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1.
Eat Weight Disord ; 26(5): 1345-1356, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32507929

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: There is a growing call to identify specific outcome predictors in real-world eating disorder (ED) treatment settings. Studies have implicated several ED treatment outcome predictors [rapid response (RR), weight suppression, illness duration, ED diagnosis, and psychiatric comorbidity] in inpatient settings or randomized controlled trials of individual outpatient therapy. However, research has not yet examined outcome predictors in intensive outpatient programs (IOP). The current study aimed to replicate findings from randomized controlled research trials and inpatient samples, identifying treatment outcome predictors in a transdiagnostic ED IOP sample. METHOD: The current sample comprised 210 consecutive unique IOP patient admissions who received evidence-based ED treatment, M(SD)Duration = 15.82 (13.38) weeks. Weekly patient measures of ED symptoms and global functioning were obtained from patients' medical charts. RESULTS: In relative weight analysis, RR was the only significant predictor of ED symptoms post treatment, uniquely accounting for 45.6% of the predicted variance in ED symptoms. In contrast, baseline ED pathology was the strongest unique predictor of end-of-treatment global functioning, accounting for 15.89% of predicted variance. Baseline factors did not differentiate patients who made RR from those who did not. CONCLUSIONS: Consistent with findings in more controlled treatment settings, RR remains a robust predictor of outcome for patients receiving IOP-level treatment for EDs. Future work should evaluate factors that mediate and moderate RR, incorporating these findings into ED treatment design and implementation. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level IV, uncontrolled intervention.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos , Pacientes Ambulatoriais , Comorbidade , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/diagnóstico , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/terapia , Humanos , Psicoterapia , Resultado do Tratamento
2.
Prev Med Rep ; 7: 86-90, 2017 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28626625

RESUMO

Increasingly, corporate health promotion programs are implementing wellness programs integrating principles of behavioral economics. Employees of a large firm were provided a customized online incentive program to design their own commitments to meet health goals. This study examines patterns of program participation and engagement in health promotion activities. Subjects were US-based employees of a large, nondurable goods manufacturing firm who were enrolled in corporate health benefits in 2010 and 2011. We assessed measures of engagement with the workplace health promotion program (e.g., incentive points earned, weight loss). To further examine behaviors indicating engagement in health promotion activities, we constructed an aggregate, employee-level engagement index. Regression models were employed to assess the association between employee characteristics and the engagement index, and the engagement index and spending. 4220 employees utilized the online program and made 25,716 commitments. Male employees age 18-34 had the highest level of engagement, and male employees age 55-64 had the lowest level of engagement overall. Prior year health status and prior year spending did not show a significant association with the level of engagement with the program (p > 0.05). Flexible, incentive-based behavioral health and lifestyle programs may reach the broader workforce including those with chronic conditions and higher levels of health spending.

3.
Health Serv Res ; 51(6): 2221-2241, 2016 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26898946

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To study the association between hospital nurse staffing and Hospital Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems (HCAHPS) scores. DATA SOURCES: State hospital financial and utilization reports, Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project State Inpatient Databases, HCAHPS survey, and American Hospital Association Annual Survey of Hospitals. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective study using cross-sectional and longitudinal models to estimate the effect of nurse staffing levels and skill mix on seven HCAHPS measures. DATA COLLECTION/EXTRACTION METHODS: Hospital-level data measuring nurse staffing, patient experience, and hospital characteristics from 2009 to 2011 for 341 hospitals (977 hospital years) in California, Maryland, and Nevada. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Nurse staffing level (i.e., number of licensed practical nurses and registered nurses per 1,000 inpatient days) was significantly and positively associated with all seven HCAHPS measures in cross-sectional models and three of seven measures in longitudinal models. Nursing skill mix (i.e., percentage of all staff who are registered nurses) was significantly and negatively associated with scores on one measure in cross-sectional models and none in longitudinal models. CONCLUSIONS: After controlling for unobserved hospital characteristics, the positive influences of increased nurse staffing levels and skill mix were relatively small in size and limited to a few measures of patients' inpatient experience.


