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1.
Nanoscale ; 10(31): 15023-15034, 2018 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30052245

RESUMO

Two-dimensional materials have shown great promise for implementation in next-generation devices. However, controlling the film thickness during epitaxial growth remains elusive and must be fully understood before wide scale industrial application. Currently, uncontrolled multilayer growth is frequently observed, and not only does this growth mode contradict theoretical expectations, but it also breaks the inversion symmetry of the bulk crystal. In this work, a multiscale theoretical investigation aided by experimental evidence is carried out to identify the mechanism of such an unconventional, yet widely observed multilayer growth in the epitaxy of layered materials. This work reveals the subtle mechanistic similarities between multilayer concentric growth and spiral growth. Using the combination of experimental demonstration and simulations, this work presents an extended analysis of the driving forces behind this non-ideal growth mode, and the conditions that promote the formation of these defects. Our study shows that multilayer growth can be a result of both chalcogen deficiency and chalcogen excess: the former causes metal clustering as nucleation defects, and the latter generates in-domain step edges facilitating multilayer growth. Based on this fundamental understanding, our findings provide guidelines for the narrow window of growth conditions which enables large-area, layer-by-layer growth.

2.
ACS Nano ; 12(2): 965-975, 2018 02 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29360349

RESUMO

Atomically thin transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) are of interest for next-generation electronics and optoelectronics. Here, we demonstrate device-ready synthetic tungsten diselenide (WSe2) via metal-organic chemical vapor deposition and provide key insights into the phenomena that control the properties of large-area, epitaxial TMDs. When epitaxy is achieved, the sapphire surface reconstructs, leading to strong 2D/3D (i.e., TMD/substrate) interactions that impact carrier transport. Furthermore, we demonstrate that substrate step edges are a major source of carrier doping and scattering. Even with 2D/3D coupling, transistors utilizing transfer-free epitaxial WSe2/sapphire exhibit ambipolar behavior with excellent on/off ratios (∼107), high current density (1-10 µA·µm-1), and good field-effect transistor mobility (∼30 cm2·V-1·s-1) at room temperature. This work establishes that realization of electronic-grade epitaxial TMDs must consider the impact of the TMD precursors, substrate, and the 2D/3D interface as leading factors in electronic performance.

3.
Sci Rep ; 7: 43214, 2017 02 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28225066

RESUMO

Using quantum tunneling of electrons into vibrating surface atoms, phonon oscillations can be observed on the atomic scale. Phonon interference patterns with unusually large signal amplitudes have been revealed by scanning tunneling microscopy in intercalated van der Waals heterostructures. Our results show that the effective radius of these phonon quasi-bound states, the real-space distribution of phonon standing wave amplitudes, the scattering phase shifts, and the nonlinear intermode coupling strongly depend on the presence of defect-induced scattering resonance. The observed coherence of these quasi-bound states most likely arises from phase- and frequency-synchronized dynamics of all phonon modes, and indicates the formation of many-body condensate of optical phonons around resonant defects. We found that increasing the strength of the scattering resonance causes the increase of the condensate droplet radius without affecting the condensate fraction inside it. The condensate can be observed at room temperature.

4.
Nat Mater ; 15(11): 1166-1171, 2016 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27571451

RESUMO

The spectrum of two-dimensional (2D) and layered materials 'beyond graphene' offers a remarkable platform to study new phenomena in condensed matter physics. Among these materials, layered hexagonal boron nitride (hBN), with its wide bandgap energy (∼5.0-6.0 eV), has clearly established that 2D nitrides are key to advancing 2D devices. A gap, however, remains between the theoretical prediction of 2D nitrides 'beyond hBN' and experimental realization of such structures. Here we demonstrate the synthesis of 2D gallium nitride (GaN) via a migration-enhanced encapsulated growth (MEEG) technique utilizing epitaxial graphene. We theoretically predict and experimentally validate that the atomic structure of 2D GaN grown via MEEG is notably different from reported theory. Moreover, we establish that graphene plays a critical role in stabilizing the direct-bandgap (nearly 5.0 eV), 2D buckled structure. Our results provide a foundation for discovery and stabilization of 2D nitrides that are difficult to prepare via traditional synthesis.

