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1.
Nat Med ; 2019 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31570822

RESUMO

Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) brings comprehensive insights to cancer genome interpretation. To explore the clinical value of WGS, we sequenced 254 triple-negative breast cancers (TNBCs) for which associated treatment and outcome data were collected between 2010 and 2015 via the population-based Sweden Cancerome Analysis Network-Breast (SCAN-B) project (ClinicalTrials.gov ID:NCT02306096). Applying the HRDetect mutational-signature-based algorithm to classify tumors, 59% were predicted to have homologous-recombination-repair deficiency (HRDetect-high): 67% explained by germline/somatic mutations of BRCA1/BRCA2, BRCA1 promoter hypermethylation, RAD51C hypermethylation or biallelic loss of PALB2. A novel mechanism of BRCA1 abrogation was discovered via germline SINE-VNTR-Alu retrotransposition. HRDetect provided independent prognostic information, with HRDetect-high patients having better outcome on adjuvant chemotherapy for invasive disease-free survival (hazard ratio (HR) = 0.42; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.2-0.87) and distant relapse-free interval (HR = 0.31, CI = 0.13-0.76) compared to HRDetect-low, regardless of whether a genetic/epigenetic cause was identified. HRDetect-intermediate, some possessing potentially targetable biological abnormalities, had the poorest outcomes. HRDetect-low cancers also had inadequate outcomes: ~4.7% were mismatch-repair-deficient (another targetable defect, not typically sought) and they were enriched for (but not restricted to) PIK3CA/AKT1 pathway abnormalities. New treatment options need to be considered for now-discernible HRDetect-intermediate and HRDetect-low categories. This population-based study advocates for WGS of TNBC to better inform trial stratification and improve clinical decision-making.

3.
J Community Genet ; 2018 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30251116

RESUMO

Overlapping phenotypes between different hereditary colorectal cancer (CRC) syndromes together with a growing demand for cancer genetic testing and improved sequencing technology call for adjusted patient selection and adapted diagnostic routines. Here we present a retrospective evaluation of family history of cancer, laboratory diagnostic procedure, and outcome for 372 patients tested for Lynch syndrome (LS), i.e., the single most common hereditary cause of CRC. Based on number of affected family members and age at cancer diagnosis in families with genetically confirmed LS, we developed local patient selection criteria for a simplified one-step gene panel mutation screening strategy targeting also less common Mendelian CRC syndromes. Pros and cons of this strategy are discussed.

4.
Lancet Oncol ; 19(6): 747-757, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29735299

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) have improved the survival of patients with chronic myeloid leukaemia. Many patients have deep molecular responses, a prerequisite for TKI therapy discontinuation. We aimed to define precise conditions for stopping treatment. METHODS: In this prospective, non-randomised trial, we enrolled patients with chronic myeloid leukaemia at 61 European centres in 11 countries. Eligible patients had chronic-phase chronic myeloid leukaemia, had received any TKI for at least 3 years (without treatment failure according to European LeukemiaNet [ELN] recommendations), and had a confirmed deep molecular response for at least 1 year. The primary endpoint was molecular relapse-free survival, defined by loss of major molecular response (MMR; >0·1% BCR-ABL1 on the International Scale) and assessed in all patients with at least one molecular result. Secondary endpoints were a prognostic analysis of factors affecting maintenance of MMR at 6 months in learning and validation samples and the cost impact of stopping TKI therapy. We considered loss of haematological response, progress to accelerated-phase chronic myeloid leukaemia, or blast crisis as serious adverse events. This study presents the results of the prespecified interim analysis, which was done after the 6-month molecular relapse-free survival status was known for 200 patients. The study is ongoing and is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01596114. FINDINGS: Between May 30, 2012, and Dec 3, 2014, we assessed 868 patients with chronic myeloid leukaemia for eligibility, of whom 758 were enrolled. Median follow-up of the 755 patients evaluable for molecular response was 27 months (IQR 21-34). Molecular relapse-free survival for these patients was 61% (95% CI 57-64) at 6 months and 50% (46-54) at 24 months. Of these 755 patients, 371 (49%) lost MMR after TKI discontinuation, four (1%) died while in MMR for reasons unrelated to chronic myeloid leukaemia (myocardial infarction, lung cancer, renal cancer, and heart failure), and 13 (2%) restarted TKI therapy while in MMR. A further six (1%) patients died in chronic-phase chronic myeloid leukaemia after loss of MMR and re-initiation of TKI therapy for reasons unrelated to chronic myeloid leukaemia, and two (<1%) patients lost MMR despite restarting TKI therapy. In the prognostic analysis in 405 patients who received imatinib as first-line treatment (learning sample), longer treatment duration (odds ratio [OR] per year 1·14 [95% CI 1·05-1·23]; p=0·0010) and longer deep molecular response durations (1·13 [1·04-1·23]; p=0·0032) were associated with increasing probability of MMR maintenance at 6 months. The OR for deep molecular response duration was replicated in the validation sample consisting of 171 patients treated with any TKI as first-line treatment, although the association was not significant (1·13 [0·98-1·29]; p=0·08). TKI discontinuation was associated with substantial cost savings (an estimated €22 million). No serious adverse events were reported. INTERPRETATION: Patients with chronic myeloid leukaemia who have achieved deep molecular responses have good molecular relapse-free survival. Such patients should be considered for TKI discontinuation, particularly those who have been in deep molecular response for a long time. Stopping treatment could spare patients from treatment-induced side-effects and reduce health expenditure. FUNDING: ELN Foundation and France National Cancer Institute.

