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1.
Clin Immunol ; 210: 108316, 2019 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31770611

RESUMO

Germline STAT3 gain-of-function (GOF) mutations have been linked to poly-autoimmunity and lymphoproliferation with variable expressivity and incomplete penetrance. Here we studied the impact of 17 different STAT3 GOF mutations on the canonical STAT3 signaling pathway and correlated the molecular results with clinical manifestations. The mutations clustered in three groups. Group 1 mutants showed altered STAT3 phosphorylation kinetics and strong basal transcriptional activity. They were associated with the highest penetrance of lymphoproliferation and autoimmunity. Group 2 mutants showed a strongly inducible transcriptional reporter activity and were clinically less penetrant. Group 3 mutants were mostly located in the DNA binding domain and showed the strongest DNA binding affinity despite a poor transcriptional reporter response. Thus, the GOF effect of STAT3 mutations is determined by a heterogeneous response pattern at the molecular level. The correlation of response pattern and clinical penetrance indicates a significant contribution of mutation-determined effects on disease manifestations.

2.
Front Immunol ; 10: 2236, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31681257

RESUMO

Background: Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is caused by a malfunctioning nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase complex in phagocytes, leading to impaired bacterial and fungal killing and hyperinflammation. Objective: To characterize macrophage subsets and cytokine/chemokine signaling loops involved in CGD tissue hyperinflammation. Methods: Cytokine/chemokine production and surface marker expression were analyzed in inflamed tissue of four CGD patients and compared to cytokine/chemokine released by CGD macrophages upon priming to different macrophage subpopulations. Furthermore, the re-priming capacity of CGD pro-inflammatory M1 to M2a anti-inflammatory macrophages was evaluated. Results: In human CGD inflammatory tissue, IL-18 and IFN-γ were detected in significant quantity. Immunofluorescence analysis identified macrophages as one source of IL-18 in inflamed tissue. In vitro, CGD macrophages could be primed and re-primed into all inflammatory/anti-inflammatory macrophage subpopulations. IL-18 was also released by M1 CGD and control macrophages. Conclusion: CGD pro-inflammatory M1 macrophages remain M1 primed in vivo. As CGD M1 macrophages can be re-primed to anti-inflammatory M2a phenotype in vitro, macrophages are kept in M1 state in vivo by a persistent pro-inflammatory environment. Our results suggest a paracrine signaling loop between M1 macrophage derived IL-18 and non-macrophage derived IFN-γ maintaining macrophage pro-inflammatory activity in CGD tissue.

4.
Scand J Immunol ; : e12811, 2019 Aug 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31378960

RESUMO

Hypomorphic mutations in the gene encoding Bruton tyrosine kinase (BTK) may result in milder phenotypes and delayed diagnosis of B-cell related immunodeficiencies due to residual BTK function. Newborn screening for kappa-deleting-recombination-excision circles (KRECs) reliably identifies classical X-linked agammaglobulinaemia (XLA) patients with profound B-cell lymphopenia at birth but has not been evaluated in patients with residual BTK function. We aimed to evaluate clinical findings, BTK function and KREC copy numbers in three patients with BTK mutations presenting with impaired polysaccharide responsiveness without agammaglobulinaemia. One patient had an invasive pneumococcal infection at the age of 4 years. All three patients (two brothers) had visible tonsils, normal to slightly decreased immunoglobulin G levels, undetectable pneumococcal antibodies despite pneumococcal conjugate vaccinations, no antibody response after a diagnostic polysaccharide vaccination as well as profound B-cell lymphopenia with residual B-cell differentiation. BTK mutations were identified by Sanger sequencing. BTK staining and phosphorylation assays were performed on peripheral B cells. KREC copy numbers were determined from dried blood spots obtained within the first week of life as well as once at the age of 8, 6 and 3 years, respectively. BTK staining showed residual protein expression. Also, residual BTK activity could be demonstrated. KREC copy numbers from dried blood spots were above the threshold set for detection of patients with profound B-cell lymphopenia. Male patients with impaired polysaccharide responsiveness should be evaluated for B-cell lymphopenia followed by BTK analyses irrespective of immunoglobulin levels or tonsil size.