5.
Nanoscale ; 8(16): 8947-54, 2016 Apr 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27073972

RESUMO

Two-dimensional tungsten diselenide (WSe2) has been used as a component in atomically thin photovoltaic devices, field effect transistors, and tunneling diodes in tandem with graphene. In some applications it is necessary to achieve efficient charge transport across the interface of layered WSe2-graphene, a semiconductor to semimetal junction with a van der Waals (vdW) gap. In such cases, band alignment engineering is required to ensure a low-resistance, ohmic contact. In this work, we investigate the impact of graphene electronic properties on the transport at the WSe2-graphene interface. Electrical transport measurements reveal a lower resistance between WSe2 and fully hydrogenated epitaxial graphene (EG(FH)) compared to WSe2 grown on partially hydrogenated epitaxial graphene (EGPH). Using low-energy electron microscopy and reflectivity on these samples, we extract the work function difference between the WSe2 and graphene and employ a charge transfer model to determine the WSe2 carrier density in both cases. The results indicate that WSe2-EG(FH) displays ohmic behavior at small biases due to a large hole density in the WSe2, whereas WSe2-EG(PH) forms a Schottky barrier junction.

6.
ACS Nano ; 10(4): 4258-67, 2016 04 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26991824

RESUMO

The effect of air exposure on 2H-WSe2/HOPG is determined via scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). WSe2 was grown by molecular beam epitaxy on highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG), and afterward, a Se adlayer was deposited in situ on WSe2/HOPG to prevent unintentional oxidation during transferring from the growth chamber to the STM chamber. After annealing at 773 K to remove the Se adlayer, STM images show that WSe2 layers nucleate at both step edges and terraces of the HOPG. Exposure to air for 1 week and 9 weeks caused air-induced adsorbates to be deposited on the WSe2 surface; however, the band gap of the terraces remained unaffected and nearly identical to those on decapped WSe2. The air-induced adsorbates can be removed by annealing at 523 K. In contrast to WSe2 terraces, air exposure caused the edges of the WSe2 to oxidize and form protrusions, resulting in a larger band gap in the scanning tunneling spectra compared to the terraces of air-exposed WSe2 monolayers. The preferential oxidation at the WSe2 edges compared to the terraces is likely the result of dangling edge bonds. In the absence of air exposure, the dangling edge bonds had a smaller band gap compared to the terraces and a shift of about 0.73 eV in the Fermi level toward the valence band. However, after air exposure, the band gap of the oxidized WSe2 edges became about 1.08 eV larger than that of the WSe2 terraces, resulting in the electronic passivation of the WSe2.

7.
ACS Nano ; 10(3): 3580-8, 2016 Mar 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26866442

RESUMO

When designing semiconductor heterostructures, it is expected that epitaxial alignment will facilitate low-defect interfaces and efficient vertical transport. Here, we report lattice-matched epitaxial growth of molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) directly on gallium nitride (GaN), resulting in high-quality, unstrained, single-layer MoS2 with strict registry to the GaN lattice. These results present a promising path toward the implementation of high-performance electronic devices based on 2D/3D vertical heterostructures, where each of the 3D and 2D semiconductors is both a template for subsequent epitaxial growth and an active component of the device. The MoS2 monolayer triangles average 1 µm along each side, with monolayer blankets (merged triangles) exhibiting properties similar to that of single-crystal MoS2 sheets. Photoluminescence, Raman, atomic force microscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyses identified monolayer MoS2 with a prominent 20-fold enhancement of photoluminescence in the center regions of larger triangles. The MoS2/GaN structures are shown to electrically conduct in the out-of-plane direction, confirming the potential of directly synthesized 2D/3D semiconductor heterostructures for vertical current flow. Finally, we estimate a MoS2/GaN contact resistivity to be less than 4 Ω·cm(2) and current spreading in the MoS2 monolayer of approximately 1 µm in diameter.