5.
J Community Genet ; 2018 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29508368

RESUMO

The BOADICEA breast cancer (BC) risk assessment model and its associated Web Application v3 (BWA) tool are being extended to incorporate additional genetic and non-genetic BC risk factors. From an online survey through the BOADICEA website and UK, Dutch, French and Swedish national genetic societies, we explored the relationships between the usage frequencies of the BWA and six other common BC risk assessment tools and respondents' perceived importance of BC risk factors. Respondents (N = 443) varied in age, country and clinical seniority but comprised mainly genetics health professionals (82%) and BWA users (93%). Oncology professionals perceived reproductive, hormonal (exogenous) and lifestyle BC risk factors as more important in BC risk assessment compared to genetics professionals (p values < 0.05 to 0.0001). BWA was used more frequently by respondents who gave high weight to breast tumour pathology and low weight to personal BC history as BC risk factors. BWA use was positively related to the weight given to hormonal BC risk factors. The importance attributed to lifestyle and BMI BC risk factors was not associated with the use of BWA or any of the other tools. Next version of the BWA encompassing additional BC risk factors will facilitate more comprehensive BC risk assessment in genetics and oncology practice.

6.
J Med Genet ; 55(1): 15-20, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28490613

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We previously showed that the BRCA1 variant c.5096G>A p.Arg1699Gln (R1699Q) was associated with an intermediate risk of breast cancer (BC) and ovarian cancer (OC). This study aimed to assess these cancer risks for R1699Q carriers in a larger cohort, including follow-up of previously studied families, to further define cancer risks and to propose adjusted clinical management of female BRCA1*R1699Q carriers. METHODS: Data were collected from 129 BRCA1*R1699Q families ascertained internationally by ENIGMA (Evidence-based Network for the Interpretation of Germline Mutant Alleles) consortium members. A modified segregation analysis was used to calculate BC and OC risks. Relative risks were calculated under both monogenic model and major gene plus polygenic model assumptions. RESULTS: In this cohort the cumulative risk of BC and OC by age 70 years was 20% and 6%, respectively. The relative risk for developing cancer was higher when using a model that included the effects of both the R1699Q variant and a residual polygenic component compared with monogenic model (for BC 3.67 vs 2.83, and for OC 6.41 vs 5.83). CONCLUSION: Our results confirm that BRCA1*R1699Q confers an intermediate risk for BC and OC. Breast surveillance for female carriers based on mammogram annually from age 40 is advised. Bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy should be considered based on family history.


