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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34768009

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Globally, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a common cause of chronic liver disease. We assessed the clinical presentation and patient-reported outcomes (PROs) among NAFLD patients from different countries. METHODS: Clinical, laboratory, and PRO data (Chronic Liver Disease Questionnaire-nonalcoholic steatohepatitis [NASH], Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Fatigue, and the Work Productivity and Activity Index) were collected from NAFLD patients seen in real-world practices and enrolled in the Global NAFLD/NASH Registry encompassing 18 countries in 6 global burden of disease super-regions. RESULTS: Across the global burden of disease super-regions, NAFLD patients (n = 5691) were oldest in Latin America and Eastern Europe and youngest in South Asia. Most males were enrolled at the Southeast and South Asia sites. Latin America and South Asia had the highest employment rates (>60%). Rates of cirrhosis varied (12%-21%), and were highest in North Africa/Middle East and Eastern Europe. Rates of metabolic syndrome components varied: 20% to 25% in South Asia and 60% to 80% in Eastern Europe. Chronic Liver Disease Questionnaire-NASH and Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Fatigue PRO scores were lower in NAFLD patients than general population norms (all P < .001). Across the super-regions, the lowest PRO scores were seen in Eastern Europe and North Africa/Middle East. In multivariate analysis adjusted for enrollment region, independent predictors of lower PRO scores included younger age, female sex, and nonhepatic comorbidities including fatigue (P < .01). Patients whose fatigue scores improved over time experienced a substantial PRO improvement. Nearly 8% of Global NAFLD/NASH Registry patients had a lean body mass index, with fewer metabolic syndrome components, fewer comorbidities, less cirrhosis, and significantly better PRO scores (P < .01). CONCLUSIONS: NAFLD patients seen in real-world practices in different countries experience a high comorbidity burden and impaired quality of life. Future research using global data will enable more precise management and treatment strategies for these patients.

2.
Glob Health Med ; 3(5): 343-350, 2021 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34782878

RESUMO

Chronic liver disease, especially viral hepatitis, is an urgent issue in Japan. Human resource management is important to promote appropriate care for patients with chronic liver disease in medical institutions and in the community. In 2011 the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare in Japan started training hepatitis medical care coordinators (HMCCs). Various medical professionals (such as public health nurses, general nurses, and clinical technicians), patients, and ordinary citizens are certified as HMCCs by the prefectural government after learning about liver diseases in a training program. The training program can be optimized in accordance with the regional circumstances and basic knowledge and skills of the applicants. HMCCs encourage residents and patients to undergo a hepatitis screening test, after which positive patients undergo detailed examination, treatment, and follow-up. HMCCs contribute to the expansion of knowledge about hepatitis in their workplace and community. By 2018, there were HMCCs in all 47 prefectures of Japan. There were 20,049 HMCCs in 2019. The most common professions of HMCCs were public health nurses, followed by general nurses, hospital pharmacists, laboratory technicians, and medical social workers. After certification, the activities of HMCCs vary; to ensure that HMCCs are adequately used in medical institutions, the supervisor and physicians must recognize the importance of HMCCs and generate opportunities for HMCC activity. The training and effective utilization of HMCCs is a promising way to decrease the prevalence and mortality of chronic liver diseases in Japan.

3.
Kurume Med J ; 2021 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34690209

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Exercise is beneficial for metabolic syndrome. Fatty liver and significant hepatic fibrosis, hepatic manifestations of metabolic syndrome, are becoming an epidemic. We aimed to investigate the prevalence of fatty liver and significant fibrosis and examined the independent factors for these conditions. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: We enrolled 1,361 health check-up examinees (median age, 53 years; female/male, 813/548). Fatty liver and fibrosis were evaluated by B-mode ultrasound imaging and shear wave elastography. Factors associated with fatty liver and significant fibrosis were analyzed by logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: Fatty liver and significant fibrosis were observed in 50.5% and 42.7% of enrolled subjects, respectively. Independent factors associated with fatty liver were BMI (OR 1.46; 95%CI 1.397-1.537; P<0.0001) and no exer cise habits (OR 1.47; 95% CI 1.101-1.984; P=0.0093). Independent factors associated with significant fibrosis were age, female, BMI (OR 1.37; 95%CI 1.311-1.436; P<0.0001), and no exercise habits (OR 1.49; 95% CI 1.102-2.031; P=0.0097). CONCLUSIONS: Fatty liver and significant fibrosis were frequently seen in health check-up examinees and the common independent factors were higher BMI and no exercise habits. Thus, weight loss and exercise may ameliorate fatty liver and significant hepatic fibrosis in the general population.

