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1.
An Sist Sanit Navar ; 30 Suppl 1: 53-74, 2007.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17486147

RESUMO

The sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (SAHS) is characterised by daytime sleepiness, cardiorespiratory and cognitive disorders, secondary to repeated episodes of obstruction of the upper airway during sleep. This disease is highly prevalent in the general population and has damaging effects on the cardiovascular system; it increases the incidence of traffic accidents due to excessive somnolence, reduces the quality of life and is associated with an excess of mortality. It usually affects obese patients and the most important symptoms are snoring and repeated respiratory pauses. With each apnea and/or hypopnea there is a fall in saturation that alters the nocturnal average and ends up causing serious cardiovascular problems in the medium to long term. The destructuring of the architecture of sleep leads to daytime sleepiness that can interfere in social and working life. Diagnosis is carried out by means of polysomnography or respiratory poligraphy, an abbreviated method that is valid for 75% of cases. The most efficient medical treatment is the application of positive pressure to the airway (Continuous positive airway pressure - CPAP) that has scarce and light secondary effects and is in general well-tolerated. Once adapted, the patient must carry out an adjustment of the pressure through polysomnography and with the autoCPAP, which can vary pressure until the respiratory events are corrected. Primary care has an essential role to play in suspicion of the clinical symptoms, the correct utilisation of the referral criteria and the control of patients receiving treatment once adapted.


Assuntos
Síndromes da Apneia do Sono/diagnóstico , Síndromes da Apneia do Sono/terapia , Algoritmos , Pressão Positiva Contínua nas Vias Aéreas , Testes de Função Cardíaca , Humanos , Polissonografia , Prevalência , Testes de Função Respiratória , Síndromes da Apneia do Sono/epidemiologia , Síndromes da Apneia do Sono/fisiopatologia
2.
An. sist. sanit. Navar ; 30(supl.1): 53-74, 2007. ilus, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-055955

RESUMO

El Síndrome de apneas-hipopneas del sueño (SAHS) se caracteriza por somnolencia diurna excesiva, trastornos cardiorrespiratorios y cognitivos, secundarios a episodios repetidos de obstrucción de la vía aérea superior durante el sueño. Esta enfermedad es muy prevalente en la población general y tiene efectos deletéreos sobre el sistema cardiovascular; aumenta la incidencia de accidentes de tráfico a causa de la excesiva somnolencia, deteriora la calidad de vida y se asocia a un exceso de mortalidad. Suele afectar a pacientes obesos y los síntomas más importantes son los ronquidos y las pausas respiratorias repetidas. Cada apnea y/o hipopnea condiciona una puntual caída en la saturación que altera la media nocturna y termina ocasionando serios problemas cardiovasculares a mediolargo plazo. La desestructuración de la arquitectura del sueño conduce a la excesiva somnolencia diurna capaz de interferir en la vida socio-laboral. El diagnóstico se realiza mediante polisomnografía o poligrafía respiratoria, método abreviado válido para el 75% de casos. El tratamiento médico más eficaz es la aplicación de presión positiva en la vía aérea (CPAP) que tiene escasos y leves efectos secundarios y es, en general, bien tolerado. Una vez adaptado el paciente debe realizarse un ajuste de la presión mediante polisomnografía o con las autoCPAP, capaces de variar la presión hasta la corrección de los eventos respiratorios. El papel de la atención primaria es fundamental en la sospecha del cuadro, la utilización correcta de los criterios de derivación y el control de los pacientes en tratamiento una vez adaptados


The sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (SAHS) is characterised by daytime sleepiness, cardiorespiratory and cognitive disorders, secondary to repeated episodes of obstruction of the upper airway during sleep. This disease is highly prevalent in the general population and has damaging effects on the cardiovascular system; it increases the incidence of traffic accidents due to excessive somnolence, reduces the quality of life and is associated with an excess of mortality. It usually affects obese patients and the most important symptoms are snoring and repeated respiratory pauses. With each apnea and/or hypopnea there is a fall in saturation that alters the nocturnal average and ends up causing serious cardiovascular problems in the medium to long term. The destructuring of the architecture of sleep leads to daytime sleepiness that can interfere in social and working life. Diagnosis is carried out by means of polysomnography or respiratory poligraphy, an abbreviated method that is valid for 75% of cases. The most efficient medical treatment is the application of positive pressure to the airway (Continuous positive airway pressure - CPAP) that has scarce and light secondary effects and is in general well-tolerated. Once adapted, the patient must carry out an adjustment of the pressure through polysomnography and with the autoCPAP, which can vary pressure until the respiratory events are corrected. Primary care has an essential role to play in suspicion of the clinical symptoms, the correct utilisation of the referral criteria and the control of patients receiving treatment once adapted


Assuntos
Humanos , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/fisiopatologia , Distúrbios do Sono por Sonolência Excessiva/fisiopatologia , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/diagnóstico , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/terapia , Polissonografia , Pressão Positiva Contínua nas Vias Aéreas
3.
An. sist. sanit. Navar ; 30(supl.2): 49-65, 2007. ilus, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-056272

