explained by factors more common in preterms, such as shorter breastfeeding duration, more antibiotics or caesarean delivery.

13.
Environ Int ; 115: 267-278, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29605679

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: There is evidence that endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) have developmental effects at environmental concentrations. We investigated whether some EDCs are associated with the adverse birth outcome Small for Gestational Age (SGA). METHODS: We used PCB 153, p,p'-DDE, HCB, PFOS and PFOA measured in maternal, cord blood or breast milk samples of 5446 mother-child pairs (subset of 693 for the perfluorinated compounds) from seven European birth cohorts (1997-2012). SGA infants were those with birth weight below the 10th percentile for the norms defined by gestational age, country and infant's sex. We modelled the association between measured or estimated cord serum EDC concentrations and SGA using multiple logistic regression analyses. We explored effect modification by child's sex and maternal smoking during pregnancy. RESULTS: Among the 5446 newborns, 570 (10.5%) were SGA. An interquartile range (IQR) increase in PCB 153 was associated with a modestly increased risk of SGA (odds ratio (OR) of 1.05 [95% CI: 1.04-1.07]) that was stronger in girls (OR of 1.09 [95% CI: 1.04-1.14]) than in boys (OR of 1.03 [95% CI: 1.03-1.04]) (p-interaction = 0.025). For HCB, we found a modestly increased odds of SGA in girls (OR of 1.04 [95% CI: 1.01-1.07] per IQR increase), and an inverse association in boys (OR of 0.90 [95% CI: 0.85-0.95]) (p-interaction = 0.0003). Assessment of the HCB-sex-smoking interaction suggested that the increased odds of SGA associated with HCB exposure was only in girls of smoking mothers (OR of 1.18 [95% CI: 1.11-1.25]) (p-interaction = 0.055). Higher concentrations of PFOA were associated with greater risk of SGA (OR of 1.64 [95% CI: 0.97-2.76]). Elevated PFOS levels were associated with increased odds of SGA in newborns of mothers who smoked during pregnancy (OR of 1.63 [95% CI: 1.02-2.59]), while an inverse association was found in those of non-smoking mothers (OR of 0.66 [95% CI: 0.61-0.72]) (p-interaction = 0.0004). No significant associations were found for p,p'-DDE. CONCLUSIONS: Prenatal environmental exposure to organochlorine and perfluorinated compounds with endocrine disrupting properties may contribute to the prevalence of SGA. We found indication of effect modification by child's sex and smoking during pregnancy. The direction of the associations differed by chemical and these effect modifiers, suggesting diverse mechanisms of action and biological pathways.

14.
Pediatr Res ; 84(2): 219-227, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29538359

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recent evidence supports that the gut microbiota may be involved in the pathophysiology of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), and may also offer avenues for treatment or prevention. METHODS: We investigated the associations among gut microbiota, diet, and hepatic fat fraction (HFF) in 107 adolescents. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to assess HFF, and 16S rRNA gene sequencing was performed on collected fecal samples. Dietary intake was assessed using Food Frequency Questionnaires. We examined the association between gut microbiota alpha diversity and HFF, and assessed the predictive accuracy for HFF of (1) taxonomic composition, (2) dietary intake, (3) demographic and comorbid conditions, and (4) the combination of these. RESULTS: Lower alpha diversity was associated with higher HFF (ß=-0.19, 95% confidence interval (CI) -0.36, -0.02). The selected taxa explained 17.7% (95% CI: 16.0-19.4%) of the variation in HFF. The combination of two of these taxa, Bilophila and Paraprevotella, with dietary intake of monounsaturated fatty acids and BMI z-scores explained 32.0% (95% CI: 30.3-33.6%) of the variation in HFF. CONCLUSION: The gut microbiota is associated with HFF in adolescents and may be useful to help identify youth who would be amenable to gut microbiota-based interventions.

15.
PLoS One ; 12(10): e0184336, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29069100

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Preterm birth is the main reason for neonatal deaths worldwide. We investigate whether maternal gut microbiota may play a previously overlooked role. METHODS: The Norwegian Microbiota Study (NoMIC) is a case control study on preterm birth (<259 days of gestation, calculated primarily based on the last menstrual period), including two consecutively born term infants per infant born prematurely. Eligible mothers were fluent in Norwegian and recruited from the maternity ward at a county hospital in Eastern Norway in the period 2002-2005. Fecal samples were collected at day 4 postpartum, and analyzed using 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing. We used samples from 121 mothers giving birth vaginally. Measures of alpha diversity (Shannon, Phylogenetic Diversity and Observed Operational Taxonomic Units) and microbiome composition were combined with information from the Medical Birth Registry, pregnancy journals, and questionnaires. RESULTS: The association between maternal gut diversity and preterm delivery was examined using logistic regression. One IQR increase in Shannon diversity was significantly associated with 38% lower odds of spontaneous preterm birth, (95% confident interval (CI): 1%, 61%), and the association was stronger when adjusting for maternal age, marital status, ethnicity, parity, BMI, education, antibiotic use, pets in the household, income and smoking (48% lower odds, 95% CI: 4.2%, 72%). Mothers delivering prematurely also had lower abundance of OTUs belonging to Bifidobacterium and Streptococcus, and of the Clostridiales order. CONCLUSION: Analysis of maternal gut microbiota using next-generation sequencing shows that low gut diversity, with a distinct microbial composition, is associated with spontaneous preterm delivery.