Assuntos
Proteína BRCA1/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Mutação/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Segregação de Cromossomos , Feminino , Humanos , Fatores de Risco
7.
Genet Med ; 20(4): 452-457, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28837162

RESUMO

PurposeMonoallelic germ-line mutations in the BRCA1/FANCS, BRCA2/FANCD1 and PALB2/FANCN genes confer high risk of breast cancer. Biallelic mutations in these genes cause Fanconi anemia (FA), characterized by malformations, bone marrow failure, chromosome fragility, and cancer predisposition (BRCA2/FANCD1 and PALB2/FANCN), or an FA-like disease presenting a phenotype similar to FA but without bone marrow failure (BRCA1/FANCS). FANCM monoallelic mutations have been reported as moderate risk factors for breast cancer, but there are no reports of any clinical phenotype observed in carriers of biallelic mutations.MethodsBreast cancer probands were subjected to mutation analysis by sequencing gene panels or testing DNA damage response genes.ResultsFive cases homozygous for FANCM loss-of-function mutations were identified. They show a heterogeneous phenotype including cancer predisposition, toxicity to chemotherapy, early menopause, and possibly chromosome fragility. Phenotype severity might correlate with mutation position in the gene.ConclusionOur data indicate that biallelic FANCM mutations do not cause classical FA, providing proof that FANCM is not a canonical FA gene. Moreover, our observations support previous findings suggesting that FANCM is a breast cancer-predisposing gene. Mutation testing of FANCM might be considered for individuals with the above-described clinical features.


Assuntos
Alelos , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Fragilidade Cromossômica , DNA Helicases/genética , Anemia de Fanconi/diagnóstico , Anemia de Fanconi/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Mutação , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Consanguinidade , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/genética , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Genótipo , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Humanos , Masculino , Linhagem , Fenótipo , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco
8.
Fam Cancer ; 17(3): 469, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29071503

RESUMO

The article "Use of the BOADICEA Web Application in clinical practice: appraisals by clinicians from various countries" written by Anne Brédart · Jean­Luc Kop · Antonis C. Antoniou · Alex P. Cunningham · Antoine De Pauw ·Marc Tischkowitz · Hans Ehrencrona · Sylvie Dolbeault · Léonore Robieux · Kerstin Rhiem ·Douglas F. Easton · Peter Devilee · Dominique Stoppa­Lyonnet· Rita Schmutlzer, was originally published electronically on the publisher's internet portal (currently SpringerLink) on 16th June 2017 without open access.

9.
Fam Cancer ; 17(1): 31-41, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28623477

RESUMO

The 'BOADICEA' Web Application (BWA) used to assess breast cancer risk, is currently being further developed, to integrate additional genetic and non-genetic factors. We surveyed clinicians' perceived acceptability of the existing BWA v3. An online survey was conducted through the BOADICEA website, and the British, Dutch, French and Swedish genetics societies. Cross-sectional data from 443 participants who provided at least 50% responses were analysed. Respondents varied in age and, clinical seniority, but mainly comprised women (77%) and genetics professionals (82%). Some expressed negative opinions about the scientific validity of BOADICEA (9%) and BWA v3 risk presentations (7-9%). Data entry time (62%), clinical utility (22%) and ease of communicating BWA v3 risks (13-17%) received additional negative appraisals. In multivariate analyses, controlling for gender and country, data entry time was perceived as longer by genetic counsellors than clinical geneticists (p < 0.05). Respondents who (1) considered hormonal BC risk factors as more important (p < 0.01), and (2) communicated numerical risk estimates more frequently (p < 0.001), judged BWA v3 of lower clinical utility. Respondents who carried out less frequent clinical activity (p < 0.01) and respondents with '11 to 15 years' seniority (p < 0.01) had less favourable opinions of BWA v3 risk presentations. Seniority of '6 to 10 years' (p < 0.05) and more frequent numerical risk communication (p < 0.05) were associated with higher fear of communicating the BWA v3 risks to patients. The level of genetics training did not affect opinions. Further development of BWA should consider technological, genetics service delivery and training initiatives.