8.
Nanotechnology ; 27(13): 135605, 2016 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26900836

RESUMO

Aluminum-catalyzed silicon nanowire growth under low-pressure chemical vapor deposition conditions requires higher reactor pressures than gold-catalyzed growth, but the reasons for this difference are not well understood. In this study, the effects of reactor pressure and hydrogen partial pressure on silicon nanowire growth using an aluminum catalyst were studied by growing nanowires in hydrogen and hydrogen/nitrogen carrier gas mixtures at different total reactor pressures. Nanowires grown in the nitrogen/hydrogen mixture have faceted catalyst droplet tips, minimal evidence of aluminum diffusion from the tip down the nanowire sidewalls, and significant vapor-solid deposition of silicon on the sidewalls. In comparison, wires grown in pure hydrogen show less well-defined tips, evidence of aluminum diffusion down the nanowire sidewalls at increasing reactor pressures and reduced vapor-solid deposition of silicon on the sidewalls. The results are explained in terms of a model wherein the hydrogen partial pressure plays a critical role in aluminum-catalyzed nanowire growth by controlling hydrogen termination of the silicon nanowire sidewalls. For a given reactor pressure, increased hydrogen partial pressures increase the extent of hydrogen termination of the sidewalls which suppresses SiH4 adsorption thereby reducing vapor-solid deposition of silicon but increases the surface diffusion length of aluminum. Conversely, lower hydrogen partial pressures reduce the hydrogen termination and also increase the extent of SiH4 gas phase decomposition, shifting the nanowire growth window to lower growth temperatures and silane partial pressures.

9.
Nat Commun ; 6: 7311, 2015 Jun 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26088295

RESUMO

Vertical integration of two-dimensional van der Waals materials is predicted to lead to novel electronic and optical properties not found in the constituent layers. Here, we present the direct synthesis of two unique, atomically thin, multi-junction heterostructures by combining graphene with the monolayer transition-metal dichalcogenides: molybdenum disulfide (MoS2), molybdenum diselenide (MoSe2) and tungsten diselenide (WSe2). The realization of MoS2-WSe2-graphene and WSe2-MoS2-graphene heterostructures leads to resonant tunnelling in an atomically thin stack with spectrally narrow, room temperature negative differential resistance characteristics.

10.
ACS Nano ; 9(2): 2080-7, 2015 Feb 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25625184

RESUMO

Tungsten diselenide (WSe2) is a two-dimensional material that is of interest for next-generation electronic and optoelectronic devices due to its direct bandgap of 1.65 eV in the monolayer form and excellent transport properties. However, technologies based on this 2D material cannot be realized without a scalable synthesis process. Here, we demonstrate the first scalable synthesis of large-area, mono and few-layer WSe2 via metal-organic chemical vapor deposition using tungsten hexacarbonyl (W(CO)6) and dimethylselenium ((CH3)2Se). In addition to being intrinsically scalable, this technique allows for the precise control of the vapor-phase chemistry, which is unobtainable using more traditional oxide vaporization routes. We show that temperature, pressure, Se:W ratio, and substrate choice have a strong impact on the ensuing atomic layer structure, with optimized conditions yielding >8 µm size domains. Raman spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM), and cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (TEM) confirm crystalline monoto-multilayer WSe2 is achievable. Finally, TEM and vertical current/voltage transport provide evidence that a pristine van der Waals gap exists in WSe2/graphene heterostructures.

11.
Nano Lett ; 8(6): 1557-61, 2008 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18444685

RESUMO

Conductance spectra of doped silicon nanowire (SiNW) arrays were measured from 0.5 to 50 GHz at temperatures between 4 and 293 K. For arrays consisting of 11 to >10(4) SiNWs, the conductance was found to increase with frequency as f(s), with 0.25 < s < 0.45, consistent with behavior found universally in disordered systems. A possible cause is disorder from Si/SiO x interface states dominating the conductance due to the high surface-to-volume ratio of the nanowires.


Assuntos
Micro-Ondas , Modelos Químicos , Nanotecnologia/métodos , Nanotubos/química , Silício/química , Simulação por Computador , Condutividade Elétrica , Teste de Materiais , Tamanho da Partícula
13.
Nano Lett ; 7(9): 2642-4, 2007 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17696558

RESUMO

The in situ growth of p-n junctions in silicon nanowires enables the fabrication of a variety of nanoscale electronic devices. We have developed a method for selective coating of Au onto n-type segments of silicon nanowire p-n junctions. Selective plating allows for quick verification of the position of p-n junctions along the nanowire using electron microscopy and allows for measurement of segment length.


Assuntos
Cristalização/métodos , Nanoestruturas/química , Nanoestruturas/ultraestrutura , Nanotecnologia/métodos , Semicondutores , Silício/química , Substâncias Macromoleculares/química , Teste de Materiais , Conformação Molecular , Tamanho da Partícula , Propriedades de Superfície
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