5.
Front Immunol ; 10: 1272, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31379802

RESUMO

Introduction: The German PID-NET registry was founded in 2009, serving as the first national registry of patients with primary immunodeficiencies (PID) in Germany. It is part of the European Society for Immunodeficiencies (ESID) registry. The primary purpose of the registry is to gather data on the epidemiology, diagnostic delay, diagnosis, and treatment of PIDs. Methods: Clinical and laboratory data was collected from 2,453 patients from 36 German PID centres in an online registry. Data was analysed with the software Stata® and Excel. Results: The minimum prevalence of PID in Germany is 2.72 per 100,000 inhabitants. Among patients aged 1-25, there was a clear predominance of males. The median age of living patients ranged between 7 and 40 years, depending on the respective PID. Predominantly antibody disorders were the most prevalent group with 57% of all 2,453 PID patients (including 728 CVID patients). A gene defect was identified in 36% of patients. Familial cases were observed in 21% of patients. The age of onset for presenting symptoms ranged from birth to late adulthood (range 0-88 years). Presenting symptoms comprised infections (74%) and immune dysregulation (22%). Ninety-three patients were diagnosed without prior clinical symptoms. Regarding the general and clinical diagnostic delay, no PID had undergone a slight decrease within the last decade. However, both, SCID and hyper IgE- syndrome showed a substantial improvement in shortening the time between onset of symptoms and genetic diagnosis. Regarding treatment, 49% of all patients received immunoglobulin G (IgG) substitution (70%-subcutaneous; 29%-intravenous; 1%-unknown). Three-hundred patients underwent at least one hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Five patients had gene therapy. Conclusion: The German PID-NET registry is a precious tool for physicians, researchers, the pharmaceutical industry, politicians, and ultimately the patients, for whom the outcomes will eventually lead to a more timely diagnosis and better treatment.

6.
Klin Padiatr ; 231(5): 240-247, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31340404

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Non cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis (NCBE) is an increasingly recognized chronic, progressive respiratory disorder with significant morbidity also in children and adolescents. METHODS: We longitudinally assessed a cohort of 35 pediatric patients with NCBE and investigated underlying diagnosis, symptoms, clinical course, treatment, and quality of life. RESULTS: NCBE were diagnosed at a mean age of 9.5 (±5.3) years. In half of the children NCBE were found prior to identification of the causative diagnosis. Primary immunodeficiency (PID) was identified as the underlying diagnosis in 24/35 (68%) cases, of which two-thirds showed antibody deficiency. In the 11 non-PID cases ciliopathies were most common (n=7). Clinical aspects such as manifestation age, cough or dyspnea symptoms, and exacerbation frequency did not differ significantly between PID and non-PID patients. Likewise, quality of life (QoL) was equally reduced in both groups. Lung function test parameters were stable under appropriate therapy in all children. The majority in both groups was insufficiently vaccinated against influenza and pneumococci. CONCLUSION: Our data indicates that NCBE need to be especially appreciated as a presenting sign of PID in pediatric patients. Thus, occurrence of NCBE should warrant rigorous diagnostics to identify the underlying condition. In our cohort NCBE themselves rather than the causative diagnoses seem to dictate the clinical course of disease and reduce QoL in children. More intensive efforts have to be undertaken to vaccinate patients according to recommendations.


Assuntos
Bronquiectasia/diagnóstico , Bronquiectasia/psicologia , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Adolescente , Bronquiectasia/fisiopatologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Tosse/fisiopatologia , Fibrose Cística , Humanos
7.
Bioinformatics ; 2019 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31263866

RESUMO

SUMMARY: Primary Immunodeficiencies (PIDs) belong to the group of rare diseases. The European Society for Immunodeficiencies (ESID) operates an international research database application for continuous long-term documentation of patient data. The system is a web application which runs in a standard browser. Therefore, the system is easy to access from any location. Technically, the system is based on Gails backed by MariaDB with high standard security features to comply with the demands of a modern research platform. AVAILABILITY: The ESID Online Database is accessible via the official website: https://esid.org/Working-Parties/Registry-Working-Party/ESID-Registry.A demo system is available via: https://cci-esid-reg-demo-app.uniklinik-freiburg.de/EERS with user demouser and password Demo-2019.