10.
JAMA ; 313(13): 1347-61, 2015 Apr 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25849179

RESUMO

IMPORTANCE: Limited information about the relationship between specific mutations in BRCA1 or BRCA2 (BRCA1/2) and cancer risk exists. OBJECTIVE: To identify mutation-specific cancer risks for carriers of BRCA1/2. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Observational study of women who were ascertained between 1937 and 2011 (median, 1999) and found to carry disease-associated BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations. The international sample comprised 19,581 carriers of BRCA1 mutations and 11,900 carriers of BRCA2 mutations from 55 centers in 33 countries on 6 continents. We estimated hazard ratios for breast and ovarian cancer based on mutation type, function, and nucleotide position. We also estimated RHR, the ratio of breast vs ovarian cancer hazard ratios. A value of RHR greater than 1 indicated elevated breast cancer risk; a value of RHR less than 1 indicated elevated ovarian cancer risk. EXPOSURES: Mutations of BRCA1 or BRCA2. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Breast and ovarian cancer risks. RESULTS: Among BRCA1 mutation carriers, 9052 women (46%) were diagnosed with breast cancer, 2317 (12%) with ovarian cancer, 1041 (5%) with breast and ovarian cancer, and 7171 (37%) without cancer. Among BRCA2 mutation carriers, 6180 women (52%) were diagnosed with breast cancer, 682 (6%) with ovarian cancer, 272 (2%) with breast and ovarian cancer, and 4766 (40%) without cancer. In BRCA1, we identified 3 breast cancer cluster regions (BCCRs) located at c.179 to c.505 (BCCR1; RHR = 1.46; 95% CI, 1.22-1.74; P = 2 × 10(-6)), c.4328 to c.4945 (BCCR2; RHR = 1.34; 95% CI, 1.01-1.78; P = .04), and c. 5261 to c.5563 (BCCR2', RHR = 1.38; 95% CI, 1.22-1.55; P = 6 × 10(-9)). We also identified an ovarian cancer cluster region (OCCR) from c.1380 to c.4062 (approximately exon 11) with RHR = 0.62 (95% CI, 0.56-0.70; P = 9 × 10(-17)). In BRCA2, we observed multiple BCCRs spanning c.1 to c.596 (BCCR1; RHR = 1.71; 95% CI, 1.06-2.78; P = .03), c.772 to c.1806 (BCCR1'; RHR = 1.63; 95% CI, 1.10-2.40; P = .01), and c.7394 to c.8904 (BCCR2; RHR = 2.31; 95% CI, 1.69-3.16; P = .00002). We also identified 3 OCCRs: the first (OCCR1) spanned c.3249 to c.5681 that was adjacent to c.5946delT (6174delT; RHR = 0.51; 95% CI, 0.44-0.60; P = 6 × 10(-17)). The second OCCR spanned c.6645 to c.7471 (OCCR2; RHR = 0.57; 95% CI, 0.41-0.80; P = .001). Mutations conferring nonsense-mediated decay were associated with differential breast or ovarian cancer risks and an earlier age of breast cancer diagnosis for both BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Breast and ovarian cancer risks varied by type and location of BRCA1/2 mutations. With appropriate validation, these data may have implications for risk assessment and cancer prevention decision making for carriers of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Genes BRCA1 , Genes BRCA2 , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Mutação , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Adulto , Idade de Início , Feminino , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nucleotídeos , Fatores de Risco
11.
Eur J Haematol ; 94(3): 243-50, 2015 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25082346

RESUMO

We randomised 46 newly diagnosed patients with chronic myeloid leukaemia (median age 56) to receive dasatinib 100 mg QD or imatinib 400 mg QD and report outcome as an intention-to-treat analysis with 36 months follow-up. Early cytogenetic and molecular responses were superior in the dasatinib group, with a tendency that imatinib patients caught up with time. For instance, MR(3.0) was reached at 3 months in 36% vs. 8% (P = 0.02), at 12 months in 81% vs. 46% (P = 0.02) and at 18 months in 73% vs. 65% (n.s.) of the patients in the two groups. In contrast, MR(4.5) was consistently superior in the dasatinib group at all time points from 6 months onwards, reaching 61% vs. 21% (P < 0.05) at 36 months. Sixty-four vs. 71% of the patients in the dasatinib and imatinib arms, respectively, remained on assigned drug. Dasatinib dose was frequently reduced, but with maintained excellent effect. One imatinib patient progressed to blastic phase, but no CML-related deaths occurred. In conclusion, our data compare favourably with those of the dasatinib registration study, DASISION. The fast and deep molecular responses induced by dasatinib compared with imatinib may be exploited to increase the proportion of patients who can achieve a treatment-free remission after treatment discontinuation.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Benzamidas/uso terapêutico , Proteínas de Fusão bcr-abl/antagonistas & inibidores , Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva/tratamento farmacológico , Piperazinas/uso terapêutico , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Pirimidinas/uso terapêutico , Tiazóis/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Idoso , Dasatinibe , Esquema de Medicação , Feminino , Seguimentos , Proteínas de Fusão bcr-abl/genética , Proteínas de Fusão bcr-abl/metabolismo , Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Hidroxiureia/uso terapêutico , Mesilato de Imatinib , Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva/genética , Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva/mortalidade , Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Indução de Remissão , Risco , Análise de Sobrevida
12.
Mol Genet Genomic Med ; 2(4): 352-5, 2014 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25077178