Assuntos
Bifidobacterium/isolamento & purificação , Nascimento Prematuro , Streptococcus/isolamento & purificação , Bifidobacterium/classificação , Bifidobacterium/genética , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Noruega , Filogenia , Gravidez , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Streptococcus/classificação , Streptococcus/genética
16.
Microbiome ; 5(1): 113, 2017 09 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28870230

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recent evidence supports that the maternal gut microbiota impacts the initial infant gut microbiota. Since the gut microbiota may play a causal role in the development of obesity, it is important to understand how pre-pregnancy weight and gestational weight gain (GWG) impact the gut microbiota of mothers at the time of delivery and their infants in early life. In this study, we performed 16S rRNA gene sequencing on gut microbiota samples from 169 women 4 days after delivery and from the 844 samples of their infants at six timepoints during the first 2 years of life. We categorized the women (1) according to pre-pregnancy body mass index into overweight/obese (OW/OB, BMI ≥ 25) or non-overweight/obese (BMI < 25) and (2) into excessive and non-excessive GWG in the subset of mothers of full-term singleton infants (N = 116). We compared alpha diversity and taxonomic composition of the maternal and infant samples by exposure groups. We also compared taxonomic similarity between maternal and infant gut microbiota. RESULTS: Maternal OW/OB was associated with lower maternal alpha diversity. Maternal pre-pregnancy OW/OB and excessive GWG were associated with taxonomic differences in the maternal gut microbiota, including taxa from the highly heritable family Christensenellaceae, the genera Lachnospira, Parabacteroides, Bifidobacterium, and Blautia. These maternal characteristics were not associated with overall differences in the infant gut microbiota over the first 2 years of life. However, the presence of specific OTUs in maternal gut microbiota at the time of delivery did significantly increase the odds of presence in the infant gut at age 4-10 days for many taxa, and these included some lean-associated taxa. CONCLUSIONS: Our results show differences in maternal gut microbiota composition at the time of delivery by pre-pregnancy weight and GWG, but these changes were only associated with limited compositional differences in the early life gut microbiota of their infants. Further work is needed to determine the degree to which these maternal microbiota differences at time of birth with OW/OB and GWG may affect the health of the infant over time and by what mechanism.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Obesidade , Gravidez , Ganho de Peso , Adulto , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Bifidobacterium/classificação , Bifidobacterium/genética , Bifidobacterium/isolamento & purificação , Índice de Massa Corporal , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Genes de RNAr , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Mães , Sobrepeso , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
17.
Environ Int ; 108: 137-145, 2017 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28843142

RESUMO

In this study, 10 polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and 19 alternative halogenated flame retardants (AFRs) were determined in >450 human milk samples across three European countries, representing northern, western and eastern Europe. This study provides first insights into the occurrence of selected AFRs in mother milk samples and compares them among three European countries. Sums of median concentrations of the most frequently detected PBDEs were 2.16, 0.88 and 0.45ngg-1 lipid weight (lw) in Norway, the Netherlands and Slovakia, respectively. The sum of the concentrations of AFRs ranged from 0.14 to 0.25ngg-1lw in all countries, which was 2 to 15 times less compared to Σ7PBDEs. The Penta-BDE replacement, bis(2-ethylhexyl) tetrabromophthalate, BEH-TEBP, was present at the greatest concentrations of any of the AFRs and in some samples exceeded concentrations of BDE 47 and BDE 153. Four AFRs including bromobenzenes (hexabromobenzene, pentabromobenzene, pentabromotoluene) and another Penta-BDE replacement (2-ethylhexyl-2,3,4,5-tetrabromobenzoate, EH-TBB) were detected in >42% of all human milk samples. Because of the potential developmental neurotoxicity of the halogenated flame retardants, infant dietary intakes via breastfeeding were estimated; in four cases the intakes of BDE 47 exceeded the reference dose indicating that the present concentrations may pose a risk for children.