4.
Hepatol Res ; 51(10): 1013-1025, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34533266

RESUMO

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has become a serious public health issue not only in Western countries but also in Japan. Within the wide spectrum of NAFLD, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is a progressive form of disease that often develops into liver cirrhosis and increases the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). While a definite diagnosis of NASH requires liver biopsy to confirm the presence of hepatocyte ballooning, hepatic fibrosis is the most important prognostic factor in NAFLD. With so many NAFLD patients, it is essential to have an effective screening method for NAFLD with hepatic fibrosis. As HCC with non-viral liver disease has increased markedly in Japan, effective screening and surveillance of HCC are also urgently needed. The most common death etiology in NAFLD patients is cardiovascular disease event. Gastroenterologists must, therefore, pay close attention to CVD when examining NAFLD patients. In the updated guidelines, we propose screening and follow-up methods for hepatic fibrosis, HCC, and CVD in NAFLD patients. Several drug trials are ongoing for NAFLD/NASH therapy, however, there is currently no specific drug therapy for NAFLD/NASH. In addition to vitamin E and thiazolidinedione derivatives, recent trials have focused on sodium glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) analogues, and effective therapies are expected to be developed. These practical guidelines for NAFLD/NASH were established by the Japanese Society of Gastroenterology in conjunction with the Japan Society of Hepatology. Clinical evidence reported internationally between 1983 and October 2018 was collected, and each clinical and background question was evaluated using the Grades of Recommendation Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) system. This English summary pro- vides the core essentials of these clinical practice guidelines, which include the definition and concept, screening systems for hepatic fibrosis, HCC and CVD, and current therapies for NAFLD/NASH in Japan.

5.
Hepatol Commun ; 2021 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34558835

RESUMO

Sodium glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors (SGLT2is) are now widely used to treat diabetes, but their effects on nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) remain to be determined. We aimed to evaluate the effects of SGLT2is on the pathogenesis of NAFLD. A multicenter, randomized, controlled trial was conducted in patients with type 2 diabetes with NAFLD. The changes in glycemic control, obesity, and liver pathology were compared between participants taking ipragliflozin (50 mg/day for 72 weeks; IPR group) and participants being managed without SGLT2is, pioglitazone, glucagon-like peptide-1 analogs, or insulin (CTR group). In the IPR group (n = 25), there were significant decreases in hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and body mass index (BMI) during the study (HbA1c, -0.41%, P < 0.01; BMI, -1.06 kg/m2 , P < 0.01), whereas these did not change in the CTR group (n = 26). Liver pathology was evaluated in 21/25 participants in the IPR/CTR groups, and hepatic fibrosis was found in 17 (81%) and 18 (72%) participants in the IPR and CTR groups at baseline. This was ameliorated in 70.6% (12 of 17) of participants in the IPR group and 22.2 % (4 of 18) of those in the CTR group (P < 0.01). Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) resolved in 66.7% of IPR-treated participants and 27.3% of CTR participants. None of the participants in the IPR group developed NASH, whereas 33.3% of the CTR group developed NASH. Conclusion: Long-term ipragliflozin treatment ameliorates hepatic fibrosis in patients with NAFLD. Thus, ipragliflozin might be effective for the treatment and prevention of NASH in patients with diabetes, as well as improving glycemic control and obesity. Therefore, SGLT2is may represent a therapeutic choice for patients with diabetes with NAFLD, but further larger studies are required to confirm these effects.