8.
Clin Immunol ; 208: 108228, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31195081

RESUMO

This study reports a patient with severe skin disease in the context of profound immunodeficiency explained by two concomitant genetic diseases caused by two novel homozygous loss-of-function mutations in PLEC1 and CARMIL2. The work provides additional information on the clinical and immunological manifestations of CARMIL2 deficiency and highlights the particular diagnostic and therapeutic challenge represented by the concomitant presence of two rare monogenic disorders.

10.
Hum Gene Ther ; 30(8): 975-984, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31032638

RESUMO

Familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (FHL) is a group of life-threatening, autosomal recessive disorders of severe hyperinflammation. FHL type 3 (FHL-3) accounts for about 30% of FHL cases. It is characterized by mutations in the UNC13D gene that give rise to functionally impaired or absent Munc13-4 protein, resulting in impaired secretion of lytic granules by cytotoxic lymphocytes. Etoposide-based therapy is currently used as the standard of care that results in around 60% 5-year survival, illustrating the need for novel treatment approaches. Key problems include treatment toxicity and failure to induce or maintain remission of the hyperinflammation. Instead of immunosuppression, transplantation of autologous gene-corrected T cells can be envisaged as an approach to restore the impaired immune reaction. This study established a protocol that enabled hyperactivated, FHL-3 patient-derived T cells to be cultured and a codon-optimized UNC13D expression cassette to be delivered by either alpha- or gamma-retroviral gene transfer. The data demonstrate that the established protocol can be applied to FHL-3 patient cells with various genetic backgrounds and that gamma-retroviral UNC13D transfer restored expression of functional Munc13-4, as well as degranulation capacity and cell-mediated cytotoxicity of those patient-derived CD8+ T cells. Furthermore, the study shows that the co-introduction of a truncated low-affinity nerve growth factor receptor coding sequence enabled the therapeutic effect to be optimized by enriching transduced cells in a Good Manufacturing Practice-compliant manner. In conclusion, this study lays the foundation for an adaptive immune cell therapy approach aiming at immunological stabilization of FHL-3 patients with autologous, immune-competent T cells prior to hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation.

11.
Clin Immunol ; 203: 59-62, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31004792

RESUMO

Some patients diagnosed with common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) actually suffer from combined immunodeficiency (CID) and therefore may require a different, CID-adapted treatment. Several CD4 T-cell-based criteria have been proposed in the past to identify patients with CID within the cohort of adult CVID patients. In this monocentric study, we used retrospective immunological and clinical data of 238 CVID patients to compare four different proposals of how to define CID among CVID patients. We demonstrate that none of the current definitions sufficiently separates CID from CVID patients and that the relative reduction of naïve CD4 T cells <10% has the highest sensitivity of all tested markers for patients with clinical complications often associated with CID. Thus, a very low percentage of naïve CD4 T cells in any adult CVID patient should raise suspicion, but is not sufficient to define CID among CVID patients.

12.
Clin Immunol ; 201: 30-34, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30776520

RESUMO

Severe combined immunodeficiencies (SCID) comprise a group of genetic diseases characterized by abrogated development of T lymphocytes. In some case reports of atypical SCID patients elevated proportions of γδ T lymphocytes have been reported. However, it is unknown whether these γδ T cells modulate or reflect the patient's clinical phenotype. We investigated the frequency of elevated γδ T cell proportions and associations with clinical disease manifestations in a cohort of 76 atypical SCID patients. Increased proportions of γδ T lymphocytes were present in approximately 60% of these patients. Furthermore, we identified positive correlations between elevated proportions of γδ T cells and the occurrence of CMV infections and autoimmune cytopenias. We discuss that CMV infections might trigger an expansion of γδ T lymphocytes, which could drive the development of autoimmune cytopenias. We advocate that atypical SCID patients should be screened for elevated proportions of γδ T lymphocytes, CMV infection and autoimmune cytopenias.