Assuntos
Saúde da Criança , Retardadores de Chama/análise , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/análise , Leite Humano/química , Adulto , Aleitamento Materno , Bromobenzenos/análise , Criança , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Retardadores de Chama/efeitos adversos , Halogenação , Humanos , Países Baixos , Noruega , Eslováquia
18.
Anal Chem ; 89(11): 6265-6271, 2017 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28457122

RESUMO

Because the toxicity of arsenic depends on its chemical form, risk assessments of arsenic exposure must consider the type of arsenic compound, and hence they require sensitive and robust methods for their determination. Furthermore, the assessment should include studies on the most vulnerable people within a population, such as newborns and infants, and thus there is a need to quantify arsenic species in human milk. Herein we report a method for the determination of arsenic species at low concentrations in human milk by HPLC/ICPMS. Comparison of single and triple quadrupole mass analysers showed comparable performance, although the triple quadrupole instrument more efficiently overcame the problem of ArCl+ interference, from the natural chloride present in milk, without the need for gradient elution HPLC conditions. The method incorporates a protein precipitation step with trifluoroacetic acid followed by addition of dichloromethane or dibromomethane to remove the lipids. The aqueous phase was subjected to anion-exchange and cation-exchange/mixed mode chromatography with aqueous ammonium bicarbonate and pyridine buffer solutions as mobile phases, respectively. For method validation, a human milk sample was spiked with defined amounts of dimethylarsinate, arsenobetaine, and arsenate. The method showed good recoveries (99-103%) with detection limits (in milk) in the range of 10 ng As kg-1. The method was further tested by analyzing two Norwegian human milk samples where arsenobetaine, dimethylarsinate, and a currently unknown As species were found, but iAs was not detected.

19.
Pediatr Res ; 82(3): 429-437, 2017 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28288144

RESUMO

BackgroundVarious studies have reported interactions between thyroid hormones and early life chemical exposure. Our objective was to analyze the associations between markers of endocrine-disrupting chemical exposure and thyroid function in newborns, determined through heel prick blood spots.MethodsThree European mother-child cohorts (FLEHSI-Belgium, HUMIS-Norway, and the PCB cohort-Slovakia. Total n=1,784) were pooled for the purpose of this study. Data on thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) were obtained from national neonatal screening registries, and samples of cord plasma and/or breast milk were collected to determine exposure to various chemicals. Multiple regression models were composed with exposure and cohort as fixed factors, and adjustments were made for a priori defined covariates.ResultsMedian TSH concentrations were 1, 1.10, and 2.76 mU/l for the Belgian, Norwegian, and Slovak cohorts, respectively. For polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-153 and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE), children in the third exposure quartile had a 12-15% lower TSH at birth. Results remained unchanged after additional adjustment for birth weight and gestational weight gain. No effect on TSH was observed for the other compounds.ConclusionEarly life exposure to PCB-153 and p,p'-DDE impacts newborn TSH levels. Higher exposure levels were associated with 12-15% lower TSH levels.


Assuntos
Disruptores Endócrinos/toxicidade , Relações Mãe-Filho , Tireotropina/sangue , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Limite de Detecção , Masculino
20.
Int J Epidemiol ; 46(5): 1465-1477, 2017 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28338907

RESUMO

Background: It has been suggested that prenatal exposure to n-3 long-chain fatty acids protects against asthma and other allergy-related diseases later in childhood. The extent to which fish intake in pregnancy protects against child asthma and rhinitis symptoms remains unclear. We aimed to assess whether fish and seafood consumption in pregnancy is associated with childhood wheeze, asthma and allergic rhinitis. Methods: We pooled individual data from 60 774 mother-child pairs participating in 18 European and US birth cohort studies. Information on wheeze, asthma and allergic rhinitis prevalence was collected using validated questionnaires. The time periods of interest were: infancy (0-2 years), preschool age (3-4 years), and school age (5-8 years). We used multivariable generalized models to assess associations of fish and seafood (other than fish) consumption during pregnancy with child respiratory outcomes in cohort-specific analyses, with subsequent random-effects meta-analyses. Results: The median fish consumption during pregnancy ranged from 0.44 times/week in The Netherlands to 4.46 times/week in Spain. Maternal fish intake during pregnancy was not associated with offspring wheeze symptoms in any age group nor with the risk of child asthma [adjusted meta-analysis relative risk (RR) per 1-time/week = 1.01, 95% confidence interval 0.97-1.05)] and allergic rhinitis at school age (RR = 1.01, 0.99-1.03). These results were consistently found in further analyses by type of fish and seafood consumption and in sensitivity analyses. Conclusion: We found no evidence supporting a protective association of fish and seafood consumption during pregnancy with offspring symptoms of wheeze, asthma and allergic rhinitis from infancy to mid childhood.


Assuntos
Asma/epidemiologia , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/administração & dosagem , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Pré-Natal , Rinite Alérgica/epidemiologia , Alimentos Marinhos , Animais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Gravidez , Prevalência , Análise de Regressão , Sons Respiratórios , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
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