6.
J Gastroenterol ; 56(11): 951-963, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34533632

RESUMO

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has become a serious public health issue not only in Western countries but also in Japan. Within the wide spectrum of NAFLD, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is a progressive form of disease that often develops into liver cirrhosis and increases the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). While a definite diagnosis of NASH requires liver biopsy to confirm the presence of hepatocyte ballooning, hepatic fibrosis is the most important prognostic factor in NAFLD. With so many NAFLD patients, it is essential to have an effective screening method for NAFLD with hepatic fibrosis. As HCC with non-viral liver disease has increased markedly in Japan, effective screening and surveillance of HCC are also urgently needed. The most common death etiology in NAFLD patients is cardiovascular disease (CVD) event. Gastroenterologists must, therefore, pay close attention to CVD when examining NAFLD patients. In the updated guidelines, we propose screening and follow-up methods for hepatic fibrosis, HCC, and CVD in NAFLD patients. Several drug trials are ongoing for NAFLD/NASH therapy, however, there is currently no specific drug therapy for NAFLD/NASH. In addition to vitamin E and thiazolidinedione derivatives, recent trials have focused on sodium glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) analogues, and effective therapies are expected to be developed. These practical guidelines for NAFLD/NASH were established by the Japanese Society of Gastroenterology in conjunction with the Japan Society of Hepatology. Clinical evidence reported internationally between 1983 and October 2018 was collected, and each clinical and background question was evaluated using the Grades of Recommendation Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) system. This English summary provides the core essentials of these clinical practice guidelines, which include the definition and concept, screening systems for hepatic fibrosis, HCC and CVD, and current therapies for NAFLD/NASH in Japan.

7.
Aliment Pharmacol Ther ; 54(10): 1263-1277, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34528723

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pemafibrate is a novel, selective peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α modulator (SPPARMα). In mice, Pemafibrate improved the histological features of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). In patients with dyslipidaemia, it improved serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT). AIMS: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of Pemafibrate in patients with high-risk, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). METHODS: This double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomised multicentre, phase 2 trial randomised 118 patients (1:1) to either 0.2 mg Pemafibrate or placebo, orally, twice daily for 72 weeks. The key inclusion criteria included liver fat content of ≥10% by magnetic resonance imaging-estimated proton density fat fraction (MRI-PDFF); liver stiffness of ≥2.5 kPa, by magnetic resonance elastography (MRE); and elevated ALT levels. The primary endpoint was the percentage change in MRI-PDFF from baseline to week 24. The secondary endpoints included MRE-based liver stiffness, ALT, serum liver fibrosis markers and lipid parameters. RESULTS: There was no significant difference between the groups in the primary endpoint (-5.3% vs -4.2%; treatment difference -1.0%, P = 0.85). However, MRE-based liver stiffness significantly decreased compared to placebo at week 48 (treatment difference -5.7%, P = 0.036), and was maintained at week 72 (treatment difference -6.2%, P = 0.024), with significant reduction in ALT and LDL-C. Adverse events were comparable between the treatment groups and therapy was well tolerated. CONCLUSIONS: Pemafibrate did not decrease liver fat content but had significant reduction in MRE-based liver stiffness. Pemafibrate may be a promising therapeutic agent for NAFLD/NASH, and also be a candidate for combination therapy with agents that reduce liver fat content. ClinicalTrials.gov, number: NCT03350165.


Assuntos
Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica , Animais , Benzoxazóis/efeitos adversos , Butiratos/uso terapêutico , Método Duplo-Cego , Humanos , Fígado , Camundongos , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/diagnóstico por imagem , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/tratamento farmacológico , PPAR alfa
8.
Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 33(11): 1451-1458, 2021 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34334708

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Several noninvasive markers have been developed to predict nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). We investigated the predictive value of the cytokeratin-18 fragment (CK18-F) level and FIB-4 index for diagnosing NASH in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). METHODS: A total of 246 patients histologically diagnosed with NASH (n = 185) or nonalcoholic fatty liver (n = 61) were enrolled. We analyzed weighted receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves for the prediction of NASH and determined the relationship between the CK18-F level and the histological features of NASH. In addition, we investigated the predictive value of the combination of the CK18-F level and FIB-4 index for diagnosing NASH. RESULTS: The area under the ROC curve (AUROC) value of the CK18-F level was 0.77. With a CK18-F cutoff level of 260 U/L, the sensitivity and specificity for diagnosing NASH were 82.7 and 57.4%, respectively. Multiple comparisons showed that the CK18-F level did not differ among fibrosis stages but did significantly differ among hepatocyte ballooning grades. Overall, 95.7% (66/69) of patients with a FIB-4 index of ≥2.67 had NASH. In patients with a FIB-4 index of <2.67, the AUROC value of the CK18-F level for predicting NASH was 0.77 and a CK18-F cutoff level of 260 U/L resulted in a sensitivity and specificity of 82.4 and 56.9%. CONCLUSIONS: The CK18-F level had a good predictive ability for diagnosing NASH in patients with NAFLD. Additionally, the combination of the CK18-F level and FIB-4 index accurately and noninvasively predicted NASH, even those with a low FIB-4 index.