RESUMO

In clinical genetic diagnostics, it is difficult to predict whether genetic mutations that do not greatly alter the primary sequence of the encoded protein causing unknown functional effects on cognate proteins lead to development of disease. Here, we report the clinical identification of c.2038 T>C missense mutation in exon 18 of the human MLH1 gene and biochemically characterization of the p.Cys680Arg mutant MLH1 protein to implicate it in the pathogenicity of the Lynch syndrome (LS). We show that the mutation is deficient in DNA mismatch repair and, therefore, contributing to LS in the carriers.

13.
PLoS Genet ; 10(4): e1004256, 2014 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24698998

RESUMO

Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes involved in the DNA Base Excision Repair (BER) pathway could be associated with cancer risk in carriers of mutations in the high-penetrance susceptibility genes BRCA1 and BRCA2, given the relation of synthetic lethality that exists between one of the components of the BER pathway, PARP1 (poly ADP ribose polymerase), and both BRCA1 and BRCA2. In the present study, we have performed a comprehensive analysis of 18 genes involved in BER using a tagging SNP approach in a large series of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. 144 SNPs were analyzed in a two stage study involving 23,463 carriers from the CIMBA consortium (the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1 and BRCA2). Eleven SNPs showed evidence of association with breast and/or ovarian cancer at p<0.05 in the combined analysis. Four of the five genes for which strongest evidence of association was observed were DNA glycosylases. The strongest evidence was for rs1466785 in the NEIL2 (endonuclease VIII-like 2) gene (HR: 1.09, 95% CI (1.03-1.16), p = 2.7 × 10(-3)) for association with breast cancer risk in BRCA2 mutation carriers, and rs2304277 in the OGG1 (8-guanine DNA glycosylase) gene, with ovarian cancer risk in BRCA1 mutation carriers (HR: 1.12 95%CI: 1.03-1.21, p = 4.8 × 10(-3)). DNA glycosylases involved in the first steps of the BER pathway may be associated with cancer risk in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers and should be more comprehensively studied.


Assuntos
Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , DNA Glicosilases/genética , Reparo do DNA/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genótipo , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Risco
14.
Mol Cell Biol ; 33(20): 4030-40, 2013 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23938297

RESUMO

Platelet-derived growth factor A-chain (PDGF-A) exists in two evolutionarily conserved isoforms, PDGF-Along and PDGF-Ashort, generated by alternative RNA splicing. They differ by the presence (in PDGF-Along) or absence (in PDGF-Ashort) of a carboxy-terminal heparin/heparan sulfate proteoglycan-binding motif. In mice, similar motifs present in other members of the PDGF and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) families have been functionally analyzed in vivo, but the specific physiological importance of PDGF-Along has not been explored previously. Here, we analyzed the absolute and relative expression of the two PDGF-A splice isoforms during early postnatal organ development in the mouse and report on the generation of a Pdgfa allele (Pdgfa(Δex6)) incapable of producing PDGF-Along due to a deletion of the exon 6 splice acceptor site. In situations of limiting PDGF-A signaling through PDGF receptor alpha (PDGFRα), or in mice lacking PDGF-C, homozygous carriers of Pdgfa(Δex6) showed abnormal development of the lung, intestine, and vertebral column, pinpointing developmental processes where PDGF-Along may play a physiological role.