Assuntos
Recursos Humanos de Enfermagem no Hospital/provisão & distribuição , Satisfação do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , California , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Maryland , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nevada , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Inquéritos e Questionários
4.
Psychiatr Serv ; 66(6): 585-91, 2015 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25726975

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The structure-process-outcome quality framework espoused by Donabedian provides a conceptual way to examine and prioritize behavioral health quality measures used by states. This report presents an environmental scan of the quality measures and satisfaction surveys that state Medicaid managed care and behavioral health agencies used prior to Medicaid expansion in 2014. METHODS: Data were collected by reviewing online documents related to Medicaid managed care contracts for behavioral health, quality strategies, quality improvement plans, quality and performance indicators data, annual outcomes reports, performance measure specification manuals, legislative reports, and Medicaid waiver requests for proposals. RESULTS: Information was publicly available for 29 states. Most states relied on process measures, along with some structure and outcome measures. Although all states reported on at least one process measure of behavioral health quality, 52% of states did not use any outcomes measures and 48% of states had no structure measures. A majority of the states (69%) used behavioral health measures from the National Committee for Quality Assurance's Healthcare Effectiveness Data and Information Set, and all but one state in the sample (97%) used consumer experience-of-care surveys. Many states supplemented these data with locally developed behavioral health indicators that rely on administrative and nonadministrative data. CONCLUSIONS: State Medicaid agencies are using nationally recognized as well as local measures to assess quality of behavioral health care. Findings indicate a need for additional nationally endorsed measures in the area of substance use disorders and treatment outcomes.


Assuntos
Órgãos dos Sistemas de Saúde/normas , Programas de Assistência Gerenciada/normas , Medicaid , Serviços de Saúde Mental/normas , Garantia da Qualidade dos Cuidados de Saúde/normas , Indicadores de Qualidade em Assistência à Saúde , Reforma dos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde , Governo Estadual , Estados Unidos
5.
Med Care ; 52(11): 982-8, 2014 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25304017

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Inpatient quality deficits have important implications for the health and well-being of patients. They also have important financial implications for payers and hospitals by leading to longer lengths of stay and higher intensity of treatment. Many of these costly quality deficits are particularly sensitive to nursing care. OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of nurse staffing on quality of care and inpatient care costs. DESIGN: Longitudinal analysis using hospital nurse staffing data and the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project State Inpatient Databases from 2008 through 2011. SUBJECTS: Hospital discharges from California, Nevada, and Maryland (n=18,474,860). METHODS: A longitudinal, hospital-fixed effect model was estimated to assess the effect of nurse staffing levels and skill mix on patient care costs, length of stay, and adverse events, adjusting for patient clinical and demographic characteristics. RESULTS: Increases in nurse staffing levels were associated with reductions in nursing-sensitive adverse events and length of stay, but did not lead to increases in patient care costs. Changing skill mix by increasing the number of registered nurses, as a proportion of licensed nursing staff, led to reductions in costs. CONCLUSIONS: The study findings provide support for the value of inpatient nurse staffing as it contributes to improvements in inpatient care; increases in staff number and skill mix can lead to improved quality and reduced length of stay at no additional cost.


Assuntos
Custos Hospitalares/organização & administração , Recursos Humanos de Enfermagem no Hospital/organização & administração , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde/organização & administração , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , California/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Custos Hospitalares/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Tempo de Internação/economia , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Maryland/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nevada/epidemiologia , Recursos Humanos de Enfermagem no Hospital/economia , Recursos Humanos de Enfermagem no Hospital/normas , Segurança do Paciente/economia , Segurança do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde/economia , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
6.
Am J Manag Care ; 20(6): e208-20, 2014 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25180504