RESUMO

La prevalencia de infección tuberculosa varía de unos países a otros, siendo la estimada en adultos en España del 25%. La técnica habitual para su diagnóstico, pese a su antigüedad, es la tuberculina. Todavía hoy, esta prueba continúa estando vigente en la mayoría de los países. En los últimos años se han desarrollado dos métodos de inmunodiagnóstico que, a través de la cuantificación in vitro del interferón-γ liberado por los linfocitos T sensibilizados, nos permiten diagnosticar en un laboratorio la infección obviando todos los problemas derivados de la administración de la tuberculina. En los estudios de contactos realizados se ha visto que estas técnicas se correlacionan mejor con el grado y duración de la exposición a Mycobacterium tuberculosis y que la vacunación previa con BCG no interfiere en sus resultados lo que sin duda alguna redundará en una reducción del número de quimioprofilaxis innecesarias


The prevalence of tuberculosis infection varies between countries, with an estimate in adults in Spain of 25%. The technique for its diagnosis, in spite of its antiquity, is tuberculin. Even today, this test continues to be in use in the majority of countries. In recent years two methods of immunodiagnosis based on detection of IFN-γ released by T cells in response to M. tuberculosis–specific antigens, enables us to diagnose the infection in a laboratory without all of the problems deriving from the administration of tuberculin. From the contact studies made it has been shown that these techniques correlate better with the degree and duration of exposure to Mycobacterium tuberculosis and that prior vaccination with BCG does not interfere with their results, which without doubt will result in a reduction in the number of unnecessary chemoprofilaxis


Assuntos
Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Humanos , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/patogenicidade , Tuberculose/diagnóstico , Tuberculose/epidemiologia , Tuberculina , Hipersensibilidade Tardia/complicações , Hipersensibilidade Tardia/diagnóstico , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Análise Custo-Benefício , Testes Imunológicos/métodos , Espanha/epidemiologia , Leucócitos Mononucleares/patologia , Análise Custo-Benefício/métodos
4.
An Sist Sanit Navar ; 28 Suppl 1: 21-7, 2005.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15915168

RESUMO

Exposure to asbestos is an important cause of pleural pathology and can be produced with light or moderate tendencies given the capacity of asbestos to concentrate in the pleura. Together with the prolonged latency existing between exposure and the disease, this means that for many years we will continue to see pleural clinical manifestations from past exposure, in spite of the increasingly limited use of asbestos in recent decades. This exposure can show itself in different manifestations, both malign, such as mesothelioma, and benign, principally benign pleural effusion, pleural plaques, diffuse pleural fibrosis and massive atelectasis.


Assuntos
Asbestos/efeitos adversos , Fibrose/epidemiologia , Fibrose/etiologia , Doenças Pleurais/epidemiologia , Doenças Pleurais/etiologia , Atelectasia Pulmonar/epidemiologia , Atelectasia Pulmonar/etiologia , Fibrose/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Doenças Pleurais/diagnóstico por imagem , Atelectasia Pulmonar/diagnóstico por imagem , Radiografia Torácica , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
5.
An. sist. sanit. Navar ; 28(supl.1): 21-27, 2005. ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-038439

RESUMO

La exposición al asbesto es una causa importantede patología pleural y se puede producir con intensidadesmoderadas o ligeras dada la capacidad delasbesto de concentrarse en la pleura. Ello motiva juntoa la prolongada latencia existente entre la exposición yla enfermedad, que sigamos viendo durante muchosaños manifestaciones clínicas pleurales de exposiciónprevia, a pesar del uso del asbesto cada vez más limitadoen las últimas décadas. Dicha exposición puedepresentarse con distintas manifestaciones tanto malignascomo el mesotelioma como benignas, siendo lasprincipales de éstas el derrame pleural benigno, lasplacas pleurales, la fibrosis pleural difusa y la atelectasiaredonda


Exposure to asbestos is an important cause ofpleural pathology and can be produced with light ormoderate tendencies given the capacity of asbestos toconcentrate in the pleura. Together with the prolongedlatency existing between exposure and the disease,this means that for many years we will continue to seepleural clinical manifestations from past exposure, inspite of the increasingly limited use of asbestos inrecent decades. This exposure can show itself indifferent manifestations, both malign, such asmesothelioma, and benign, principally benign pleuraleffusion, pleural plaques, diffuse pleural fibrosis andmassive atelectasis


Assuntos
Humanos , Doenças Pleurais/classificação , Exposição por Inalação/efeitos adversos , Pleura/patologia , Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/efeitos adversos , Asbestos Serpentinas/efeitos adversos , Amiantos Anfibólicos/efeitos adversos , Fibras Minerais/efeitos adversos
6.
Arch. bronconeumol. (Ed. impr.) ; 38(12): 554-560, dic. 2002.
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-16893