Assuntos
Sequência de Bases , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Pulmão/metabolismo , Camundongos Transgênicos/genética , Fator de Crescimento Derivado de Plaquetas/metabolismo , Deleção de Sequência , Coluna Vertebral/metabolismo , Processamento Alternativo , Motivos de Aminoácidos , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Sítios de Ligação , Éxons , Efeito Fundador , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Heparina/metabolismo , Intestinos/anormalidades , Intestinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Pulmão/anormalidades , Pulmão/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos/metabolismo , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Morfogênese/genética , Fator de Crescimento Derivado de Plaquetas/genética , Isoformas de Proteínas/genética , Isoformas de Proteínas/metabolismo , Coluna Vertebral/anormalidades , Coluna Vertebral/crescimento & desenvolvimento
15.
Epigenetics ; 7(12): 1435-42, 2012 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23154584

RESUMO

Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) can be divided into prognostic subgroups based on the IGHV gene mutational status, and is further characterized by multiple subsets of cases with quasi-identical or stereotyped B cell receptors that also share clinical and biological features. We recently reported differential DNA methylation profiles in IGHV-mutated and IGHV-unmutated CLL subgroups. For the first time, we here explore the global methylation profiles of stereotyped subsets with different prognosis, by applying high-resolution methylation arrays on CLL samples from three major stereotyped subsets: the poor-prognostic subsets #1 (n = 15) and #2 (n = 9) and the favorable-prognostic subset #4 (n = 15). Overall, the three subsets exhibited significantly different methylation profiles, which only partially overlapped with those observed in our previous study according to IGHV gene mutational status. Specifically, gene ontology analysis of the differentially methylated genes revealed a clear enrichment of genes involved in immune response, such as B cell activation (e.g., CD80, CD86 and IL10), with higher methylation levels in subset #1 than subsets #2 and #4. Accordingly, higher expression of the co-stimulatory molecules CD80 and CD86 was demonstrated in subset #4 vs. subset #1, pointing to a key role for these molecules in the crosstalk of CLL subset #4 cells with the microenvironment. In summary, investigation of three prototypic, stereotyped CLL subsets revealed distinct DNA methylation profiles for each subset, which suggests subset-biased patterns of transcriptional control and highlights a key role for epigenetics during leukemogenesis.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA , Regulação Leucêmica da Expressão Gênica , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/genética , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/imunologia , Antígeno B7-1/genética , Antígeno B7-1/metabolismo , Antígeno B7-2/genética , Antígeno B7-2/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Cadeias Pesadas de Imunoglobulinas/genética , Ativação Linfocitária , Masculino , Prognóstico , Transcrição Genética
16.
Am J Hematol ; 87(4): 361-7, 2012 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22374828

RESUMO

Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) are mature CD5(+) B-cell malignancies with different biological/clinical characteristics. We recently reported an association between different prognostic subgroups of CLL (i.e., IGHV mutated and unmutated) and genomic methylation pattern. However, the relationship between DNA methylation and prognostic markers, such as the proliferation gene expression signature, has not been investigated in MCL. We applied high-resolution methylation microarrays (27,578 CpG sites) to assess the global DNA methylation profiles in 20 MCL (10 each with high/low proliferation signature) and 30 CLL (15 poor-prognostic IGHV unmutated subset #1 and 15 good-prognostic IGHV mutated subset #4) samples. Notably, MCL and each CLL subset displayed distinct genomic methylation profiles. After unsupervised hierarchical clustering, 17/20 MCL cases formed a cluster separate from CLL, while CLL subsets #1 and #4 formed subclusters. Surprisingly, few differentially methylated genes (n = 6) were identified between high vs. low proliferation MCL. In contrast, distinct methylation profiles were demonstrated for MCL and CLL. Importantly, certain functional classes of genes were preferentially methylated in either disease. For instance, developmental genes, in particular homeobox transcription factor genes (e.g., HLXB9, HOXA13), were more highly methylated in MCL, whereas apoptosis-related genes were enriched among targets methylated in CLL (e.g., CYFIP2, NR4A1). Results were validated using pyrosequencing, RQ-PCR and reexpression of specific genes. In summary, the methylation profile of MCL was homogeneous and no correlation with the proliferation signature was observed. Compared to CLL, however, marked differences were discovered such as the preferential methylation of homeobox genes in MCL.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA , DNA de Neoplasias/química , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/genética , Linfoma de Célula do Manto/genética , Proteínas Reguladoras de Apoptose/genética , Azacitidina/análogos & derivados , Azacitidina/farmacologia , Divisão Celular , Linhagem Celular Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral/metabolismo , Ilhas de CpG/efeitos dos fármacos , DNA (Citosina-5-)-Metiltransferase 1 , DNA (Citosina-5-)-Metiltransferases/antagonistas & inibidores , Metilação de DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , DNA de Neoplasias/genética , Decitabina , Feminino , Regulação Leucêmica da Expressão Gênica , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Genes Homeobox , Genes de Imunoglobulinas , Inibidores de Histona Desacetilases/farmacologia , Humanos , Ácidos Hidroxâmicos/farmacologia , Cadeias Pesadas de Imunoglobulinas/genética , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/metabolismo , Linfoma de Célula do Manto/metabolismo , Masculino , Proteínas de Neoplasias/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
17.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 21(4): 645-57, 2012 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22351618