Assuntos
Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica , Biomarcadores , Biópsia , Humanos , Queratina-18 , Cirrose Hepática , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/diagnóstico , Curva ROC , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
9.
Liver Int ; 2021 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34309184

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Tolvaptan, vasopressin V2-receptor antagonist, has been used for patients with difficult-to-treat ascites in Japan. In this study, we conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) in the Japanese population to identify genetic variants associated with tolvaptan's efficacy for patients with hepatic ascites. METHODS: From 2014 through 2018, genomic DNA samples were obtained from 550 patients who were treated with tolvaptan. Of those, 80 cases (non-responder; increase of body weight [BW]) and 333 controls (responder; >1.5 kg decrease of BW) were included in the GWAS and replication study. RESULTS: Genome-wide association study showed 5 candidate SNPs around the miR818, KIAA1109, and SVEP1 genes. After validation and performing a replication study, an SNP (rs2991364) located in the SVEP1 gene was found to have a significant genome-wide association (OR = 3.55, P = 2.01 × 10-8 ). Multivariate analyses showed that serum sodium (Na), blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and SVEP1 SNP were significantly associated with the response (OR = 0.92, P = .003; OR = 1.02, P = .02 and OR = 3.98, P = .000008, respectively). Based on a prediction model of logistic regression analysis in a population with the rs2991364 risk allele, the failure probability (=exp (score: 22.234 + BUN*0.077 + Na*-0.179) (1 + exp (score)) was determined for the detection of non-responders. Assuming a cutoff of failure probability at 38.6%, sensitivity was 84.4%, specificity was 70% and AUC was 0.774. CONCLUSION: SVEP1 rs2991364 was identified as the specific SNP for the tolvaptan response. The prediction score (>38.6%) can identify tolvaptan non-responders and help to avoid a lengthy period of futile treatment.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34089852

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Antiviral treatment criteria are based on disease progression risk, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) surveillance recommendations for patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) without cirrhosis is based on an annual incidence threshold of 0.2%. However, accurate and precise disease progression estimate data are limited. Thus, we aimed to determine rates of cirrhosis and HCC development stratified by age, sex, treatment status, and disease activity based on the 2018 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases and 2017 European Association for the Study of the Liver guidelines. METHODS: We analyzed 18,338 patients (8914 treated, 9424 untreated) from 6 centers from the United States and 27 centers from Asia-Pacific countries. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to estimate annual progression rates to cirrhosis or HCC in person-years. RESULTS: The cohort was 63% male, with a mean age of 46.19 years, with baseline cirrhosis of 14.3% and median follow up of 9.60 years. By American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases criteria, depending on age, sex, and disease activity, annual incidence rates ranged from 0.07% to 3.94% for cirrhosis, from 0.04% to 2.19% for HCC in patients without cirrhosis, and from 0.40% to 8.83% for HCC in patients with cirrhosis. Several subgroups of patients without cirrhosis including males younger than 40 years of age and females younger than 50 years of age had annual HCC risk near or exceeding 0.2%. Similar results were found using European Association for the Study of the Liver criteria. CONCLUSION: There is great variability in CHB disease progression rates even among "lower-risk" populations. Future CHB modeling studies, public health planning, and HCC surveillance recommendation should be based on more precise disease progression rates based on sex, age, and disease activity, plus treatment status.