RESUMO

OBJETIVO: Evaluar la situación del diagnóstico y tratamiento en el síndrome de apneas-hipopneas obstructivas durante el sueño (SAHS) y conocer algunas características de los pacientes tratados con presión nasal positiva continua en la vía aérea (n-CPAP) en nuestra comunidad. METODOLOGÍA: Se incluyó en el estudio a todos los pacientes que en julio de 2000 recibían tratamiento con n-CPAP a cargo del Servicio Navarro de Salud. Una enfermera realizó una visita a cada paciente en la que rellenaba un formulario con datos epidemiológicos, antropométricos y clínicos; posteriormente llevaba a cabo las siguientes exploraciones: medición del CO en el aire espirado, determinación de la presión de n-CPAP utilizada y lectura del contador horario de la n-CPAP.Entre uno y 2 meses después, y sin previo aviso, se ponía de nuevo en contacto con el usuario y se procedía a una segunda visita en la que realizaba una segunda determinación de CO en el aire espirado y nueva lectura del contador. RESULTADOS: La tasa de prevalencia de tratamientos con n-CPAP en nuestra comunidad fue de 125 por 100.000 habitantes, y se comprobó un progresivo incremento de las prescripciones anuales. Se visitó en el domicilio a 535 pacientes (el 80,7 per cent del total). El 83,5 per cent de las indicaciones fueron realizadas por neumólogos; la media de horas/día reales de utilización de n-CPAP fue de 6,1 y existió una correlación estadísticamente significativa entre las horas de uso de n-CPAP declaradas y las reales; el índice de apneas-hipopneas (IAH) medio fue de 51,5 y este índice no se determinó en el 4,2 per cent de los casos. Un 83,7 per cent de los pacientes declaraban tener una tolerancia del tratamiento muy buena o buena y el 24,8 per cent llevaba más de 4 años con esta terapia. La enfermedad asociada con el SAHS más frecuente fue la obesidad, presente en el 73,4 per cent de las personas, seguida de la hipertensión arterial en el 40 per cent; 299 enfermos (55,8 per cent) padecían dos o más enfermedades asociadas y 54 (9,7 per cent) no tenían ninguna. El 45,9 per cent de los casos disponía de polisomnografía convencional como método diagnóstico y un 49,7 per cent de poligrafía respiratoria; en el 19,4 per cent la nivelación de la presión se realizó con polisomnografía y el 32,1 per cent no disponía de ningún estudio para este fin. Un 50,8 per cent de las personas referían presentar algún efecto secundario al tratamiento. CONCLUSIONES: Elevada tasa de prevalencia de tratamientos con n-CPAP en Navarra y progresivo incremento de prescripciones. Buena tolerancia y cumplimiento de la terapia por parte de los pacientes. Disponibilidad en la mayoría de los casos de polisomnografía o poligrafía respiratoria como métodos diagnósticos de SAHS y alto porcentaje de titulaciones de n-CPAP sin haberse realizado los estudios recomendados (AU)


Assuntos
Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto , Idoso , Masculino , Feminino , Humanos , Síndromes da Apneia do Sono , Espanha , Inquéritos e Questionários
7.
Arch Bronconeumol ; 38(12): 554-60, 2002 Dec.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12568699

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the diagnosis and treatment of obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS) in Navarra (Spain) and to know the characteristics of patients treated with nasal continuous positive airway pressure (n-CPAP) in our community. METHOD: All patients receiving nasal n-CPAP from the public health service of Navarra in July 2000 were enrolled. A nurse visited each patient and filled in a form with epidemiological data, and patient and clinical characteristics. The nurse then measured CO in expired air and the n-CPAP pressure used and recorded the hour counter reading on the n-CPAP device. Between one and two months later and without prior warning, the patient was once again contacted and a second visit was made. The counter was read again and expired CO was measured. RESULTS: The prevalence of treatment with n-CPAP in Navarra was 125/100,000 inhabitants, and a gradual increase in annual prescriptions was observed. Home visits were made to 535 patients (80.7% of the total). Pneumologists wrote 83.5% of the prescriptions. n-CPAP was used a mean 6.1 hours/day, and the numbers of declared and real hours of use were statistically correlated. The mean apnea-hypopnea index was 51.5, although results were not available for 4.2% of the patients. The treatment was well tolerated according to 83.7% of the patients and 24.8% had been following it for over four years. The pathology most often associated with OSAHS was obesity (73.4% of the patients), followed by high blood pressure (40%); 299 patients (55.8%) had two or more associated diseases and 54 (9.7%) had none. Conventional polysomnography was the diagnostic method used in 45.9% of the cases, and respiratory polygraphs were available for 49.7%. Pressure was adjusted with the aid of polysomnography for 19.4% patients, whereas 32.1% had undergone no testing. Side effects of treatment were reported by 50.8%. CONCLUSIONS: a) The prevalence of n-CPAP treatment in Navarra is high and prescriptions are increasing; b) patient tolerance of and compliance with therapy are good, c) polysomnographs or respiratory polygraphs are available for diagnosis of OSAHS in most cases but the n-CPAP pressure level is adjusted without the recommended studies for many patients.


Assuntos
Síndromes da Apneia do Sono/diagnóstico , Síndromes da Apneia do Sono/terapia , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Espanha , Inquéritos e Questionários
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