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) identified variants at 19p13.1 and ZNF365 (10q21.2) as risk factors for breast cancer among BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers, respectively. We explored associations with ovarian cancer and with breast cancer by tumor histopathology for these variants in mutation carriers from the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2 (CIMBA). METHODS: Genotyping data for 12,599 BRCA1 and 7,132 BRCA2 mutation carriers from 40 studies were combined. RESULTS: We confirmed associations between rs8170 at 19p13.1 and breast cancer risk for BRCA1 mutation carriers [HR, 1.17; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.07-1.27; P = 7.42 × 10(-4)] and between rs16917302 at ZNF365 (HR, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.73-0.97; P = 0.017) but not rs311499 at 20q13.3 (HR, 1.11; 95% CI, 0.94-1.31; P = 0.22) and breast cancer risk for BRCA2 mutation carriers. Analyses based on tumor histopathology showed that 19p13 variants were predominantly associated with estrogen receptor (ER)-negative breast cancer for both BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers, whereas rs16917302 at ZNF365 was mainly associated with ER-positive breast cancer for both BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. We also found for the first time that rs67397200 at 19p13.1 was associated with an increased risk of ovarian cancer for BRCA1 (HR, 1.16; 95% CI, 1.05-1.29; P = 3.8 × 10(-4)) and BRCA2 mutation carriers (HR, 1.30; 95% CI, 1.10-1.52; P = 1.8 × 10(-3)). CONCLUSIONS: 19p13.1 and ZNF365 are susceptibility loci for ovarian cancer and ER subtypes of breast cancer among BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. IMPACT: These findings can lead to an improved understanding of tumor development and may prove useful for breast and ovarian cancer risk prediction for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers.


Assuntos
Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 19/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Receptores Estrogênicos/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Humanos , Técnicas Imunoenzimáticas , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/metabolismo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Prognóstico , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
18.
Blood ; 118(22): 5905-13, 2011 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21967978

RESUMO

Mutation status of FLT3, NPM1, CEBPA, and WT1 genes and gene expression levels of ERG, MN1, BAALC, FLT3, and WT1 have been identified as possible prognostic markers in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). We have performed a thorough prognostic evaluation of these genetic markers in patients with pediatric AML enrolled in the Nordic Society of Pediatric Hematology and Oncology (NOPHO) 1993 or NOPHO 2004 protocols. Mutation status and expression levels were analyzed in 185 and 149 patients, respectively. Presence of FLT3-internal tandem duplication (ITD) was associated with significantly inferior event-free survival (EFS), whereas presence of an NPM1 mutation in the absence of FLT3-ITD correlated with significantly improved EFS. Furthermore, high levels of ERG and BAALC transcripts were associated with inferior EFS. No significant correlation with survival was seen for mutations in CEBPA and WT1 or with gene expression levels of MN1, FLT3, and WT1. In multivariate analysis, the presence of FLT3-ITD and high BAALC expression were identified as independent prognostic markers of inferior EFS. We conclude that analysis of the mutational status of FLT3 and NPM1 at diagnosis is important for prognostic stratification of patients with pediatric AML and that determination of the BAALC gene expression level can add valuable information.