12.
Hepatol Res ; 2021 May 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34038612

RESUMO

AIM: The microRNA (miR) clusters miR-183/96/182 and miR-217/216a/216b are significantly upregulated in nonviral hepatocellular carcinoma (NBNC-HCC). Here, we investigate the impact of each member of these clusters on the clinical outcome of NBNC-HCC and analyze the antitumor effects of miR-96-5p. METHODS: The association between recurrence-free survival of 111 NBNC-HCC patients and the levels of miR-183-5p, miR-96-5p, miR-182-5p, miR-217-5p, miR-216a-5p, and miR-216b-5p in tumor and adjacent tissues was investigated. The impact of miR-96-5p on apoptosis and invasion of a hepatoma cell line, HepG2, was investigated by cell counting, Transwell assay, and flow cytometry, respectively. RESULTS: MicroRNA-183-5p, miR-96-5p, miR-182-5p, miR-217-5p, and miR-216b-5p were significantly upregulated in tumor tissues compared to the adjacent tissues (p = 0.0005, p = 0.0030, p = 0.0002, p = 0.0011, and p = 0.0288, respectively). By multivariate Cox regression analysis, high tumor/adjacent ratios of miR-182-5p (p = 0.007) and miR-217-5p (p = 0.008) were associated with poor recurrence-free survival. In contrast, a low tumor/adjacent ratio of miR-96-5p (p < 0.001) was associated with poor recurrence-free survival. It suggested that further upregulation of miR-96-5p in tumors might have an inhibitory effect on recurrence. Transfection of miR-96-5p mimic significantly induced apoptosis of HepG2 cells, in association with downregulation of Nucleophosmin 1 (NPM1) and a decrease of phosphorylated AKT protein. Interestingly, simultaneous knockdown of the NPM1 and AKT genes induced apoptosis. MicroRNA-96-5p also suppressed proliferation and invasion, which inhibited epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition of HCC cells. CONCLUSION: MicroRNA-96-5p as a tumor suppressor would be valuable to stratify NBNC-HCC patients at high risk of recurrence.

13.
Hepatol Commun ; 5(4): 559-572, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33860115

RESUMO

This study aimed to examine whether the diagnostic accuracy of four noninvasive tests (NITs) for detecting advanced fibrosis in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is maintained or is inferior to with or without the presence of type 2 diabetes. Overall, 874 patients with biopsy-proven NAFLD were enrolled. After propensity-score matching by age, sex, and the prevalence of dyslipidemia, 311 patients were enrolled in each group of with or without diabetes. To evaluate the effect of diabetes, we compared the diagnostic accuracy of the fibrosis-4 (FIB-4) index, the NAFLD fibrosis score (NFS), the aspartate aminotransferase to platelet ratio index (APRI), and type IV collagen 7S (COL4-7S) in patients with NAFLD with and without diabetes. The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) for identifying advanced fibrosis in patients without diabetes were 0.879 for the FIB-4 index, 0.851 for the NFS, 0.862 for the APRI, and 0.883 for COL4-7S. The AUROCs in patients with diabetes were 0.790 for the FIB-4 index, 0.784 for the NFS, 0.771 for the APRI, and 0.872 for COL4-7S. The AUROC of COL4-7S was significantly larger than that of the other NITs in patients with NAFLD with diabetes than in those without diabetes. The optimal high and low cutoff points of COL4-7S were 5.9 ng/mL and 4.8 ng/mL, respectively. At the low cutoff point, the accuracy of COL4-7S was better than that of the other NITs, especially in patients with diabetes. Conclusion: COL4-7S measurement might be the best NIT for identifying advanced fibrosis in NAFLD, especially in NAFLD with diabetes.

14.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 3703, 2021 03 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33654122

RESUMO

Hepatitis B (HB) vaccines (Heptavax-II and Bimmugen) designed based on HBV genotypes A and C are mainly used for vaccination against HB in Japan. To determine whether there are differences in the genetic background associated with vaccine responsiveness, genome-wide association studies were performed on 555 Heptavax-II and 1193 Bimmugen recipients. Further HLA imputation and detailed analysis of the association with HLA genes showed that two haplotypes, DRB1*13:02-DQB1*06:04 and DRB1*04:05-DQB1*04:01, were significantly associated in comparison with high-responders (HBsAb > 100 mIU/mL) for the two HB vaccines. In particular, HLA-DRB1*13:02-DQB1*06:04 haplotype is of great interest in the sense that it could only be detected by direct analysis of the high-responders in vaccination with Heptavax-II or Bimmugen. Compared with healthy controls, DRB1*13:02-DQB1*06:04 was significantly less frequent in high-responders when vaccinated with Heptavax-II, indicating that high antibody titers were less likely to be obtained with Heptavax-II. As Bimmugen and Heptavax-II tended to have high and low vaccine responses to DRB1*13:02, 15 residues were found in the Heptavax-II-derived antigenic peptide predicted to have the most unstable HLA-peptide binding. Further functional analysis of selected hepatitis B patients with HLA haplotypes identified in this study is expected to lead to an understanding of the mechanisms underlying liver disease.