14.
J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract ; 7(6): 1763-1770, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30776527

RESUMO

Patient registries are instrumental for clinical research in rare diseases. They help to achieve a sufficient sample size for epidemiological and clinical research and to assess the feasibility of clinical trials. The European Society for Immunodeficiencies (ESID) registry currently comprises information on more than 25,000 patients with inborn errors of immunity (IEI). The prerequisite of a patient to be included into the ESID registry is an IEI either defined by a defect in a gene included in the disease classification of the international union of immunological societies, or verified by applying clinical criteria. Because a relevant number of patients, including those with common variable immunodeficiency (CVID), representing the largest group of patients in the registry, remain without a genetic diagnosis, consensus on classification of these patients is mandatory. Here, we present clinical criteria for a large number of IEI that were designed in expert panels with an external review. They were implemented for novel entries and verification of existing data sets from 2014, yielding a substantial refinement. For instance, 8% of adults and 27% of children with CVID (176 of 1704 patients) were reclassified to 22 different immunodeficiencies, illustrating progress in genetics, but also the previous lack of standardized disease definitions. Importantly, apart from registry purposes, the clinical criteria are also helpful to support treatment decisions in the absence of a genetic diagnosis or in patients with variants of unknown significance.

15.
Orphanet J Rare Dis ; 13(1): 201, 2018 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30419968

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Common variable immunodeficiency disorders (CVID) are a group of rare innate disorders characterized by specific antibody deficiency and increased rates of infections, comorbidities and mortality. The burden of CVID in Europe has not been previously estimated. We performed a retrospective analysis of the European Society for Immunodeficiencies (ESID) registry data on the subset of patients classified by their immunologist as CVID and treated between 2004 and 2014. The registered deaths and comorbidities were used to calculate the annual average age-standardized rates of Years of Life Lost to premature death (YLL), Years Lost to Disability (YLD) and Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALY=YLL + YLD). These outcomes were expressed as a rate per 105 of the CVID cohort (the individual disease burden), and of the general population (the societal disease burden). RESULTS: Data of 2700 patients from 23 countries were analysed. Annual comorbidity rates: bronchiectasis, 21.9%; autoimmunity, 23.2%; digestive disorders, 15.6%; solid cancers, 5.5%; lymphoma, 3.8%, exceeded the prevalence in the general population by a factor of 34.0, 7.6, 8.1, 2.4 and 32.6, respectively. The comorbidities of CVID caused 8722 (6069; 12,363) YLD/105 in this cohort, whereas 44% of disability burden was attributable to infections and bronchiectasis. The total individual burden of CVID was 36,785 (33,078, 41,380) DALY/105. With estimated CVID prevalence of ~ 1/ 25,000, the societal burden of CVID ensued 1.5 (1.3, 1.7) DALY/105 of the general population. In exploratory analysis, increased mortality was associated with solid tumor, HR (95% CI): 2.69 (1.10; 6.57) p = 0.030, lymphoma: 5.48 (2.36; 12.71) p < .0001 and granulomatous-lymphocytic interstitial lung disease: 4.85 (1.63; 14.39) p = 0.005. Diagnostic delay (median: 4 years) was associated with a higher risk of death: 1.04 (1.02; 1.06) p = .0003, bronchiectasis: 1.03 (1.01; 1.04) p = .0001, solid tumor: 1.08 (1.04; 1.11) p < .0001 and enteropathy: 1.02 (1.00; 1.05) p = .0447 and stayed unchanged over four decades (p = .228). CONCLUSIONS: While the societal burden of CVID may seem moderate, it is severe to the individual patient. Delay in CVID diagnosis may constitute a modifiable risk factor of serious comorbidities and death but showed no improvement. Tools supporting timely CVID diagnosis should be developed with high priority.

16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30170123

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Caspase activation and recruitment domain 11 (CARD11) encodes a scaffold protein in lymphocytes that links antigen receptor engagement with downstream signaling to nuclear factor κB, c-Jun N-terminal kinase, and mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1. Germline CARD11 mutations cause several distinct primary immune disorders in human subjects, including severe combined immune deficiency (biallelic null mutations), B-cell expansion with nuclear factor κB and T-cell anergy (heterozygous, gain-of-function mutations), and severe atopic disease (loss-of-function, heterozygous, dominant interfering mutations), which has focused attention on CARD11 mutations discovered by using whole-exome sequencing. OBJECTIVES: We sought to determine the molecular actions of an extended allelic series of CARD11 and to characterize the expanding range of clinical phenotypes associated with heterozygous CARD11 loss-of-function alleles. METHODS: Cell transfections and primary T-cell assays were used to evaluate signaling and function of CARD11 variants. RESULTS: Here we report on an expanded cohort of patients harboring novel heterozygous CARD11 mutations that extend beyond atopy to include other immunologic phenotypes not previously associated with CARD11 mutations. In addition to (and sometimes excluding) severe atopy, heterozygous missense and indel mutations in CARD11 presented with immunologic phenotypes similar to those observed in signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 loss of function, dedicator of cytokinesis 8 deficiency, common variable immunodeficiency, neutropenia, and immune dysregulation, polyendocrinopathy, enteropathy, X-linked-like syndrome. Pathogenic variants exhibited dominant negative activity and were largely confined to the CARD or coiled-coil domains of the CARD11 protein. CONCLUSION: These results illuminate a broader phenotypic spectrum associated with CARD11 mutations in human subjects and underscore the need for functional studies to demonstrate that rare gene variants encountered in expected and unexpected phenotypes must nonetheless be validated for pathogenic activity.