Assuntos
Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/diagnóstico , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/genética , Proteínas de Neoplasias/genética , Sequências de Repetição em Tandem/genética , Tirosina Quinase 3 Semelhante a fms/genética , Adolescente , Idade de Início , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Regulação Leucêmica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/epidemiologia , Mutação , Prognóstico , Regulação para Cima/genética
19.
Blood ; 118(12): 3228-35, 2011 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21685374

RESUMO

Biologic and clinical observations suggest that combining imatinib with IFN-α may improve treatment outcome in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). We randomized newly diagnosed chronic-phase CML patients with a low or intermediate Sokal risk score and in imatinib-induced complete hematologic remission either to receive a combination of pegylated IFN-α2b (Peg-IFN-α2b) 50 µg weekly and imatinib 400 mg daily (n = 56) or to receive imatinib 400 mg daily monotherapy (n = 56). The primary endpoint was the major molecular response (MMR) rate at 12 months after randomization. In both arms, 4 patients (7%) discontinued imatinib treatment (1 because of blastic transformation in imatinib arm). In addition, in the combination arm, 34 patients (61%) discontinued Peg-IFN-α2b, most because of toxicity. The MMR rate at 12 months was significantly higher in the imatinib plus Peg-IFN-α2b arm (82%) compared with the imatinib monotherapy arm (54%; intention-to-treat, P = .002). The MMR rate increased with the duration of Peg-IFN-α2b treatment (< 12-week MMR rate 67%, > 12-week MMR rate 91%). Thus, the addition of even relatively short periods of Peg-IFN-α2b to imatinib markedly increased the MMR rate at 12 months of therapy. Lower doses of Peg-IFN-α2b may enhance tolerability while retaining efficacy and could be considered in future protocols with curative intent.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Interferon-alfa/uso terapêutico , Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva , Piperazinas/uso terapêutico , Polietilenoglicóis/uso terapêutico , Pirimidinas/uso terapêutico , Indução de Remissão/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administração & dosagem , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Benzamidas , Biomarcadores/análise , Cálculos da Dosagem de Medicamento , Feminino , Proteínas de Fusão bcr-abl/análise , Proteínas de Fusão bcr-abl/biossíntese , Humanos , Mesilato de Imatinib , Interferon-alfa/administração & dosagem , Interferon-alfa/efeitos adversos , Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva/tratamento farmacológico , Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva/metabolismo , Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Piperazinas/administração & dosagem , Piperazinas/efeitos adversos , Polietilenoglicóis/administração & dosagem , Polietilenoglicóis/efeitos adversos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Proteínas Tirosina Quinases/análise , Proteínas Tirosina Quinases/biossíntese , Pirimidinas/administração & dosagem , Pirimidinas/efeitos adversos , Proteínas Recombinantes/administração & dosagem , Proteínas Recombinantes/efeitos adversos , Proteínas Recombinantes/uso terapêutico , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
Ann Surg ; 253(6): 1147-54, 2011 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21587115

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: This study attempted a national inventory of all bilateral prophylactic mastectomies performed in Sweden between 1995 and 2005 in high-risk women without a previous breast malignancy. The primary aim was to investigate the breast cancer incidence after surgery. Secondary aims were to describe the preoperative risk assessment, operation techniques, complications, histopathological findings, and regional differences. METHODS: Geneticists, oncologists and surgeons performing prophylactic breast surgery were asked to identify all women eligible for inclusion in their region. The medical records were reviewed in each region and the data were analyzed centrally. The BOADICEA risk assessment model was used to calculate the number of expected/prevented breast cancers during the follow-up period. RESULTS: A total of 223 women operated on in 8 hospitals were identified. During a mean follow-up of 6.6 years, no primary breast cancer was observed compared with 12 expected cases. However, 1 woman succumbed 9 years post mastectomy to widespread adenocarcinoma of uncertain origin. Median age at operation was 40 years. A total of 58% were BRCA1/2 mutation carriers. All but 3 women underwent breast reconstruction, 208 with implants and 12 with autologous tissue. Four small, unifocal, invasive cancers and 4 ductal carcinoma in situ were found in the mastectomy specimens. The incidence of nonbreast related complications was low (3%). Implant loss due to infection/necrosis occurred in 21 women (10%) but a majority received a new implant later. In total, 64% of the women underwent at least 1unanticipated secondary operation. CONCLUSIONS: Bilateral prophylactic mastectomy is safe and efficacious in reducing future breast cancer in asymptomatic women at high risk. Unanticipated reoperations are common. Given the small number of patients centralization seems justified.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/cirurgia , Mastectomia , Adulto , Idoso , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Feminino , Genes BRCA1 , Genes BRCA2 , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Pesquisas sobre Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Incidência , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reoperação , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Suécia/epidemiologia
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