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Unprecedented funding for comparative effectiveness research (CER) to help provide better evidence for decision making as a way to lower costs and improve quality is under way. Yet how research findings are adopted and applied will impact the nation's return on this investment. We examine the relationship between the publication of findings from 4 seminal CER trials, the release of subsequent clinical practice guidelines (CPGs), and utilization trends for associated surgical interventions, diagnostic interventions, or medications. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective, observational study. METHODS: Using a large national administrative claims database, we examined time series utilization trends before and after publication of findings from 4 CER trials published within the last decade. RESULTS: We found no clear pattern of utilization in the first 4 quarters after publication. However, we found that results for 2 of the studies were in concert with the release of CPGs and publication of study results. The trend in intensive statin therapy rose rapidly starting at the end of 2007, while the trend in standard therapy remained relatively constant (PROVE-IT). And, 9 months after trial publication, breast magnetic resolution imaging (MRI) utilization rates rose 43.2%, from 0.033 to 0.048 per 100 enrollees (Mammography With MRI). CONCLUSIONS: Our analysis of 4 case studies supports the call others have made to translate and disseminate CER findings to improve application of research findings to clinical practice and the need for continued development and dissemination of CPGs that serve to synthesize research findings and guide practitioners in clinical decision making. Further research is needed to determine whether these findings apply to different medical topics.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Comparativa da Efetividade , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/cirurgia , Humanos , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/uso terapêutico , Disseminação de Informação , Revisão da Utilização de Seguros , Deslocamento do Disco Intervertebral/terapia , Mamografia/métodos , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Padrões de Prática Médica , Estudos Retrospectivos
7.
Am J Ind Med ; 57(6): 653-9, 2014 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24619601

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The US employer-based surveillance system for work-related health conditions underestimates the prevalence of work-related dermatitis. OBJECTIVE: The authors sought to utilize information from workers to improve the accuracy of prevalence estimates for work-related dermatitis. METHODS: Three state health departments included questions in the 2011 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System survey designed to ascertain the prevalence of dermatitis in the working population, as well as healthcare experiences, personal perceptions of work-relatedness, and job changes associated with dermatitis. RESULTS: The percentage of working respondents who reported receiving a clinician's opinion that their dermatitis was work-related was between 3.8% and 10.2%. When patients' perceptions were considered, the work-related dermatitis prevalence estimate increased to between 12.9% and 17.6%. CONCLUSIONS: Including patients' perceptions of work-relatedness produced a larger prevalence estimate for work-related dermatitis than the previously published estimate of 5.6%, which included only those cases of dermatitis attributed to work by healthcare professionals.


Assuntos
Dermatite Ocupacional/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Sistema de Vigilância de Fator de Risco Comportamental , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
8.
Neurol Sci ; 32(5): 883-92, 2011 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21822691

RESUMO

There is increasing evidence for mitochondrial dysfunction in neurodegenerative disorders, although the exact role of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations in this process is unresolved. We investigated inherited and somatic mtDNA substitutions and deletions in Guam amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and parkinsonism-dementia (PD). Hypervariable segment 1 sequences of Chamorro mtDNA revealed that the odds ratio of a PD or ALS diagnosis was increased for individuals in the E1 haplogroup while individuals in the E2 haplogroup had decreased odds of an ALS or PD diagnosis. Once the disorders were examined separately, it became evident that PD was responsible for these results. When the entire mitochondrial genome was sequenced for a subset of individuals, the nonsynonymous mutation at nucleotide position 9080, shared by all E2 individuals, resulted in a significantly low odds ratio for a diagnosis of ALS or PD. Private polymorphisms found in transfer and ribosomal RNA regions were found only in ALS and PD patients in the E1 haplogroup. Somatic mtDNA deletions in the entire mtDNA genome were not associated with either ALS or PD. We conclude that mtDNA haplogroup effects may result in mitochondrial dysfunction in Guam PD and reflect Guam population history. Thus it is reasonable to consider Guam ALS and PD as complex disorders with both environmental prerequisites and small genetic effects.


Assuntos
Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/genética , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Haplótipos , Mitocôndrias/genética , Adulto , Frequência do Gene , Humanos , Mutação
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