17.
J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract ; 6(5): 1508-1517, 2018 Sep - Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30201097

RESUMO

Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a life-threatening hyperinflammatory syndrome requiring aggressive immunosuppressive therapy. Following 2 large international studies mainly targeting pediatric patients with familial disease and patients without underlying chronic or malignant disease, the HLH-94 protocol is recommended as the standard of care when using etoposide-based therapy by the Histiocyte Society. However, in clinical practice, etoposide-based therapy has been widely used beyond the study inclusion criteria, including older patients and patients with underlying diseases (secondary HLH). Many questions remain around these extended indications and published reports do not address several practical issues. To tackle these concerns, the HLH Steering Committee of the Histiocyte Society decided to issue guidance for use of the HLH-94 protocol. The group convened in a structured consensus finding process to define recommendations that are based largely on expert opinion backed up by available data from the literature. The recommendations address all main elements of HLH-94 including corticosteroids, cyclosporin, etoposide, intrathecal therapy, and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) and consider various forms of HLH and all age groups. Aspects covered include indications, applications, dosing, side effects, duration of therapy, salvage therapy, and HSCT. These recommendations aim to provide a framework to guide treatment decisions in this severe disease.

19.
Pediatr Blood Cancer ; 65(11): e27344, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30070073

RESUMO

In this report, we evaluate the hypothesis that hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis in patients with defects of lymphocyte cytotoxicity is usually triggered by infections. We show that in the majority of patients, extensive virus PCR panels performed in addition to routine microbiological investigations remain negative and summarize 25 patients with onset of hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis in utero or within the first 10 days of life, in none of which an associated bacterial or viral infection was reported. These observations, even though preliminary, invite to consider a key role of lymphocyte cytotoxicity in controlling T-cell homeostasis also in the absence of apparent infectious stimuli.

20.
J Clin Immunol ; 38(4): 527-536, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29948574

RESUMO

PURPOSE: All reported patients with hypomorphic X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency (X-SCID) due to c.664C>T (p.R222C) mutations in the gene (IL2RG) encoding the common γ chain (γc) have presented with opportunistic infections within the first year of life, despite the presence of nearly normal NK and T cell numbers. Reporting five children of one extended family with hemizygous mutations in IL2RG, we explore potential diagnostic clues and extend our comprehension of the functional impact of this mutation. METHODS: Whole exome sequencing (WES); detailed immune phenotyping; cytokine-induced STAT phosphorylation; B, T, and NK cell activation; and quantification of sjTRECs in five Arab children with c.664C>T (p.R222C) IL2RG mutation. RESULTS: The mean age at clinical presentation with respiratory tract infection or diarrhea was 6.8 (range: 2-12) months. None of the children presented with opportunistic infections. Diagnostic clues were early onset in the first year of life, and a suggestive family history associated with reduced naïve CD4 T cells and absent switched memory B cells. Number and phenotype of NK cells and innate-like lymphocytes were normal. The diagnosis was made by WES and corroborated by absent STAT phosphorylation and reduced functional response after IL-2 and IL-21 stimulation. Four patients underwent successful hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. CONCLUSIONS: As early diagnosis and treatment are important, a high index of suspicion in the diagnosis of c.664C>T (p.R222C) X-SCID is needed. This requires prompt genetic testing by next generation sequencing in order to avoid unnecessary delays in the definite diagnosis since immunological work up may not be discriminating. Assays directly testing cytokine signaling or cytokine-dependent functions are helpful in confirming the functional impact of the identified hypomorphic variants.

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