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NPJ Sci Learn ; 5: 15, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33083008


Decades of research has shown that spacing practice trials over time can improve later memory, but there are few concrete recommendations concerning how to optimally space practice. We show that existing recommendations are inherently suboptimal due to their insensitivity to time costs and individual- and item-level differences. We introduce an alternative approach that optimally schedules practice with a computational model of spacing in tandem with microeconomic principles. We simulated conventional spacing schedules and our adaptive model-based approach. Simulations indicated that practicing according to microeconomic principles of efficiency resulted in substantially better memory retention than alternatives. The simulation results provided quantitative estimates of optimal difficulty that differed markedly from prior recommendations but still supported a desirable difficulty framework. Experimental results supported simulation predictions, with up to 40% more items recalled in conditions where practice was scheduled optimally according to the model of practice. Our approach can be readily implemented in online educational systems that adaptively schedule practice and has significant implications for millions of students currently learning with educational technology.

Memory ; 27(8): 1091-1098, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31145027


Although previous research on retrieval practice (RP) has predominantly featured stimuli with discrete right-or-wrong answers, continuous measures offer potentially greater sensitivity in assessing the effects of RP on memory precision. The present study used a colour gradient (125 points ranging from magenta to yellow) as a continuous response variable. The colours of different images were learned through either RP or restudy and either one or three cycles of practice after initial study. On a delayed final test, participants' memory was assessed for each item's colour. Participants also created per-item intervals representing the region where they believed the correct colour most likely to have been. We found that repeated rounds of RP enhanced the correspondence between responses and the correct colour. In addition, RP led to participants creating more accurate (correct answers were more likely to be within the participant-specified intervals) and more precise (narrower) intervals relative to restudy, suggesting that RP enhances the precision of memories.

Memória , Rememoração Mental , Prática Psicológica , Adulto , Percepção de Cores , Feminino , Humanos , Aprendizagem , Masculino , Estimulação Luminosa , Adulto Jovem
Q J Exp Psychol (Hove) ; 71(7): 1506-1511, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29685097


Separate processes underlying forward (e.g., crescent MOON) and backward (e.g., office POST) priming have previously been inferred from button-press lexical decision response times, with an automatic prospective mechanism and a strategic retrospective mechanism presumed responsible for forward and backward priming, respectively. We tracked hand/mouse kinematics during lexical decision, and found that forward, backward, and symmetrical (e.g., cat DOG) priming exhibited different movement trajectories, with the effect of forward priming emerging earlier than that of backward priming and with symmetrical priming taking the lead around the time when the backward priming effect came online. The findings provide strong converging evidence for different mechanisms driving forward and backward priming, and demonstrate that continuous kinematic measures can shed light on cognitive processes as they unfold in real time.

Associação , Psicolinguística , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Adulto , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Humanos , Semântica , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
J Vis ; 17(3): 20, 2017 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28355632


We used a cross-modal dual task to examine how changing visual-task demands influenced auditory processing, namely auditory thresholds for amplitude- and frequency-modulated sounds. Observers had to attend to two consecutive intervals of sounds and report which interval contained the auditory stimulus that was modulated in amplitude (Experiment 1) or frequency (Experiment 2). During auditory-stimulus presentation, observers simultaneously attended to a rapid sequential visual presentation-two consecutive intervals of streams of visual letters-and had to report which interval contained a particular color (low load, demanding less attentional resources) or, in separate blocks of trials, which interval contained more of a target letter (high load, demanding more attentional resources). We hypothesized that if attention is a shared resource across vision and audition, an easier visual task should free up more attentional resources for auditory processing on an unrelated task, hence improving auditory thresholds. Auditory detection thresholds were lower-that is, auditory sensitivity was improved-for both amplitude- and frequency-modulated sounds when observers engaged in a less demanding (compared to a more demanding) visual task. In accord with previous work, our findings suggest that visual-task demands can influence the processing of auditory information on an unrelated concurrent task, providing support for shared attentional resources. More importantly, our results suggest that attending to information in a different modality, cross-modal attention, can influence basic auditory contrast sensitivity functions, highlighting potential similarities between basic mechanisms for visual and auditory attention.

Atenção/fisiologia , Percepção Auditiva/fisiologia , Limiar Auditivo/fisiologia , Sensibilidades de Contraste/fisiologia , Percepção Visual/fisiologia , Estimulação Acústica , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Som , Adulto Jovem