15.
Life (Basel) ; 11(2)2021 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33672864

RESUMO

The prevalence of obesity or metabolic syndrome is increasing worldwide (globally metabodemic). Approximately 25% of the adult general population is suffering from nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), which has become a serious health problem. In 2020, global experts suggested that the nomenclature of NAFLD should be updated to metabolic-dysfunction-associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD). Hepatic fibrosis is the most significant determinant of all cause- and liver -related mortality in MAFLD. The non-invasive test (NIT) is urgently required to evaluate hepatic fibrosis in MAFLD. The fibrosis-4 (FIB-4) index is the first triaging tool for excluding advanced fibrosis because of its accuracy, simplicity, and cheapness, especially for general physicians or endocrinologists, although the FIB-4 index has several drawbacks. Accumulating evidence has suggested that vibration-controlled transient elastography (VCTE) and the enhanced liver fibrosis (ELF) test may become useful as the second step after triaging by the FIB-4 index. The leading cause of mortality in MAFLD is cardiovascular disease (CVD), extrahepatic malignancy, and liver-related diseases. MAFLD often complicates chronic kidney disease (CKD), resulting in increased simultaneous liver kidney transplantation. The FIB-4 index could be a predictor of not only liver-related mortality and incident hepatocellular carcinoma, but also prevalent and incident CKD, CVD, and extrahepatic malignancy. Although NITs as milestones for evaluating treatment efficacy have never been established, the FIB-4 index is expected to reflect histological hepatic fibrosis after treatment in several longitudinal studies. We here review the role of the FIB-4 index in the management of MAFLD.

16.
J Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 36(8): 2275-2284, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33709477

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Gut microbiota composition is associated with the pathogenesis of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. However, the association between gut microbiota composition and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in non-obese patients remains unclear. We compared clinical parameters and gut microbiota profiles of healthy controls and non-obese and obese patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. METHODS: We examined the clinical parameters and gut microbiota profiles by 16S rRNA sequences and short-chain fatty acid levels in fecal samples from 51 non-obese patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (body mass index <25 kg/m2 ) and 51 obese patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (body mass index ≥30 kg/m2 ) who underwent pathological examination and 87 controls at five hospitals in Japan. RESULTS: Although no significant differences between the non-obese and other groups were observed in alpha diversity, a significant difference was found in beta diversity. We observed a significant decrease in serum alanine aminotransferase levels, Eubacterium population, and butyric acid levels in non-obese patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease compared with those in obese patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. A significant negative correlation was found between the stage of hepatic fibrosis and Eubacterium abundance in non-obese patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. CONCLUSIONS: The decrease in the abundance of Eubacterium that produces butyric acid may play an important role in the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in non-obese individuals. This study was registered at the University Hospital Medical Information Network clinical trial registration system (UMIN000020917).

17.
JGH Open ; 5(2): 228-234, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33553660

RESUMO

Background and Aim: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection causes insulin resistance and diabetes as extrahepatic manifestations. We aimed to analyze the effect of HCV eradication by direct-acting antiviral (DAA) agents on glucose tolerance. Methods: The hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) of 272 patients with HCV infection who achieved a sustained virologic response (SVR) was analyzed at baseline before DAA treatment, at the end of DAA therapy (ETR), and 12 weeks after therapy (Post12W). Results: There were no significant differences in HbA1c between baseline, ETR, and Post12W in the overall patients. When the data were stratified according to the presence or absence of diabetes, median HbA1c significantly decreased from baseline (7.2%) to ETR (6.8%) and Post12W (6.8%) in the 55 patients with diabetes, whereas there were no significant changes in the patients without diabetes. Basal HbA1c, fasting plasma glucose, and age were independently associated with the changes in HbA1c according to multivariate analysis, and the predictive formula for changes in HbA1c was found to be ΔHbA1c (%) = 1.449-0.4* HbA1c (%) + 0.012 × Age (year). There were no changes in body mass in diabetic or nondiabetic patients. In diabetic patients taking medication, 63.4% of patients needed less medication. Conclusions: Eradication of HCV improves glycemic control, indicated by a 0.4% decrease in HbA1c in diabetes.

18.
Hepatol Int ; 15(2): 366-379, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33580453

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: NAFLD is increasing in Asia including Japan, despite its lower obesity rate than the West. However, NAFLD can occur in lean people, but data are limited. We aimed to investigate the epidemiology of NAFLD in Japan with a focus on lean NAFLD. METHODS: We searched PubMed, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, Web of Science, and the Japan Medical Abstracts Society (inception to 5/15/2019) and included 73 eligible full-text original research studies (n = 258,531). We used random-effects model for pooled estimates, Bayesian modeling for trend and forecasting, contacted authors for individual patient data and analyzed 14,887 (7752 NAFLD; 7135 non-NAFLD-8 studies) patients. RESULTS: The overall NAFLD prevalence was 25.5%, higher in males (p < 0.001), varied by regions (p < 0.001), and increased over time (p = 0.015), but not by per-person income or gross prefectural productivity, which increased by 0.64% per year (1983-2012) and is forecasted to reach 39.3% in 2030 and 44.8% in 2040. The incidence of NAFLD, HCC, and overall mortality were 23.5, 7.6 and 5.9 per 1000 person-years, respectively. Individual patient-level data showed a lean NAFLD prevalence of 20.7% among the NAFLD population, with lean NAFLD persons being older and with a higher all-cause mortality rate (8.3 vs. 5.6 per 1000 person-years for non-lean NAFLD, p = 0.02). Older age, male sex, diabetes, and FIB-4 were independent predictors of mortality, but not lean NAFLD. CONCLUSION: NAFLD prevalence has increased in Japan and may affect half of the population by 2040. Lean NAFLD individuals makeup 20% of the NAFLD population, were older, and had higher mortality.


Assuntos
Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica , Idoso , Teorema de Bayes , Carcinoma Hepatocelular , Feminino , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas , Masculino , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/epidemiologia , Prevalência
19.
Diagnostics (Basel) ; 11(1)2021 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33467114

RESUMO

Access to imaging is limited for diagnosing nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in general populations. This study evaluated the diagnostic performance of noninvasive and nonimaging indexes to predict NAFLD in the general Japanese population. Health checkup examinees without hepatitis virus infection or habitual alcohol drinking were included. Fatty liver was diagnosed by ultrasonography. The hepatic steatosis index (HSI), Zhejiang University (ZJU) index, and fatty liver index (FLI) were determined, and risk of advanced liver fibrosis was evaluated by the fibrosis-4 index. NAFLD was diagnosed in 1935 (28.0%) of the 6927 subjects. The area under the receiver operating characteristic (AUROC) curve of the HSI, ZJU index, and FLI was 0.874, 0.886, and 0.884, respectively. The AUROC of the ZJU index (p < 0.001) and FLI (p = 0.002) was significantly greater than that for the HSI. In subjects with a high risk of advanced fibrosis, the sensitivity of the HSI, ZJU index, and FLI were 88.8%, 94.4%, and 83.3% with a low cut-off value and the specificity was 98.5%, 100%, and 100% with a high cut-off value. In conclusion, all indexes were useful to diagnose NAFLD in the general Japanese population and in subjects with potentially advanced liver fibrosis.

20.
Diabetol Int ; 12(1): 118-125, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33479587

RESUMO

Liver fibrosis is associated with lifestyle-related diseases, including diabetes. The identification of diabetic patients with severe liver fibrosis is important, but a simple and reliable diagnostic procedure remains to be determined. We conducted an observational study to evaluate the performance of a FIB-4 index-based screening strategy for the diagnosis of advanced liver fibrosis in patients with diabetes or prediabetes. Two hundred and forty-two patients underwent abdominal imaging in our Study. According to the abdominal imaging findings, fatty liver, liver cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma were defined, and their association with FIB-4 index evaluated. The prevalences of liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma in patients with a high (≥ 2.67; liver cirrhosis: 42.9%, hepatocellular carcinoma: 14.3%) FIB-4 index were significantly higher than in those with an intermediate (1.3 ≤ FIB-4 < 2.67; liver cirrhosis: 1.6%, hepatocellular carcinoma: 0.8%) or low FIB-4 index (< 1.3; liver cirrhosis: 1.2%, hepatocellular carcinoma: 0%). The diagnostic accuracy, specificity, and sensitivity of the FIB-4 index for the diagnosis of liver cirrhosis or hepatocellular carcinoma were 84.3%, 85.5%, and 89.3%, respectively, with an optimized cut-off value of 2.96 (sensitivity = 0.86, specificity = 0.98). Using an optimized cut-off value, FIB-4 index might be useful to identify liver cirrhosis or hepatocellular carcinoma in diabetes patients with high diagnostic accuracy.

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